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51 & 68 JOHN BTBEET. 

MU» nr KXOTW.LMBa, oasBAixr, ntKoomwin sn imitB» ar^niu 


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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, 

By a. S. BAKNES & CO., 

In the Clerk^H OfEloe of the District Court of the United States for the Sonthem 

District of New York. 

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L Hbtobt AiTD Chbokoloot. The World's Progreaa. By O. P. PunrAiL 
IL Qbkkbax. LxnBATuxB A2n> TiDB Fnns Arib. By Qboboe BiPLrr and Batasd Tatlob. 
III. The Usxrui. ABts— IfiolndiDg Agriealture, DomeaUo Economy, &c By Dk. Antiszt.l. 
lY. XJiriTUBBAL BioOKAPHT— a Beoord of the Names of Bnjioent Persona. By Paku 

V. TTsimSAL GsosKArHT^a Comprehensive Gazetteer of the World. By T. C. Calu- 


VL ScixNos— IneladlDg Natural History, Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, && By Profeeaor 

Saxvxl &t. Jorv, of Western Boserre CoUegei /n PretM. 
7IL ABCBmeruEB — Historical, DeaeriptlTe, Topographical, Decorative, Theoretical, and 

Mechanical. By Bobxr Stuaxt. 
niL Ctclopdia or Eurofk— a Mannal of European Geography— embracing valaable Bta- 

tistlcs concerning every Important place. By F. L. UKOBwrrnui. 

%• TkM* ToloBMt ■!« ifltmdtd to eompriM • oampnlMiMhra view of tb* wbol* drel* of haman knowl«dg«— li 
•Ihar word*, to farm % G«Mnl C7felopedla In • porteblo ■hapo, for popdbr Mfknaoo, for FaoiUy UbmHM, tai 
TmcImii aad 8«b«el Llbniio^ and fcr tb* gnianJ iMdor. 





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Thib favorable reception of the former editions of this work has 
induced the new proprietors to have it revised and brought down 
to the close of 1854. A slight departure from the original plan will 
be observed in the continuation ; the events which in the first part 
were placed under the heads of their respective countries, being now 
arranged in the supplement to the Chronological Tables. Of the 
various sources from which the materials have been drawn, particular 
mention is due to the "American Almanac," the "State of the 
Union,'* and some valuable articles in the "New York Tribune." 
The articles upon the Bntish Museum, and Education in Europe, are 
taken, with the perriiission of the editor, from " Norton's Literary 
Almanac," a work which ought to be upon the table of every one 
who feels the importance of accurate Information upon education and 

Kxw TOBX, AuguH, 1860. 

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While revising a chronological manual, in compiling which I had, 
at the age of fifteen,* employed many midnight hours, I have found 
material assistance in the tables prepared by my late friend, D. A. 
Talboys, publisher, of Oxford, England, usually called the Oxford 
Chronological Tables. In the alphabetical part of the volume, the 
comprehensive and useful Dictionary of Dates, by Haydn,t has been 
incorporated almost entire, with such additions relating to the United 
States as were necessary to its completeness, and with continuations 
to the present year. 

The contemporary tables which I had formerly prepared, had 
cost much diligent application, and I was glad to find on collating 
them with the more recent works, that some slight additions only 
were needed to make them as full and complete as was desirable for 
the purpose in view, viz. : a convenient and portable volume for refer- 
ence, not over-burdened with details, but indicating to the intelligent 
reader all the great landmarks of history in their order of succession ; 
and showing also what was going on at the same time in di£Eerent 
countries. To render this glance more comprehensive and clear, 
many of the details in the former tables are now omitted, as they 
are given more at large in the alphabetical part of the volume. 

To a reader of history the utility of such a glance at contempo- 
rary persons and events, is too obvious to need illustration : but while 
the more elaborate and ponderous works of Blair, Talboys, and 

* Chronologf—An Index to Universal History, &c. 12mo. Leavitt, New- 
fork, 1888. The Tolome has been long ont of print 

t Fourth edit. Svo. Lond., 1847. That work needs no praise here. 

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others, are available to the historian or the merely literary man, they 
are usually repulsive to the general reader, for the very reason 
that they contain too mi£ch for ordinary purposes ; their very elaborate* 
ness serves to puzzle and to mystify. 

What is here aimed at is simply to indicate, in brief and sugges- 
tive terms, the succession of the prominent occurrences and of the 
governments in the chief nations of the world— enough merely to 
recall to the reader of history the full pictures of these events, and 
to enable him to classify them correctly in his memory. 

The cdphahetical part of the volume gives, in most cases, moro 
full and ample references to the same historical facts ; but still the 
whole work is but an index to the sources of knowledge — a Diction- 
ary of Dates. It has been planned so as to facilitate access to the 
largest amount of useful information in the smallest possible 

There are some discrepancies among the authorities, as to names 
and dates — especially in the Middle Ages — ^and in some instances 
the dictionary varies from the tables ; but these instances are not 
numerous or important 

The Biographical List at the close of the volume will contribute, 
it is presumed, to render the contemporary tables far more variously 
useful than would be at first supposed. By ascertaining from it 
the dates of birth and death of any eminent person, the tables will 
show at a glance what events happened, and what other eminent per- 
sons lived during the life-time of that individual. 

It would be superfluous to say more by way of explanation. That 
such a volume can be quite free from imperfections is not to be 
supposed ; but the compiler trusts that it will be found to answer all 
reasonable expectations, as a compact manual of reference to the 
World's Progress in Arts, Literature, and Social Life, as well as in 
Politics and Government. G. P. P. 

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Rejrrestnlirtg, in a CkronologicaL Series, the Rise, Revolutions, and FaU f tht 
principal Empires of the World. 


li n necesaiy to notice, that the space alloiieo .0 each country is rather according to iti relative 
political importance, than to itfl geographical extent 

The spaces between the vertical lines which cross the chart, represent time, riz., each a cen« 
tory or 1(X) years; those between the horizontal lines represent countries, the names of which are 
expressed at the end of the chart. 

By examining the vertical columns, we ascertain the contemporary state of different nauons at 
the i>eriod we fix upon. For instance: about 1500 years before Christ, we see states forming iv 
Greece; the Israelites in Egypt (from whence they depart nine yeais after); the Egyptian, Assy- 
rian, Persian, Chinese, and other kingdoms had bsen founded several centuries previous— but their 
history uncertain and obscure. At the time of Christ, we find the Roman Empire spread over a 
greater part of (he then known world, but the Parthians, Uritons, and Germans, as yet unsubdued 
by them. 700 years after, this empire exists only in Turkey, and its former territories arc under 
barbarians: the Heptarchy in England; the Lombards in Italy, the Franks in Gaul; the African 
provinces, and a large part of Asia under the Saracens. In IGOO we find the Eastern or Greek 
Empire fallen under the Turks ; the Tartars powerful in Asia : many of the modem states of 
Europe founded; America discovered by the Europeans, &c. &c. 

On the other hand, the revolutions of each country may be seen in continuation by lookmg 
cJong the chart horizontally : the Persian empire is founded in remote antiquity ; united with that 
of the Medes, about GOO b. c. ; is extended by Cyrus into Assyria, Asia Minor, and Egypt, &36 ; falls 
in turn, under the Macedonians, Parthians, Saracens, Turks, and Tartars, successively.— The 
Jsraelitea in Egypt from 1706 to 1491 b. c. ; in Canaan 14ol ; under the Judges about IJOO; under 
Kings, 1095 ; Ten Tribes separated, 975 ; Ihey conquereil, 721, and Judah, SS8, by the Assyrians ; 
rastored by the Persians, 535 ; under the Macedonians, 330 ; restored to independence by the Macp 
cabees, 150; conquered by the Romans, 63; by the Saracens, a. d. 622; afterwanls by the cm- 
■aders, Mamelukes, and Turks, successively.— i?N^/amf subdued by the Romans in the first cea> 
tury; relinquished by them, a. d. 410; subdued by the Saxons, 600; by the Danes, 860; by the 
Normans (receiving French territories), 1066; united with Ireland, 1170; with Wales, 1280; with 
Scotland, 1600. — Jlali/ in antiquity possessed by several petty tribes ; by tlie Romans from 300—200 
B. c. to 480 A. D., then by the Ilerulii, Ostrogoths, Lombardp, and Franks, successively ;— in modem 
times, divid&l into several small republics and principalities ; joined to the French empire about 
1800, and now divided chiefly between Austria, the Grand Dukes of Tuscany, Modena, dec, the 
Pope, and the King of Naplea 

" They are rather melancholy reflections which the view of such a chart of history is apt to 
excite in the minds of persons of feeling and humanity. What a number of revolutions are 
marked upon it ! What torrents of human blood has the restless ambition of mortals shed, and in 
what complicated distress has the discoutent of powerful individuals involved a great part ol 
llMir q>ecie8 '. "—Priestley. 

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Pimioo L— The Antedilnrian (1656 years) ... .2 

Pkkiod 1L— Dispersion of Mankind (427 yeais).— The Deluge to Abraham 4 

Pbriod III.— The Abrahamic or Patriarchal (430 years).— Abraham tu Moms . . 6 

Pkbioo IV.— The Mosaic or Theocratic (396 years).— Moecs to Saul . . B 

Pbkiod V. — ^The Monarchical (489 years).— Saul to Cyrus .... 14 

PaaiOD VI.— The Persian (322 years). —Cynis to Alexander . 21 

Pbbiod VII. -The Grecian (184 years).- Alexander to the Fall of Greece . . 26 

PuJOD Vlll. - The Roman (146 years).— Fall u( G recce to the Christian Era . 38 


PsBioD 1.— (306 yeaiB).'-From the Chrisiian Era to the reign of OHUtantlne 

Pbriod II.— (170 years.) — Constantino to Odoacer .... 

Pbkiod III.— (146 years.)— Odoacer to Mahomet .... 

Period IV.— (178 years.)- Maliomei to Charlemagne 

Period V.— (266 years.)— Charlemagne to William the Conqueror 

Period VI.— (233 years.)— William the Conqueror to Oihman I. 

Period MI.— 1&4 years.)— Othmau to the Fall of the Eastern Empire 

Period Vni.— (145 years.)— Fall of Eastern Empire to the Edict of Nantes 

Period IX.— (120 years.)— Edict of Nantes to the death of Charles XII. , of Sweden 

Pbbjod X.— (97 years.)— Charles XII. of Sweden to the Fall of Napoleon lai 

Pbbiod XI.— <40 years.)— Napoleon to the year 1850 ...... 146 


■ • s 





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L Ahcxkrt Chboitoloot — torn the Creation to the Birth of Chri8t^-4004 yean. 
IL MoDKRN Chsoholoot — fix>m the Birth of Chriet to the present time— 1850 yeam 


L flroDi the Creatioo, 
to the DelogVi 

S. From the Deluge, 

to tlie Can of Abnham, 

a. From the Call or Abraham, 
to the Bzode from Egypt, 

4. From the Exode, 

to the Kingdom of Sanl, 

t. FhNDflaol, 

to the Captlrity of brael, 

& Rrom the Captlvitjr, 

to Alexander the Oraat, 





to the SobjngatioD of Oraece, 146. . 

i From the Subjugation of Greece, 146 
•D the Birth of Chrtet, 0.. 

..1666 yean; TtM AntBdUmtUm Pmritd, 

.. 427yeanL Th» DitperHm Pmiti. 

.. 4307ean Thn Patriarchal PtrioA 

.. 396 years The 7%eoeratie Pmiti. 

>.. 607yearB. Thb Monarchical PmitA 

•The PtrHan Pitrim, 
•The Ortcum Pmi^ 
,,VbB Soman Ptrioi, 

3 yean.. 



' From the Creation to the Ohriotian era, the datea are reckoned a.0^-« 
BEFORE OQRIST. Thoy arc then changed to a. D.-<Ae Tear «f Mir Lord. 

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THE world's PROQRE88. 

FIRST PERIOD— (^Ae Antediluviany^i65e years. 

THE CREATION OF THE VfORLD-iHebrew Pentateuch.^ [Hales places it 5411 B. o.« 

The fall of man, and the promise of a SaTiour. 

The birth of Cain, the firat*bom of woman— a husbandman. 
3875 The death of Abel, the firat subject of death. He was a shepherd. 

3Sr4ScihT • ^ ' '^ 

3769 Enoa 



Seih bora, the third aon of Adam. 
" bom. 


3G09 Mahalaleel 

3332 Enoch 

Methuselah ** (Uved 969 yean.) 

3130 Laroech 

3074 Death of Adam, aged 930 jreara. 

3017 Enoch translated. 

2948 Noah bom. 

2468 The building of the Ark commenced. 

2348 THE DELUGE. [Hales places it 3164 purposes of 


Enoch bom, the first son of Cain.t 

Cain builds a city, which he calls Enoch. He ia* 

troduces the use of weights and measures.— Jo- 

aephtte. Tetter. 

Lamech— polygamy introduced. 

The first to 
for habita- 
tion, and to 


He inventp 
ed the ^orp 
and the Or- 
getfttOT wind 
and stringed 
of music. 

He discov- 
ed the mode 
of preparing 
and using 
iron, brass, 
and other 


She intro- 
duced the 
ftifi^ and 

* See alphabetical portion of this volume for the Tarious dates of the chronologists. The iSiii- 
maritan Pentateuch places the Creation B. o. 4700; the Septuagint^ 6872; Joeephutf 4658; the 
TabnudistSyBQH; Scaliger, 3960; Pe/oviu*, 3964 ; and Dr. Halee, 6411. The last named enu- 
meraiea abore 120 rarious opinions on this subject, the difference between the latest and remotest 
date of which is no less than 3268. The Hebrew account is followed by Uehevy and is here adopted 
as the most generally receired standard. 

t No datea are assigned in Scripture to the names here placed in the right-hand column.— Tiiay 
an however contemporary with those in the other column. 

Rbm ARKfl.— The Antediluvian Period was nearly as long as the whole period that has elapsed 
dnca the birth of Christ. Of the progress of knowledge and the arts, during that period, nothing 
ia known beyond what is given above, except that ship-building, calking, and the use of pitch, or 
paint, of measures by cubit, Ac, and of doon and windows, were known. They imply, in their 
adaptation to the use of man, other arts, and a considenble advance in science and the mechanical 

K3f*Trb Tabt lab Vibwb abb ooirTiMTrBB aobobb two VA0B8 AT turn 


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SECOND rERIOJ>-iIHsperiian(fMinkina,y'' 



8M7 IFtiM made bj No«h fcom tha grepf. 

2317. Tha 

of Noah 



BH'dba made, and cament oaad to vnita 
Oonfnaion otiaaguagu at BabaL 

A MI m m m io t i obaanrattoaa begwa at Babylon. 

through the earth : thooa of Shaa probably 
in Ana, of Ham in Africa, and of Japhet m 

3(7. The euiaa pronounced apoa tha daaeend- 
ante of Ham. 
7. Tha buildtag of Babel.* 

22lfiL BABYLON founded by NiflBod, an of 
Cuah, and Grandacn of Ham. 

NINEVEH founded by Aahur, aon of 




Athotaa (aon of Meneo) Inrenta hierogfyphiea. 

Sculpture and PahUing employed lo ca 
memonte the exploita of Oijmandyaa. 

iytmi/(b and Gonale in Egypt. Theaciaoeo 
of 0<om«A>begiiii to be cuiayated. 


CSiing Hong teacfaas tha Ohineae tha art of 
Bu^bandtyt and the method of making 
Bnad from wheat, and wine from rice. 


1921. The call of AbiahaB. 

* The chronology here adopted la that of the Hebrew Pentateuch. The Samaritan place* 
Oabel 081 years after the delngai Our knowledge of Grecian chronology begtni in 77e n. o. 
—the flrat recorded Olympiad. Till than we give the moat approrad mythological datea. 

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TBB woftLb'8 mooftsfli. 
427 fea/n, — The Dduge to Abraham. 

PROPANE HISTORY.— (/n thi9 period traditiomU and uncertain,) 


8207 CHINA. Hm fim imperfail 
dTnoMT ofHia befiiw. Fohi 
(who u perhaps Noah him- 
•elf) u menUoiMd aa tha ficM 
Chineaa monarch. 

219l:Bo1ua reigrn in BABYI^ON.— 
[Soma abppom Belua to ba 
the Nimrod of Scripture. If 
■o. there ia a diacrepancj of 
121 yean between the ncred 
and profaoe chronologies.] 
The oricin of the kinsBooM 
of BabjTon and Nineven, and 
of tlio Aasyrian empire, is 
▼ariousljstated by the cfaron* 
ologista. See Sacred Hiat.] 

2188. Bn«nim(Monea),the8on 
of Ham. builda Memphis, in 
EGYPT, and begins tlie E- 
gyptian monarchy. 


2111. THEBES founded by 
^■2100. Osymandyas, tha first 
warlike king, passes into 
Asia, and conqaeis Bacuia. 

2069. SICYON. the first Mm- 
dom of GREECE, founded 
by Egialut, or Ihaehitb. 

Ninus, aon of Belus, nigna m 

Be establishes the ASSYRIAN 


Semlramis enlarges and embel- 
lishes Babylon, and makes it 
the seat of empire. [By others 
placed 2107 b. o.] 

2066. Egypt eooquered by the 
ahephera kings of Phanieia, 

iggS temlra mis inTadea Lybia,Ethi- 
opte, tin India. 

mr Tha AnlJi seitt Nbeyah. 0) 

1936. LalaMotrlsoamtnietad. 

2048. A colony of PheniciaiM 

land in Ireland. 0) 
2042. Uranus arrirea in Gvsaca. 

War of tha Gubib 

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IHB world's PROORB88. 

THIRD PERIOD— (TAtf Al^rahamic or Patriarchal}^ 





Gold and ailror flxst mentioned as money. 

Letten fint need in Egypt bj Sjphoai. 

Memnon inrents the Egyptian a^dkabet. 






Atlas, the ajBtronomer. 

The chronology o( the Anindelian nutrbles 

The cymbal used at the feasts of Cybele. 

Dancing to music introduced by Curetes. 
Book 01 Job written about this time. (?) 

The^f</e invented b^ Hyagnis, a Phrygian. 
Amphiciyon gives interpretation to ureams 


Thx Jbwi. 

and draws prugnosiics from 
Ericthoneus teaches the Athenians husbandry. 

1921. Abraham called. 

1920. —goes into Egypu 

1912. — delivera Lot from captivity, and !» 

ceivesthe blessing of Melchuedec 
1909. I«>hmael bom. 
1897. Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed. 

God renews his covenant with Abraham. 
1896. Isaac bom. 

1871. Abraham commanded to offer Isaac la 

1856. Isaac married. 

1836. Jacob and Esau bora. 

1831 Abraham dies, aged 172. 

1769. Jacob marries Leah and Rachal. 
1739. His name changed to Israel. 

1729. Joseph sold into Egypt 

1715. Is made governor under Pharaoh. 

1706. Jacob and his family settle in EgypL 

1702. End of the seven years* famme. 

1699. Death of Jacob. 

1635. Death of Joseph. 

1577. Israelites persecuted In Egypt. 
1574. Aaron bom. 
1571. Moees bom. 

1531. Moees fleea into Midian. 
1513. The supposed era of Jobw 

1491. God appears to Moees m a burning bush 
at Iloreb, and sends Um to Egypt to &livei 
the braelitea. 

The Ten Plafuea in Egypt. 

InaUtutioD of the Passover. 

The EXODUS of the Isn * ' 

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TBB world's PBOORESt. 

Abraiiam to Mous, — (430 years.) 

PROFANE BtSTORY.—iStm/abuiout or uncertain.) 


China. The 9d Imperial ^• 
Micj begim^ 


16ia SsMMtrifl reignt bi Egypt 

16G6. Ramewt MUmmn nigns 
in Egypt. 


I8B61. Inaehw, the Phenieiai 
plante e como^ in ARGO& 


Phorooeni relgae im 

1764. OgygesreigDem Baotla. 

1707. Apia, king of Argoi. 

I73S: The Ogygeea Deluge hi 

1711. The dty of Akos haUt 
bT Afgua, the aon ofNiobe. 

1710. A colony of Arcadiana 
emigrate into Italy under 
OBnotruB.— CBnotria afier^ 
warda called Magna Oreda. 

1641. Criaaua aucceeda ha 
fiulier, Argua. 

1666. ATHENS 

1862. Triopaa. king of Argot 
The kmgdom divided, Poly* 
caoo reigning in Meaaenia. 

1546. TROY iounded by Soa- 

1629. Deluge of Deucalion in 

1620. Connth founded. 

1616. Sparta founded, and th« - 
kingdom of Laconia, or La- 
cede mon. 

1607. The Aieopagua establish- 
ed in Athena. 

1606. CrotopasBUCceedatothi 
throne of Argoa. 

1604. Deucalion arrirea in At 

The kingdom of Meast 
nla commenced by Pqlycaon 

1493. THEBES in Iksoiia 
founded by Cadmus, a Phe 
nician, who introducea th« 
alphabet into Greece. 

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fM world's ^ftOOtl£88. 

FOURTH PERIOD.— <T^ Mxaic &r ThMra^y^ 




Bud^gn uMd in siogla combat inrvnted by 
Pnstus and AcriMU of Argos. 
IWr Eletmrtian fnytfen'M IfitUtutad bj Eumol- 



PaoaBBsa of Sooibtt and thb Abtb. 

Oroektry made by the Egyptiana and Oreeki. 
Ericthooiua introduces ibe firat eharioi. 

The fabulous or traditiomuy fTermae-TVia- 
mtgiatw placed about this period. 

Bacehui, god of wine. 

OTympie G^omea tint celebrated in Greece. 
ApoUoy god of mueic and jioctry. 

Otphaia and Limuy eons of Apollo, skilled 

in music 
The temple of Apofio at Delphi built by the 

council of Amphictyons. 
Jason leads the Argonaoiic expedition; the 

Unt naotA eacpediuon on record. 

JlfuacMia, a poeL 

The axe vfedgty mintdle and lever^ also maete 
and tiila for ships mrented by Dndalus of 

1 he game of Baekgommon invented by Pala- 
m Miss of Greece. 


Thb Jxws. 

1491. Departure of the Israelites from Egypt. 
The law giren at Mount SinaL 

1471. Rebellion ofKorahjDathan, and Abiram 

1463. Aaron dies. 

1451. Moses writes the Pentateuch, and dies. 

1461. Inaalites enter Canaan under Joohna. 

1443. Joehoa dies. 

1405. Othniel judges Israel. 

1390. The tribe of Benjamin ftanost extiML 

134a Eglott, khig_of Moab, enslaree li 
1326. Ehud UllsEglon, and delivers Israel 
1317. Shamgar kilb 60) Philistines with an 

ox goad. 
1305. Israel subdued by Jabin. king of Canaian. 
1286. Deborah and Barak defeat the Canaan* 

ites— Sisera killed by Jael. 

1292. Israel enslaved by the Blidiantea. 

1^9. Gideon, with 300 men, defeats tha Ml> 

1209. Abimelech judges: 
1206. Tola judges braaL 

1183. Jair, judge of Inaal. 

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396 yaorx.— iUoKs to Saul. 

PROFANE mSTORY.-^Stitt uneertam,^ 









DwdrauUdngof Troy, buikb 

Ericthoniug reifnt in Tnj. 

Cuahanrifliiathaiin, „ 
Meaopoteinia. (See 

Teucer, king of Troj. 

Troee, Uoff of Troy. 

Uos; eon of Troee, fonnder of 

LaomedoD, king of Troy. 
Pbeokia: TYRE founded. 

Second AtiyTian Dynasty : 

Miihreaof orNfnuelL 
Troy taken by the Axgonattte. 

Hereulee arrives in ^ _ „_ 
Axgon, a descendant of Herctt* 

lea, firat king of LTDIA. 
Priam, king of Troy. 
Tantanas, iBng of Assyria. 

Tlie TROJAN WAR begins. 
Troy taken, 408 years before 

the 1st Olympiad. 
Temaena, kmg of Assyria. 
Trof ans migrate faito Italy. 


1491. Pharaoh and his army 
drowned in the Red Sea. 

1486. Egyptus reigns, and 
gives name to tlie country. 


1376. Ssthoe ?ugns in Egypt 

1233. Cartilage foonded by the 

Sthenelos reigns in Argos. 

1474. Banaus usurps the Ung> 

dom of Argos. 
1463. Damnonii invade Ire- 

1467. The kingdom of Myeene 
begins under Perseus, late 
king of Arf OS. 

1453. Olympic games first ce- 
lebrated at Elis. 

1438. Pandion begins to reign 
at Athena. 

1400. Minos reigns in Crete. 

1397. CORINTH becomes a 
kingdom under SiiQrphus. 

1383. Ceres arrives in Attica. 

1376. The Isthmian games in- 

1366. Eleusinian mysteries in- 

1283. jGgeus reigns in Attica. 

1266. CEdipus, king of Thebes. 
1263. The Argonautic Expe- 

1267. Theseus unites the cities 
of Attica under one govern- 

1243. The Arcadians conducted 
by Evander into Italy.— Mu- 
saus, a poet. 

1239. Latinus roigns in Italy 

1225. First Theban War.— 
Euristhenes and Procles 
kinn of Lacedemon. 

1222. Hercules celebtates the 
Olympic Games. 

1216. War of the Epigonli, or 
ad Theban War. 

1213 Helen carried oT by 
Theseus, is recovereJ by 
Castor and Pollux, and mar- 
ries Menelaus. 

1204. Helen elopes with Paris. 
1182. JBneas lands in Italy. 
1176. Salamis founded by 

1170. Epirus: Pyrrhtu Neop* 


Digitized by 



IHB world's PROORE8& 

Fourth Period, — (Tlie Mosaic or T/ieocratic.)—' 



Mariner'a compass aald to be known in 
China. (1) 

A standard dictionary qfthe Chine$e contain- 
ing 40^000 cbaractars, completed by Pa-oui- 


Thb Jbws. 

1161. Inael enslared by the Fhilistines and 
Ammonites.— Samaon bom. — Eli judges m 
portion of Israel, 

1143. Jephtha defeats the Ammonites, and 
becomes judge of a part of Israel. 

1135. Samson slays 1000 Philistines with tiM 
jawbone of an ass. 

1117. Death of Samson and Eli. 
1116. Samuel, the last judge of IsFaeL 

1096. The Philistines defeated at Ebenexer. 
1U93. EstablUhment of the HEBREW Ha 
NARCUY.— Saul anointed king of IsfmL 

Digitized by 


THE world's PROORGS& 


396 yecarz. — (Continued.) — Moses to Saul. 

PROFANE HISTORY.— ('S'/«^/o*"'o«*» «'" uneertatn.) 


1141 Ttmpla of Epherai boxnt by 

the AmasoiM. 
1139 XbiiuBUfl, king of ABsyrk. 



Cbln :— 9d dynucj;— Tebeoo. 

Dereyluf, king of AflByiia. 

* EuBors. 

1182. Alba-LoDga boUt by 

1121. JBolianmigTttion. 

THEBES, ihaCapild or 
BoeoUs, foimded. 

1101 Return of the Heraclite. 
—End of the kingdoia of 

Digitized by 



1^ WORLX>'8 PRooaias. 
FIFTH PERIOD.— (TAe Mmarchical.}^ 




Thb Jbwi. 

1096. Saul, King of faiML 

1066. David bom. 

1062. DarUkillffGoIktli. 

1066. Death of Raul. Darid reigm in Habroa 
orerJudah; bbbooheth reigning inMaha- 
nalm, over eleven tribea. 

104& bhboAedi dain. David nuMla king 


104a David aubduee the Pbiliatines, Moab- 
itea, Syriana, and azteoda bia dominiom to 
the Euphratea, on the Eaat, the Red Sea, on 
the Soath, and Lebanon, on the North. 

1086. Solomonbom. 

1023. Revolt and death of Abaalom. 

1014. Comipiiacj of Adoo^jah. 


miiM fIfW liii taM to CkMa 

1016. Solomon crowned hi the preasnca of 

1016. David diea. 

1012L SolomoD laya the foundation of the 


lOOa Solomon extendi hia commerce, in eon^ 
nection with Hiram, Inng of T^re, to India, 
via Red Sea, and to the ahorea of the Atlan* 
tic, via Scnita of Gibraltar : buUda l^d. 
mor (Palmyra) in the deeert, Baalbec, and 
ottier citiee. 


986. He iaaeducedfaito idolatry by hia wivea. 
976. -^eB,amIiaBucceededbyReboboam. 



975. R^oboam, khig. Jeroboam, Unf. 
971. Shiahak plundera 
the temple. 

964.^^ Nadab,kiBg. 
S63 Baaeha,!^. 

Digitized by 



507 yean, — Saul to Cyras. 




The lonkn 

Bizmm, king of Tyn. 



pluDcwn Jtimtoin. 


Alliaaea betWMO SdomoD ani 

986. Udcabtdtt. 

97a 8eMe> (Sbitbak in Scrip- 
tore, end ^"' " — 


tore, eou euppeied 

-^-- lofigypc 


1068. End of the ltin(dom of 

107a Heremon. from GmlUde, 
conquera Iniaad. 

1069. Codrue derotes himielt 
for Athene. 

106a Athene goTtmed bf 

976. cepyv fUpk ia ilbii 

Digitized by 




Mfth Period.— {The Manarckicai.}— 


B. 0. Proorbii of Socibtt and thb Aktb. 


BnoMtpkUu inrtntod bjr Jaton, 


Tbs Jews. 


942. Asa defeats Ze- 
reh, kioe of Ethio- 
pia, wiifi a million 
of men. 

911. -^-makea a league 
with Benhadad, Icing 
of Sjria. 

930. Elah, king. 

929. Zirari, kti^. 

Orari, king. 

9ia A.iftb, king. 








Homer'tpoenu brought into Greece. 
Lffotrgtu reforms the constitution of Qparta. 
Gold and diver coined bj Phidon^ tjrant of 

914. Jahoshaphat, 

907. Benhadad, king of 

898, J.hoA,phM M. SSlLbS*^?:: 
sists Ahab. pulsed. 

894. War with Moab. ^ 

899. Jeboram, king. 
897. Ahaziah, king. 
896. Jehuram, king. 
896. EUjah translated. 

881 AhaxUh, king. 884. Jehu, king. 
Athaliah, queen ; 

Propheeiu of Jonah. 

Carpeu in use for tents. 

The Corinthians employ triremes or Teasels 

with three banks ot oars. 
First recorded Olympiad and beginning of 

authentic chronology in Greece. 
Satlptwre fim mentioned in profane history— 

an Egyptian art.. 

The first edipee of the moon observed by the 
Chaldeans at Babylon. 

The Buddha religion introduced by Gautama 
into India. 

Roman Calendar reformed. The year divided, 
12 months instead of 10 as before. 

Augurs instituted bv Numa. 

Iambic verte introduced by Archiheue^ Tvr- 
teeua. and Evander^ poets. 

Ckete invented 

The Prophet Jo- 
839. Amaziah, king. 
8ia Azariah, king. 

768. Jotham, king. 
742. Ahaz,king. 

841. Jehottsh, king. 
826. Jeroboam, king. 
784. Interregnum. 
773. Zachanah, king. 
Shallum, king/ 
772. Menahem, king. 
770. Pul invades 1». 

rael, and is bribed 

to depart with 1000 

762. Pekahiah, king. 
769. Pekah, king. 
Ho«hea, king. 


717. Hezekiah, king, 
712. Sennacherib m- 

vades Judah. 
711. His army (185,- 

000) destroyed by a 

696. Manaaseh, king. 

Digitized by 


TBB world's PaOORSSS. 

507 years.— Saul to Cyn«.— (Continned.) 






Homer bofB.(?) 






Jonah preachM to the Nine- 

Aitecee, kiM of Aaeyna.— 

Media WTolia. ,,^^,. 

AidftmMt let kmg of LTDIA. 

Pul, khig of Nlaereh. 

936. BacehufiUngofGorfaitk 

916. Calpet«i,ktogof AIb4. 

903. Tiberinue, king of Alba. 

896. Tiberinua drowned in tha 
river Albula, which ia thenea 
caUed the Tiber. 

864. Romulus, king of Alba 

869u Dido arrires in Africa, 
and buiklfl Byraa. 

826. The dynaaiy of ihe Ta- 
nitee in Egypt ; begins with 







Sardanapalua, king of Nhie- 

Media eubiected to AaaTria. 

AhratteSf king of-Lydia. 

Aflsyrian empire deetroyed. 
—Melee, king of Lydia. 

Phainacea» king of Cappado- 

Tiglath-Pileeer conquen ^- 
na and part of Israel. 

Candaules, king of Lydia. 

Shahnanexer king of .Nine- 
veh, takes Samaria, and car- 
ries the Ten Tribes into 

781. The dynasty of the Saites 
in Egypt. 

Oygee usurps the throne of 

M5. Aventinus, king of Alba. 

814. The kingdom of MACE- 
DON founded by Caranus. 
808. Procas, king of Alba. 
7M. Numiior," " 

794. AmuUus,** •* 

737. Sebacon Invades Egypt. 

Skimaeheribt ktog of Nhieveh. 
MEDIA becomes a khigdom 

under i>e/ocef. 
Ecbatana founded by Dejoces. 

Babylon and Nineveh muler 
EsarhsfiltlfTn < 

Olam Fodla, king ia Ire- 
land. 0) 

769. Syracuse founded t^ 
Archias of Corinth. „^^^ 


Catania founded by a co- 
lony from Chalda, 

747. union of Romans and 
Sabines. , . ,^ 

74a 1st Messinian War. 

716. Romulus murdered by the 

716. NumaPompIUua. ^ . 
713. Gela in Slaly founded. 

703. Corcyra built by the Co- 


Digitized by 




jR/iE^ Fenod.-^The Manarckkaiy^ 



Thb Jews. 

677. BfaLaneh e«Ti«d to BaLylon, !■ 
wtrdi FMiorad. 






Attempt to diMorer the primitiTe language of 
mankind; Interpreien instituted by nam* 
meticoa ; children educated in tlie language 
and mannen of Greece. 

St-Mat&i€n*9 hietoiy of China begina. 


The SpMrieai/orm ^ Me taaih and the true 
eanae of lunar eclipeee taught bj Thaiju^ 
who dlacovera the electricitj of amber. 

Periander encoungea leaning at Corinth. 

Droeo framee hla bloody code of lawa at 

Fharaoh-Necho begins a canal between the 
Mediterranean and Bed Sea. The lives of 
120^000 men lost in the attempt He sends 
out a Phoinidan fleet which, sailing through 
the Straits of Babelmandel, returned the 
third year by the Straits of Gibraltar, thus 
eiratmnavigating AJrica. 

aappko. AJeaue^ Pittaene^ Biue, ChUo, My- 
eon^ Anaehareiej ^eopi Ityehie, TheogTue, 
Steeichonta^ PkoqfUaee^ and Cadmue (of 
Blllelus), flourish at this time. 

Thales* prediction of a astor edipH accom- 
p11shed.-<See Aria.) 

640. Ammoo, king of Joc'IdL 

641. Josiah, king of Judah, 

Joaiah kiUed at Magidco, oy Phanoh Mt- 

609. Jehotiiat, kiag, 
Jeholaklm, khig. 


Soiemfe legldation hi Athens, supersedes that 

of Draco. 
The PythUm Oamee at OelphL 

50a Jehoiachhi, king, reins three 
and is carried captiVe to Ahyloo. 
Zedekiah, king. 
69L ExekieDtepm vo prophecy In Chaldea. 

5Ba CAPTlvrnr of JUDAH completed. 

pie burnt 

Digitized by 


tOi wokld'8 FKOOKBM. 


607 years. — 3[M to Cynw.— (Continued) 





At&fmm IL, kteg of Lydia. 
BotoftrdM, AjHyriu^ Cw^nL 

FhnortM, king of Media. 

Saracoa, king of Babylon and 

Phraortes conqnen Fenia, 

Armenia, Ac. 

Cyaxarea, kins of Media. 
Sadyattea, king of LydiA. 

Nabopolaasar rerolta firom Sar 

The Scythlana Inrade Lydia 

and Media. 
Alyauea IL, king of Lydnu 
Nineveh a eecond time destroy- 

Nabopolaasar, king of Baby- 

660. Peammeticiia, king o1 
EgypL— Memphia becomes 
like capital of tl)e kingdom. 



Fliaraoh-Mecho defeated by 
Nebttchadnezzar at Circe- 
siiun, on the Euphrates. 

Nebuchadneuar, king of Ba- 

Daniel interprets the king's 

A sotor ed^>ss predicted by 
Tbalee— separates the Modes 
and Lydians in battle, (^ete- 
ton's CAron., 696.) 

Birth of Cyrus. 

Aacyages of Media drires out 
the Scythians. 


67a ArgflBUs, 1st king of Ma^ 

672. Tullua Hostilius, king ol 

668. Messina in Sicily founded 
666. Alba destroyed. 
,f664. Sea fight between tha 

Corinthians and Corcyreans. 

66a. BYZANTIUM founded. 

64a Aneos Martius.— Tike port 
of Ostia boilL— The LaUns 
conquered by the Romans.— 

Philip, 1st king of Mace- 

610. Phaiaoh-Necho, khlg of 



629. Periandsr rules at 


616. Tarquinius PnseuS) king 
of Rome. 

602. ^ropus, king of jbr^ 
don, conquers Ulyria. 

600L Psammia, king of Egypt 

691. PharaohBophra, kiig of 6M. Solon, Arehor ti Atfisoa 

Digitized by 




SIXTH PERIOD.— (T-Ae Peraian.)^ 

B.o Pbooksss op Sooibtt. 



Money coined at Roma by Se^ 

DepoBDus and Sejllis opeo a 
achool of etatuary at A thena. 

N€aicnitea giren to the Greeks 
by Egypt as a factory. 

Emt posMaM* 20,000 ] 

uted citiea. 

I inha- 




FHret comedy acted at Athena 
on a cart, by Suaarion and 

Diala inrented bj Anaziman- 
der of Miletua. 

AnnTimenea, Cleobulua. 



The Corinthian order of ar- 
chitecture invented by Caii- 

Zoroaster, the Pezaian Philo- 

Sitnonidee, Anaereon^ poets. 

Theepie performs the first 
trugedy at Athena. 

Learning encouraged at Ath- 
ena.— Pint puuic UtfTory 
founded. ' 

Oon/ueitta the Chineae philo- 

The Doric iasued by Danua. 

569. Handwriting on the wall 
at Bclahazxar'a feaat. 

82. Nebttchadnenar mvadia 
Elam— takea Sttaa. 

672. TyratalcenbjNebiidwd. 

636. Edict of Cjrus for the Rb- 
TURN of the Jbw8. 
Joehua, Zerubbabel. 

i35. Rebuilding of the tem- 
ple begins. 

Zecnariah, Haj^gai. 

616. DedieaUon of the aacond 

669. Nebuchadnezxar loaiQf 
hia reason is deposed. 
New Tyre founded. 

662: Croeaua, king ot LydoL 
Solon and .fiaop at hiacourL 

661. Evil-Merodach, kinf of 

6S9. Neriglissar or Belahaxzat 
killed in the night 

ui ^^V^S^. ^^ (Dariua) 
king of Media. 

Gyrus the Persian aaaiBta 
Aeia Minor subjected to Crm 

646. Sardis taken by Cyrua.— 
Croeaua made priaoner. — 
Thb Ltdian Kinodox bhd- 



Cyrus. ' 

founded by CYRUS, com- 
poeed of Aissyria, Media and 

629. Cambyaea, Ung of Pmw 


Digitized by 


TBE world's P&OGRB88. 

258 yeoTB. — Cyrws to Alexander the Great. 





EgTpc Inraded bj Nelmchad- 

686. Death of Periander, tyrant 

of Corinth. 
582. CoriatbbMomeaarepub- 


Apries taken prisoner, and 
strangled in his palace, 
maaas, king— conneciioo be- 
tween Greece and Egypt 


PyihagoFu Tisita Egypt. 


678. Senriua Tullins, Uof flf 

G67. Conquest of the 

by Rome. 
566. Pint census of 

84,700 ciUxens. 

560. Pisistratus, tyrant of Ath- 

649. Temple of Apollo at 
Delphi burnt by the Puis- 

647. Amyntas, king of Blace- 

539. The Phocians emifrate to 
Gaul and build MOMilia 
(now Marseilles). 

827. PiaistntttS dies. 

Fammenitus, last king of 
EgypL— Invasion of Cam- 
byses, who defeau the 
Eagrpiians at Peiusium, and 
takes Memphis. 




534. Tarquinius SoperboB, 

king of Rome. 
530. Cadiz built by the Car* 

thagiiiians (near the aneieol 


SB2. Polyciates, tyrant of Sa- 

51^ HIppaichns killed. 

610. The PisistratidflB expelled. 
— Dem6cracy establlehed at 
Athens.— Statues erected to 
Hamiodius and Arisiogiton, 
leaden rathe reroluiion. 

Digitized by 







Sixth period,— {The Persian,)— 

Abolition of the RenI Oovera- 
ment, and estabnahment of 
Republic at Rome. 

607 Heraditw, Thtano^ Pnta- 
gortUf AnaxagoraSf philoeo- 
phen.~C»rtmMi, poeteis. 


Hie PhanieiaM letten carried 
tolreiand fiom J^n. 

PjrthagoFu teaches the doc- 
trine of eelMtiat motioru. 

The temple of Minerva builL 

Thb Jbw8. 






The Etruriaru excel in maaic, 
the drama and architecture. 

JB9chylu9, Pindar, poeta. 

4831 Joachim, High Prteft 

Simonidee, of Coe, obtains the 
prize at Olympia, for teach- 
inc a svstem of Mntmotkii 
which he had inrented. 

Emjnrict instituted bj Acrwi^ 
Iff Agrigentum. 

Tbueydides bom. 

SbphodeB, the tragic, and 
Plato, the comic poeL 


of the Carthaginiaaa 
ftain for tin 

468. Esther. 

467. Kxra goes to Jerusalem, 
ooUeds the Jewish Scrip- 
tures: and 

46a -writesthe Chronidee. 

606b Darius conquers India. 

600. The lonlans reiTuU tasm 
Ptorsia and bun Saidia. 

49a Darius sends an army of 
600,000 men mto Greece. 

487. Artabaaes, king of tHm- 

486. Xerxes, king of Penia. 

481. The expedition of Xekzea 

into Greece. 
480. The family of Archean- 

actes, from MytiJene, settle 

in Bosphorus (now Circas- 


478. Death of Confucios.— 
China distracted by internal 

460. Ptoniaas defeated by sm 

and land. 
466. Xerxes assaatinated. 
464. Artaxerxes L (Longlna- 

nusokingofT^-^- ' 

Digitized by 




258 years. — Oynu to AkTxmder. — (Continued.) 


606. Lacedemonian War. 
6(M. Lenmos uken bjr MilU- 


nTDlw— la aubdoed by 

BamOem' kUlad in bataa. 


509. The TUrquina expelled 

fiom Borne. 
BauTua Axn> CoLLATivva 

first CoMtuLS of Rome. 

607. Second censui of Roma, 

130,909 citizens. 
The Capitol finished.— War 

against the Tarquins and 

their ally Ponenna. 

497. Alexander lat, king of 

Hippocrates, tyrant of 

490. Invasion of the Persians 
under Daiis and Artapher- 

Battle of MARATHON. 

4SB. Miltiadea imprisoned. 
484. Herodotus bora 
483. Aristidea baniahed. 

Bomb akd Italy. 

48& Tittts Lartius, fiiat Dicta- 

Tribunes of the people. 
496. Poethumius, Dictator. 

491. Coriolahua banished. 

488. At the request of hia 
mother, Coriolanus with- 
draws the Volsci from Rome. 

486. Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. 

483. QusBSion appointed. 


All Kgypc radocad by fiMsaby< 

480. Battle of Thermopylae. 
Athens burnt by Aerxes. 
Battle of Salamis. 
479. Mardonius a second time 
takes Athens. 

Defeat of the Persians at 
Platea and Hycale on the 
same day. 

476. Themistoclea rebuilds 
Athens.— The Pirnus built 

470. Cimon son of Miltiadea.— 
Themistocles banished.— 
The kingdom of the Odryas 
extends over the moat of 

466. The Persians twice de- 
feated at the Eurymedon by 

466. SdMesainianWar. 

461. Ostracism of Cimon.- 
Pbriclbs rises to great 

469. Athena assumes to be the 
head of Greece. 

466. CimoQ recalled. 

480. The Carthaginians de- 
feated by Gelon. 

479. Syracuse governed by 

477. This 300 FabU slain. 

467. Thrasybulua succeeds 
Bieio, and is ezpeliad lor 
bis cruelty. 

Democracy in Qyracuaa. 

461. Earthquake at Roma. 

466. Cindnnatas Diuafcv 

Digitized by 



•tax world's froo&bm. 

The Sixth Period,— (The Persian.}^ 







The Britons ioflict punish* 
ment of death by drowning 
in a qoagmire. 


, and Anti9' 
tfienes, philoBophers.— 
Phidias the finest scutp- 
tor of antiquity.— JFkiri- 
pides^ gains the first prise 
in tragedr. 
The Battenng Jtam inrented 
by Artemones. 

Ari€tophanea, prince of an^ 
cieni comedy. 

MeUm begins hia lunar evcle. 
JSocratetj the greatest of liea- 

then' moralists. 
Bfppocrate*, of Cos, the father 

of mec/ictne. 
Thueydidett Ctena*^ histo- 

Dtmocrituty tlie laughing plU' 


Tm jBwa. 

445. Walls of Jemsalem built 
by Nehemiah. 
Sect of Samaiitam. 

414 An tdipte of th$ strn causes 
the defeat o^ the Athenians 
at Syracuse 


Tbueydidea* history ends, and 
Xeoophon's begins. 

449. Persians defeated at I 
lamis in Cyprus. 
Peace with Greeca. 

438. Spartacus Ukea ^ 
don of the Bosphonisi 

426. Xerxes n. k. of Perua. 
421 Darius n. k. of Persia. 

401 ArtazerzesIL 

king of Persia. 

Digitized by 




258 years. — Cyrus to il&scayk^.— (Continued.) 




AmyrUBua, king of EgYp^ 
■ off Um joka orPer- 

Hm Carthaginuuis aand 300,- 
000 mcD inw Sicflj. 

454. Peidicca0,n.,kingofMa* 

449. Cimoo dies. 

44a Pint Sacred<Ww. 
447. Athenians dAftated at Che- 

440. Pericles takes SamosL 

437. AmphipoU* planted by 


436. Corinth at war with Cor- 

432. ReToIt of Poiidea from 
the Athenian confederacy. 

431. The Peloponnesian War. 
Invasion of Attica. 

430. The Plague at Athens. 

429. Pericles dies, haying goT- 
emed Athens 40 years. 

425. An earthquake separates 

the peninsula of Euboea 

from the main land. 
424. Exile of Thucydldes. 
Campaign of Brasidas in 

420. The 90th Olympiad. 

Aleibiadea effects a treaty 

between the Athenians and 

416. Nicias, general of the 

War in Sicily. 
418. The Athenians alarmed by 

an eclipse.— Their army In 

Slelly destroyed. 
413. Archelaus, king of Mace- 
411. Athens goyemed by the 

400.— Alliance of Sparta 

with Persia. 
411. Alcibiades at the court of 

410. Alcibiades defeats the 


408. Capture of Byzantium. 

406. Lytander defeats the 
Athenians, 404.takes Athens, 
and establishes the 30 ty- 

End of the Pel< 

Death of Alcibiades. 


451. Decemyiri— the laws of 
the 12 tables. 

Virginia killed by her 

446. Syracuse reduces Agri> 


>. Military Tribunes. 
444. Office of Cmtor insci. 

440. Famine m Rome. 

437. The Veil defeated. 

434. War with the Tuscans. 

433. The temple of Apollo de- 
431. The Equi and Volsei d» 

Digitized by 



2%« Sixth Penod.'^The Persian.}— 







Gitfapiitt« inrented bf Dianf- 

CffnicB} MCt of phUo0opber> 
founded by ^tUurfA^net. 

PtatOf the philoeopber. 
■PAtfaffftflti the poet. 

Treatiie on con/c Mctiont hf 

Dtogtnn^ the cynic ; ImraUM 
end Imnm, onion. 

ToB Jbws. 

il edutial ghb$ bitni(hk into 
Gnece from Egjpt. 

Philippice of J[}etno9thene$. 

of jRAodet with 

i^'oa and ByuaUium 

966. Jeebue elain by Johen- 
nan In the inner court of the 
temple, for which a heary 
fine ia laid on the daily eacn- 

401. Cynia the younger de- 
feated.— Retreat of the I0/)00 
tinder Xenophon. 

40a ThteitytflMaUtoQtiA 

387. The Greek citiea of Asia 
tributary to Penia. 



Mithridatea lit, kii»g «€ 

368. AriobarxaneikingofFDn* 
tua.— Reroli of the Persian 

f tremor in Asia Minor. 
Dariufl Ochua. or Artax- 
erzea UI. king of Penia. 

360. CAPPADOCIA becomea 
a kingdom under Ariaraihaa L 

Digitized by 




258 yeart. — Cyrus to Alexander, — {Continued.) 


401. Thraitybulus expels the 
30 trranta. 

Death of Socrates. 

399. Amyntaa II., king of Ma- 

396. AgetiUttu goes into Asia. 
395. Corinthian War begun.— 
Battle of Coronea. 

Tlie CanhagiDians land in 

Tuibicmy king of Egypt- 

Ageailaos, ibe Spartan, 
aidruie Egyptians. 


of the Caxthaginians 


382. Thebes taken by Phoebi- 

380. Thebes delivered by Pelo- 
pides and Epaminondas. 
100th Olympittd. 

377. Spartan fleet defeated at 

372. Ell ice and Bula in the Pe- 
loponnesus, swallowed up 
by an earthquake. 

371. Battle of Lettctra. 

Alexander II. , king of Ma- 
Predominance of Thebes. 

370. Perdiccas III., king of 

364. Pelopidas killed in-battle. 

368. Battle of Maniinea, death 
of Epaminondas. 

Dbglirb op Orbcian 

360. Philip n., kin^uf Mace- 
don. defeats the Athenians 
at Methone. 

The Macedonian phalanx. 

War of th« allies against 


368. Philip takes Amphipolis 

and loses his right eye by an 

arrow from Astor. 
357. The 2d Sacred War. 
366. Philip conquers Thrace 

and Illyria. 

The Temple of Diana at 

Ephesus burnt. 


Great" bom. 

RoxB AND Italy. 

400. Siege of VeU begun. 
397. Lake Alba drained. 

3^. Camillvs, Dictator, takes 
Veil, aAer a siege of ten 

390. Rome taken and burnt by 
the Gauls, under Brermtu 
—The Capitol besieged.— 
Camillus delivers his coun- 

386. Damon and Pythiaa. 

381. M. Manlius UHpiiolinus 
thrown from the Tarpeian 

379. The Volsci defeat Om 

376. Lueiua SextuSj first ple- 
beian consul. 

Camiauat the fifth time 

371. The curtUe magistrates 

362. Curtius leaps into a gnlf 
in the Forum. 

367. Dionysius, the youngeff 
expelled from Syracuse. 

Digitized by 


TUB world's progress. 

SEVENTH PERIOD.— (TAe Grtdan.)— 

■.0. PitoaaBas of Sooutt, xto- 




Aristotle, the logician and phi- 
losopher, founder of the Pe^ 
ripaietice; jEachinetf on- 

Demosthenea ; Icetaty of Sjrs 

The Lyceum built in Attica. 

Tub Jbws. 



Alexander sparea the houee of 

The revolution of eclipses &nt 

calculated by Calippu8,the 


Caustic painting or the art 
of bumtn^ colors into toood 
or ivory, invented by Oau- 
aiaa, a painter of Sicyon. 

The voyage of Nearchua (rom 

the Indue to the Euphrates. 
Apellesj the painter; Calis- 

thenea, philosopher. 
Menander, the inventor of the 

new comedy. 
Lysistratus mventa moulds 

from which to cast wax 


First work on mechanics, writ- 
ten by Aristotle. — i>tvtn^ 
Btil first mentioned. 

Alexander enters Jenisa- 
lem.~On seeing Jaddu8,-thc 
High Priest, clad in his 
robes, he declares he had 
seen him in a vision, invit- 
ing him to Asia, and pro- 
mising him the Persian em- 
pire. He goes to the Tem- 
ple, oflers sacrifices to Jeho- 
vah, and departs. 


320. Ptolemy carries 100,000 
Jews into Bypt. 
Onias I. 

336. Mithridates U., ku^ ol 

334. Battle of the Granieua. 
333. Battle of /««u«.—Parthia, 

Baciria, Hvrcania,Sogdiana, 

and Asia Minor, conquered 

by Alexander. 
332. Tyre subdued ailer aeren 

moriihs' siege. 

Damascus taken. — Gaza 

331. BalOe of Arbela.^Th» 

Persian army totally defeat- 

330. CONQUEST of the PER- 

329. Thalestrli, queen of the 
Amazons, visits Alexander, 
with a train of 300 women. 
& Alexander extends his 
conauest to the Ganges. 
!3. Alexander dies at Batnf- 

322. Peidiccaa takes Capfa* 

320. Eumenei Jefoatadbyi 

Digitized by 




184 years. — Alexander to the Fall of Greece. 


Grbbcb— Macbdon. 



Darius Ochiu conqnen Egypt, 
and pillages its temples. 


The Carthaginians defeated by 

Emc conquered by Alexan- 
Alexandria boilL 

Ptolemy L (Soter, son of I<a- 

363. The Phocians defeated by 

3ia End of the Sacred War. 
Philip takes Olynthus. 

346. Philip admiued to the 
Amphictyonic Council. 

346. Duras buried by an earth' 

343. Thrace tributary to Mace- 

Aristotle appointed tutor 
to Alexander. 

341. Philip makes war upon 
Athens. • 

340. —lays siege to Byzantium. 

Timoleon recovers Syra. 

cuse, expels Dionysius, the 

tyrant, and defeats the Car- 

inafinians at Agrisentum. 

338. Philip defeats the Greeks 
at Cheronea. 

K. Philip is murdered by 

ALEXANDER in., sur- 
named the Great.— He rava- 
ges Greece, destroys Thebes, 
sparing the house of Pindar. 

336. —is chosen generalissimo 
of Greece against Persia. 

334. — inraides Persia, and after 
several great battles (see 
"ilsf'a") subdues the Per- 
sian empire and Egypt, and 
marches into India. 

330. JBschhies, the omtor, 

325. Demosthenes banished. 

323. Dtath of Alexander.— 
The Grecian cities revolt 
from Macedon.— Demosthe- 
nes recalled. 

322. The Greeks defeated by 
sea and land near Cranon. 
Death of Demoalhene: 

321. Aniipaier, regenL 

319. Polysperchon succeeds 
Antipaier, and proclaims 
Ifberty to the Grecian ciiies- 

364. Dion put to death, and 
Syracuse usurped by ty* 

346. Twelve cities io Cainpft- 
nia buried by an eanhquake. 

343. Samnian War, whidi con- 
tinues 63 years. 

340. P. Decius tie votes him* 
seir for his country. 

All Campania JB subdued. 

32. The Caledonian mo- 
narchy (Scotland) founded 
by Fergus L 

326. Papirius Cursor, Dictator. 

321. The Samnltea make tho 
Romanspass under the yoke. 

320. The Samniiea defeated ai 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

The Seventh Period.-^The Grecian.)^ 

m. 0. Peoobbss ov Socibty, btc 








Commerce of Maeedon with 
India, through Egypu 

The Appicm Way constructed. 
— The Gnomon invented to 
measure altitudes. 

Aqueduett and batfa in Rom*. 

Euclid^ of Alexandria, the 
celebrated mathematician. ~ 
Zetto, founder of the Sfoies ; 
—PyrrhOy of the Skeptict ; 
Epicurus^ of the Epicu- 
reana.—Bion, of Oorysthe- 
nes, philosopher. 

The great Chinese Wall builL 

The first tun-dial erected at 
Rome by Papirius Cursor, 
and the time first divided 
into hours. 

Fabius mtroducos pamfm^ at 

The Colosstu of RJiodee 
built by Chares, of Lindus. 

Theocritea^ the father of pas- 
toral poetry. 

Dionyxius, the astronomer at 
Alexandria, begins his era. 
He found the ralar year to 
consist of 363 days, 5 hours, 
and 49 minutes. 

The Septuagint translation of 
the Old Testament, begun at 
Alcxan<lria, by order of Pto- 
lemy Philadelphua. 

Thb Jbwb. 

311. Judea subject to A£.ugo> 


301. Judea under the domi- 
nion of the Ptolemies. 

281 The sect of the Saddueeee. 


312. SVRIA. Seleucus, Nicator. 

311. Seleucus Nicator retakes 


Era of the SeUueidtB. 
310. Eumries usurps the 

throne ufBoophorus, putting 

to death all his brotliera. 

After a reign of six years, is 


305. War in India, against 

301. BatOe of JpettM.—Antlgch 
nus killed. 

parts. — Puilemy, Seleucus, 
CaA.«ander. Lysimachus. 

Miihridates III., king of 

291. Seleucus founds Antioeb, 
Edessa, and Laodicea. 

295. The Scythians hcnA% 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 


184 years. — (Continued.) 



Apaibocles is defeated by the 

Peace between Sicily and Car- 

31S. Fhncion put (o death by 
the Aiheniiins. 

317. Cassander assumes 
the government of Macedon. 
Demetrius Phalerius gov- 
erns Athens. 

315. Cassandcr rebuilds Thebea, 
and founds CaaaandTia. 

312. Epirus: P y r r h u s 11., 
the greatest hero of his time. 


317. Syracuse ond Sicily ostip' 
ed by Agathocles. 

312. War with the EtnucaM. 

310. The Carthaginians defeat 
Agathocles, and besiege Sy- 

30a Fabius Mazimus 
defeats the Samnites. 

306. Democracy established at 
Athens by Demetrius. 

304. Athenians repulsed from 

303. Demetrius Poiiorcetea. 
general of the Grecian States. 

300. Restoration of Democracy 

at Athens. 

291. Death of Cassander.— 
Alexander and Antipater 

296. Sieze of Athens, by De- 

294. Demetrius raurdeni Alex- 
ander, and seizes the throne 
of Macedon. 

287. Athens revolts from De- 

286. Pyrrhufl expelled from 

284. The Achttan Republic. 

Rome, etc. 

303. Establishment of 
Tribua Urbanca. 


300. First Plebeian High Priest. 

290. EndoftheSamnitaWar. 

!B6. Law of ITnrtensius, by 
which the decrees of the 
people had the force of thosa 
of the senate. 

Digitized by 




T/ie Seventh Feriod,--^The Grecian.}-* 








The Phartm built at Alexan- 
dria, the first light-house on 

Philetanie, of Pergamus, pa- 
tron of the artB, especially 

Alexandria^ the resort of the 
learned, and centre of trade. 

Chariotfl armed with acytha^ 
Kaa fortified campa^ in use, 

First society of critic* formed. 

Ptolemy makes a ytnal from 

the Nile to the Red Sna. 
Silver ra^pey first coined. 

The Parian Chronicle com- 

Gladiators first exhibited at 

BerosiUf the historian of Ba- 

The armillary sphere invented 
by Eraatoathenes, who made 
the first attempt to determine 
the length of a degree. 

Qreece instructs the Romans 
in the arts and sciences. 

24a Oiiias]I..highprie«t 


282. The Icingddm of PER- 
OAMUS founded by Philo- 

281. Lysimachus defeated and 
killed by Seleucus.— Antio> 
chuB Soter succeeds Sateu* 

266. Ariobarzanes III., king W 

262. Antiochus Soter defea(«d 

256. Kingdom of PARTIIIA 

founded by Arsaces. 
255. The fourth imperial dy* 

nasty of Ciiina begins. 

252. Mithridates IV., besieged 
in his capital by the Gauu. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 


184 years. — ^Continued.) 




Ptolemy Philadelphua king of 


EgTpt first 

aeadfl ambaasadon 

Romulus invades Africa, and is 
defeated by Xantippiu, a 
Spartan geneiul. 

MeteUw deleata AsdrubaL 


283. Lysimachia destroyed by 
an earthquake. 

281. Lysimachus defeated and 
slain by Seleucus. 

The Achroan League of 
12 states, iinder Araius, of 

279. Irmiption of the Gauls 

under Brennus. 
278. — they are defeated near 

277. Aniigonus Gonatus, king 

of Macedon. 

274. Prrrlius invades Mace 
don, defeats Antigen us, and 
is proclaimed king. 

27Z Pyrrhus besieges Sparta 
and Argos— is slain, ana An- 
tigonus is restored. 

268. Athens taken by Antigo- 
nus Gonatus. 

Second incurdon of the 
Gauls into Macedon. 

255. Antigonus liberates 

Athens joins the Achaean 

251. Sicyon joins the Adiaan 

250. The Romans begin to re- 
sort to Greece for improve- 
ment in knowledge. — Par- 
thia revolts lirom Macedon. 

Rome, bto. 

283. The Gault and 
nana subdued. 


28L The Tarentine War. 

280. The Tarentines seek the 
alliance of Pyrrhus, who 
conquers the Romans at 
Pandoeia, and at 

279 — Asculum. 

278. Sicily conquered by Pyrr- 

276. Curius defeats Pyrrhus, 
and compels him to leavo 

2ri. Fall of TarentuDL 

266. Rome mistress of all Italy : 
census of the city 292 224. 

264. The first PUNIC WAR. 

— Appius Claudius drives 

Hiero from Syracuse. 
2G0. D u i 1 1 u 8 gains a vie- 

tory over the Cartiutgiaiaa 


256. R e g u I u s gains ano- 
ther victory. 

255. The Lacedemonians as. 
sisting Carthase. — Xajiiip- 
pus Ue feats Kegulua, and 
takes him prisoner. 

254. Palermo besieged by the 
Romans. — About this time 
the Huns are firbt heard olj 
governed by Teuman. 

219. Naval fight at Drapanum. 

Digitized by 




The Seventh Period, — (The Gredan.y^ 

•. PBoansss OF Society, xtc. 




Agrarianism attempted in 
Sparta, but is put down. 

Comedies lint acted at Rome, 
those o(Liviu9 Andronictu. 

The orifinal MSS. of JEtcky- 
lusj EttripideB and Sopho- 
ctea, lent by the Athenians 
to Ptolemy, on a pledge of 16 

Tax Jbws. 

Simon IL, High PileK. 

Fytbius PietoTj the first Roman 

AfMoUonius Rhoditu^ poet.— 
Chrysippus, Stoic philoso- 

Archimedetj the ntathemati- 
c>a», (lemonsi rates the pro- 
perties of the lever, and 
other mechanical powers, 
also the art t-f measuring 
solids and surfaces.aml conic 
sections— constructs apUme- 

The art of Surrery mtrmluced. 
An eclipse of the moon ob- 
serveA In A^i^ Minor. 


216. Antiochus n. poisoned by 
hia wife. 

211. Attalua I., king of Pttig*. 

226. Seleucua IIL, k. of Syna. 

224. The Colossus of Rhodei 
thrown down. 

213. Chi HoTff Ti destroys tht 
records of the Chinese em> 

211. AntiochuB the 
Great, king of Syna. 

Digitized by 


THE world's PROOREdi. 


184 years. — (Continued.) 







QamiTcar Barcas, general of 

ihe CArthaginiana. 
Ptolemy Eurgetes subdues Sy- 

End of the Libyan War. 
Ilamiloar with Hannibal, p 
ea into Spain. 

Canhagena in Spain, built by 

Ptolemr Philopater, king of 

Conquests of Hannibal, 
the Carthaginian, in Spain ; 
Be croMes tlie Alps. 


213. Corinth taken by Aratus. 

212. Demetrius II., of Mace- 

241. Agis, king of Sparta, put 
to death for attempting to es* 
ubiish an Agrarian law. 

240. Cleanihus, the Stoic, 
starves liimaelf. 

232. Philip III., of Macedon. 

228. Roman ambassadors first 
appear at Athens and Co- 

The fortress of the Aihe- 
nsum built. 

226. Cleomenes, king of Spar- 
ta, defeats the AchcBaiis.— 
Lyscades killed.— The Agra- 
rian law restored. 

225. The Romans send another 
embassy to Greece. They 
are admitted to a share in 
the Isthmian games, and 
granted the freedom or Ath- 

223. Cleoroenes takes Megalo- 
22^ Battle of Sellasia. 

22U. TheSocialWar. 
—Philip, of Macedon, as- 
sists the Achaeans.— Cleome- 
nes dies in EyypL— Agesi- 
polls and Lycurgus elected 
kings of Sparta. 

218. Acanania ceded to Philip. 

215. Aratus poisoned at 

214. First Macedonian War. 

211. Alliance of Philip with 

247. Hamilcar defeats the Ro* 
mans at Lilibceum. 

241. End of the flrvt Ptmie 

231. Sardinia and Oorsieae 
quered by Roma. 


22.'). The Gauls repulsed In 

224. The Romans first croos 

the Po, 
223. Colonies of P I a c e n • 

t i a and Cremona. 
222. Insubria (Milan) and Ligu* 

ria (Genoa) conquered by 


219. Hannibal takes Sagun> 
tum, and crosses the Alps. 

218. The Second Punic 
War .—The Romnn«» de- 
feated by Hannibal at T i • 
c 1 n i s and T r e b i a . 

217. F 1 a m i n i u s defeated 
at Thrasymene. 

216. Vnrm at C a n n n to* 
totally defeated by Haimibftl. 
Fabius Maximus, 

212. Syracuse and Siciiv con- 
quered by Marcellus. 
—Archimedes killed. 

21 1 . The Cartha ginians drirea 
from Capua. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

Tlte Seventh Fetiod.—{The Grecian.)-^ 

B.C. Proorbss or Socibtt, bto. 









EnnitUj of Calabria, poet; 
Sotioih of Alexandna. 

PUuUuty of Umbria, the co- 
mic pool; Appottoru'tiSf of 
Pcrga, mathematician I Ze> 
no, of Tarsus, the philoso- 

Gold coined at Rome. 

The art of printing in China. 

Arittonymut 4th, librarian of 

Caiua Leliua^ the Roman 


Book9^ with leaves of vellum, 
introduced by Attaluv, king 
of Pergamus, in lieu of roils. 

A total eclipms qf the «tm at 

Asiatic huntriea brought to 


A eomef risibTe 80 days. 
Bion and Moechue^ comic 

Statiue OteHitu^ comic poet. 

Tbb Jbws. 


Amtiocbdb thb Grbat. 

201. Onias III., High PriesL 

200. Jesus, the son of Sirach, 
whtee Ecdeaiaaticua. 

198. The Jews assist Antio- 
chus in expelling Scopas and 
the E^ypiian troops from 

First mention of a Senate or 


206. Thedynastyof Han la 

197. Eumenes, Icing of PergB- 

196. Hannibal joins Antlochtts, 

who seizes the Thniciaii 


192. Syria at war with Rome. 
190. Scipio Asiaticus defeats 
Antiochus at Magnesia. 

187. Antiochus killed in the 
temple of Jupiter Bclus.— 
Syria becomes a 
Roman province. 

186. The city of Artaxaia (in 
Armenia) built. 

185. Seleucus IV., king of Sy- 

133. Phamaces L, king of Pw* 
tus, conquers Si nop a. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 


184 yean. — (Continued.) 




Ptotemj Epiphanes, king of 

Tbe Roman general Scipio be- 
rieges Utlca, and takes in 
one dav the camps of Asdru- 
bal and Syphax. 

Hannibal recalled.— Sophonu- 
ba poisoned by Masinissa. 

Hannibal defeated at Zama. 
—End of ihe Sd Punic War. 

aoa Battle of Lamia, near Elis. 
—Philip, of Macedon, de- 
feats the JEtoIians. 

306. Battle of Mantiwba: 
PhilopoBmen. the Prae- 
tor of Achaia, defeats the 




Treaty of Carthage with Ma- 

simsa, king of Nuniidia. 
Egypt loses her Syrian poeses- 



210. Scipio takes Non 
Carthage, and conquers As- 

207. Nero and Liry defeat As- 
drubal at Metaurus— Aeilru- 
bal killed. 

206. The Carthaginians dnren 
out of Spain. 

201. Scipio carriea the war 
into Africa. 

201. Scipio carries Syphax fai 
triumph to Rome. 

Bfosmissa harasses the Cartha- 
ginians, and injures their 

200. The Rhodians defeat the 
Macedonian fleet near Chios. 
—Siege of Abvdos.— Second 
Macedonian War begins. 

193. The Achreans and Spar- 
tans join the Romans against 

197. Philip HI. defeated at Cy- 
nocephalas by the Romans, 
under Flaminius. 

195. Flaminius, the Roman, 

Suarrels with Nabis, king of 

189. Epirus declared free by 

the Romans. 
188. Philopcemen abrogates 

the laws of Lycurgus 



197. Flaminius victorious in 

195. Gate in Spain. 

190. War with Anilochus, of 
Syria, who is totally defeaU 
ed by L. C. Scipio, and 

188. Syria is made a Roman 

187. Scipio Africanus banish- 
ed from Rome. 

Ptolemy Philometer, king of 

183. Philopcemen defeated and 
killed by Dinocrates, king of 

183. Cato, the elder, censot 

181. Plague at Rome. 

180. Death of Scipio Afiieip 

179. Numa's books found in a 
stone coffln at Rome. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

The Seventh Period,'-(The Grecian.) — 

•.«. Pboouus of Socibtt, btc. 







Paper invented In China. 

Potybiusj historian of Greece 
and Rome. 

The comedies of Terence per* 

An ecli|>se of the moon, which 
was predicted by Q.. S Gal* 

The firat library opened at 
Rome, consisting of books 
bmughi from Macedon. 

The Roman treasury is so rich 
that the citizens pay no 

Bipparchut of Nice fixes the 
first degree of longitude and 
latitude at Ferro, whose 
moAt western point was 
made the first general meri- 
dian^lays the foundation of 

Philonophers and rhetoricians 
banished from Rome. 

The depmdra or teater dock 
invented by Sdpio Nascia. 

Bipparchtu^ of Rhodes, astro- 
nomer. — Arittarehu9y of 
Alexandria, grammarian. 

Thb Jews. 

176. Heliodorus in Jerusalem. 

176. Jason obtains the high 

priesthood by corruption. 

172. Jason defeated by Mene- 

170. Jerusalem and the temple 
plundered by Aniiochus 
Epiphanes, who attempts to 
abolish the Jewish religion, 
and commits great cruelties. 

167. Mauhias, Uigh Priest 

165. JtTDAS Maccabbus ex- 
pels the Syrians, and puri- 
nes the temple. 

161. Judas kills Nicanor->Is 
succeeded by Jonathan. 

First treaty with the Ro- 

156L Jonathan compels the Bac- 
chides to withdnw— is mur- 
dered by Txyphon. 

160. Jews take Joppa. 

172. Antiochos IV. (Epipha- 
nes) king of Syria. 

171 --decla«» war against Pto- 
lemy Philomater. 

170. An irruption of Tartars 
into China. 

166. Pruaias, kirg of I Ithyaia. 

164. Antiochus Epiphanes 

lG-2. Demetritis Soter, king of 


Mithridates Phllopater, 

king of Cappadocia. 

157. Mithridates V., king of. 

163. Ariarathes VIL, king ai 

160. Alexander Bala kills De- 
meirius,and takes the thi one. 

U9. Pni8iaB,of Bithynia, kill- 
ed by his son Nicomedas. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 

184 fears. — (Continued.) 






Ca'.7 »emba8B7 to Carthage. 

MaffiinfaBtt defeats the Cartha- 

Joint reign of Fhilomater and 

Physcon in Egypt. 




ITS. Perseus, king of Mace- 

171. Third Macedonian War. 

1^ Perseus defeated at Pyd- 
na, by Paulus Emilius — 

MAN Provimcb. 

165. Romans enter Achala. 

155. Embassy of Diogenes, 
Camiades, and Critolaus to 

152. Andriscus usurping the 
government of Macedon, is 
conquered by Metellus. 

147. Metellus defeats theAch- 
sans in Greece. 

148. Corinth taken and de- 
stroyed* by Mummius. — 
GREECE becomes a RO- 
the name of Achaia. 

Rome, etc. 

170. Tiberius and Caias 

167. Census 327,032. 

156. Romans unsuceeasfol 

151. Defeat of Galba. 

149. Third Ptwio Wae. 

Conquest of Carthage ind 
of Corinth. 

Greece annexed to the 
Roman empire. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

EIGHTH PERIOD.— (TA^ Raman.)^ 










Alexandria^ the centre or com- 

Hipparchua begins his new 
cycle of the moon. 

Toothed wheels applied lo the 
clepsydra by Ctesibius. 

Lettmifir and learned men 
liberalfy patronized by Ptol- 
emy Physcon. 

Diodonu and Satynte^ peri- 
patetics; Nicander. physi- 
cian and poet ; Lucius Ac- 
cius., tragic poet ; Aristobw- 
lusj the Jewish peripatetic. 

Equestrian order^ a distinct 

Revival of learning in China. 

The theory of eclipses known 
to the Ciiineee. 

L. CcbUus Antipater^ histo- 
rian ; LucilliuSj the first 
Roman satirist; ApoUodo- 
msy of Athens, chronoiogist ; 
Ceutor^ of Rhodes, chrono- 
logist; Anthemonf philoso- 

First Mumptuary law at Rome. 

The Jews. 

142. Simon, High Priest. 

136. End of the Apocrypha.— 
Jerusalem besieged by An- 
liochus IV. 

130. John Hyrcanus delivers 
Judea from the Syrian yoke : 
—reduces Samaria and Idu- 

106. Hyrcanus destroys SamA- 

107. — micceeded by his son 
Aristobulusj who first as- 
sumes the uile of Icing. . 

105. Alexander Janneus at 
war with E?ypt— takes Ga- 
xa. — Rebellion excited by 
the Pharisees. 

137. Antiochus IV., (Sidetec,) 
king of Syria. 

134. Antiochus invades Judoa. 

130. Antiochus IV. defeated 

and killed ina war with Par- 

129. I>emetrius IL (Nicaior> 

regains Syria. 
123. Mithndates the Great, 

king of Pontus. 

111. Mithridates conquers 8e7- 
thia, Bosphorus, Colchi^ 

Digitized by 


THE WOULD's progress. 

146 years. — Fall of Greece to the Christian Era. 



Commerce of the world cen* 

tree at AlezandruL 
PtoIemT PhyacoD becomes 
king of Egypt by the 
of Fhilomater. 







Ptolemy Phywxm driren from 

his throne for his cruelty. 
Pestileoce in Egypt. 



Carthage rebuild 

Death of Micipsa, litng 

Numidia, and the assaaB; 

tioD of Iliempsal by Jugur- 

Ptolemy Laihyrus, king of 


Roman Empikb. 

In the Eaat. . 

In Europe, 

133. Pb&oaicvs, a Roman 

118. Dalmatia, a Roman 



Alexander I , king of Egypt 

Jugortha is defeated and sur- 
renders NttOBldia to the Ro- 

141. Numantian War. 

140. The Picis from the north 

of England settle in the south 

of Scotland. 

136. Servile ^ar in Sicily. 

133. Niiroantia destroyed by 
Scipio : Spain bbcomsb a 
Roman Provincb. 

Death of Tiberius Grao- 

123. Tribunate of Caiua 

113. Firat great migroHon ff 
the Qerman nationa. 

109. War of the Teuton! and 

105. Numidia becomea a Ro- 
lan province by the dtfeat 

of Jugurtha. 
104 The Teutoni defeat 80,000 

Romans on Uie banks of the 

102. M a r i u s victorious 

over the TeulcHU and Ambro* 

nes at Aqus Sext«. 
101. Marius and Catullus de- 
feat the Cimbri. 
100. Mariua buys his sixth eon- 


Banishment of Metallic 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

Tlie Eighth Period.-— {The RoTnan.y^ 






Libraries of Athena MOt to 
Rome by Sjlla. 

Decline of Agriculture in 
Italy; com suppUed from 
ihe provinces. 

Posidoniiu calculates the 
heisrhtof the atmosphere to 
be about BOO stadia. 

Zeno, of Sulon.the Epicurean ; 
AptUicon of Athens ; Alex- 
aruler Polyphisf or, ihe gram- 
marian I Pholius GaUua, 
rhetorician ; Q. Valerius 
Aniias, Roman historian ; 
Q. Horlenaius, orator. 

.The cherry tree brought to 
Europe from Asia by Lu- 
cuUus. — Terentius Varro 
writes three books on agri- 

The Romans possess eold 
mines in Asia Minor, Mace- 
donia, Sardinia and Gaul ; 
and productive silver mines 
in Spain. 

The first loater mill described 
near a dwelling of Mithd- 

Ebony introduced at Rome by 

Vihramaditya king of Oiene, 
iti India, patron of literature 
—at his court flourish Ame- 
ra Sinka, lexicosrrapher ; 
Varuruchi^ graminarian ; 
KalidasOf poet. 

Thb Jbws. 

79. Alexandra, widow of Jan- 
neus, governs Judoa. 

70. Hyrcanus 11., High Priest, 
deposed by his brother Aris- 

67. Aristobulus and Hyrcanus 
appeal to Pompey, who en- 
ters Judea and takes Jerusa- 
lem, and restores Hyrcanus 
to the priesthood. 



9a China still submits to tho 

II a n dynasty ; S e m a t • 

Bin, Emperor. 
97. Mithridalea conquers Cap- 

95. Cappadocia declared free 

by Rome. — Ariobarzimea 

elected king. 
91. Antiociius, king of Syria, 

defeated ly Seleucus. 
93. Tigranes, Icing of Anne- 


9. Pontus at war with Roma. 

86. Mithridates takes Bythj. 

nia and several Roman'pro- 

83. Tigranes nmde kinf of 


75. By the death of Nicome- 
des Bythinia becomes « 

70. Damascus possessed by 

the Romans. 
69. Mithridates and Tigranes 

defeated by LucuUus. 
66. Mithridates defeated bjr 


65. Antiochtis XT1. defeated 
by Pompey.— The race of 
the Seleucidra becomes ex- 
tinct — Ariobarzanes II., 
king of Cappadocia. —An 
earthquake in Boivphorus 
lays in ruins several towns 

64. Dejotarus, kins of Galatia, 
seizes Armenia Minor. 

63. Pharmaces, king of PMituSi 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 


146 years. — (Continued.) 

Bj the death of Ptolemy 
Apion, Ctrehb becomes a 
Romaa provmce. 



Rerolt ia Upper Egypt. 

Thebes de«tro3red. 
Alexander II., ung of Egypt 

Roman Empirb. 

Jn Ana and Africa. 

97. Annexation of Gyrene. 

Jn Europe. 

99. L u B i I a n i a conquered 
by Dolabella, and becomes 
a Roman province.— Binh 
of Julius Ceaar. 

89. Mitkridatie War; Sylla 
commands the Roman army. 

88. The Athenians seek as- 
sistance from Miihridates 
against Rome. 

86. Athens, reduced by famme, 
is taken by Sylla, 

83. Second Mithridatic War. 
82. Sylla plunders the temple 
of Delpni. 

79. Pompey defeata Do- 
miiius in Africa. 

75. Bythinia a Roman 

74. Thini MithridaUc War 
under LucuUus. 

Ptolemy Auletes, king of 

91. Social War in Italy. 

Sa Sylla defeating the 
Marsi and Pelimi, puis an 
end to ihe Social War. 

Civil War between Ma- 
rine and Sylla. 

82. Sylla defeats Marius, artd 
is created /je/ye/Mo/ dictator. 



66. Metellus subdues Crete. 
P n t u s becomes 

Roman Prorinco 
65. Syria, a Roman 


77. Sertorius revolts in Spain 
and defeats Metellus and 

73. War of Spartacus, the gla* 

71 . Spartacus defeated by Cras 

70. Pompey and Cras- 

Bus Consuls. 
69. Census 450,090. 

65. M. T. CicsRO, ConraL 

63. Cataline's Conspi- 
r racy detected and sup- 
I pressed bv Cicero. 

Digitized by 



TliE world's progress. 

Tiie EigJuh Period.-^The Roman,) — 




Magnificent hmtsea of the 
nobles; marble theatre of 
Scaunts^ to hold 30,000 spec- 

Cicero, statesman and orator ; 
SaUuMtj historian; Lucre- 
tiua and CatuUua^ poets; 
ApoUoniua^ of Rhodes, rhe- 
torician ; ArietomedeSf of 
Crete, grammarian ; Andro- 
nicuc, of Rhodes, peripate- 
tic philosopher. 

Iron chain ealtiet uwd bj the 

A water mill on th« Tiber at 

The Alexandrian library (400,- 
000 vols.) burnt. 

The year of confusion — so 
called becauM the calendar 
was altered by Soeigenee. 

Casar reforms the Caiendar^ 
by introducing the solar in- 
stead of the lunar year- 
First Julian year. — Vitru- 
viua. the greatest Roman ar- 

Oomeliua A>po«, historian; 
DiodoTua SiculiUj hislo- 

Thb jBwa. 

53. Craasusplunders the tem- 
ple of 10,000 lalenta. 

48. Antinaier, the Idumean, is 
made lieutenant in Judea by 

43. Judea oppressed by Cras- 

Malichus poisons Anti- 

40. Herod the Greatj son of 
Antipater, defeats his rival, 
Antiffonus, and Parcorus, 
the Parthian— lakes Jerusa- 
lem—marries Mariamne— i? 
made king by the Romans. 


53. Parthian War.— The 
mans defeated. — Ci 


49. TheeraofAntioelL 

47. Battle of Zela. 
conquered by 

44. A comet seen in China. 

39. The Parthians, under Par- 
corns, defeated by Venii- 
- Darius, king of Pontus. 

38. A riobarzanes dethroned ky 
Marc Antooy. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 

146 years. — (Continued.) 



Roman Emviab. 


Ptolemy goes to Rome, Bere- 
nice reigne in hie abeence. 

3. Craasue defeated aad killed 

The African War. — Sclpio 
•xm' Juba defeated at Thap- 
BU6 — Cato kills himself at 
Utica. — Ptolemv Dionysius 
drowned in the Kile. 

Cesar rebuilda Carthage. 

Cleopatra poisons her brother 
ana reigns alone 

48. ThessalTbecomes the seat 
of war.— The Athenians de- 
clare for Caasar against Pom- 

BattU of Phar8alia:—Yom- 
ey, defeated by Cnsar, flees 
ito Egypt, and is slain there. 

47. Cnsar takes Alexandria, 
and conquers Egypt.— Cfl&> 
sar victorious at Zela, in 

45. Corinth rebuilt by Cesar. 




60. FiTBt TriumviratB :-' 
Pompey,Craa8us, and Julius 

Sciold, first king of Drn- 
mark. — Boh, a fierce son 
of Odin. 

58. Clodius procures the ban 
ishment of Cicero. — The 
Ilelvetii defeated by Julius 

57. Cicero recalleo. — S a 1 - 
lust expelled from the 
senate.— Gylf, king of Swe- 

55. Cesar passes the 
Rhine, defeats the Oei- 
mans and Gauls, and In 
VADBS Britain. 

64. Cesar's second invasioD 
of Britain. 

62. Poropey, sole consul. 

51. Cesar completes the con- 
quest of Gcmlt which Vie- 
comes a Roman province. 

49. Cesar passes the 
Rubicon, and in sixty 
days makes himself master 
of Italy— marches into Spain 
and forces Pompey's troops 
to surrender. 

48. Battle of Dyrrhachlum. 

45. Cesar perpetual 
dictator — he subdues 
the two sons of Pompey, and 
acquires the sole power. 

44. Cesar aasaasinated in the 
Senate House. 

43. Second 7'riumrirate ;— 
Octavius Cesar, Marc An- 
tony, and Lepidus.— Cicero 
proscribed and murdered. 

42. The Battle of Philippi :— 
Antony and Octavius defeat 
Brutus and Cassiua. 

Digitized by 




The EigJUh Feriod.--{The Raman.) — 

■. o. Proqrsss of Soctbtv, bto. 



Golden age of Roman litera- 

Tlie rerenue of the empire 
amounts to about 40 millions 
sterling.— FiraUv/aTuiirij- ar- 
my in Rome.— Direct trade 
of Rome with India..— Siik 
and linen manu/actoriea 
in the empire. 

Temple of Janus at Rome 
cliised— there being now a 
general peace. 

Treasures of Bgyptian art 
brought to Rome.— The Pan- 
theon builL 

Horace, Viroil, TibuUiu^ 
Proper tilts, poets; Varrug 
and Tucca, criiics; Livy, 
historian ; Morenos, minis- 
ter of Augustus, patron of 
literature: Strabo, geogra- 
pher; JEmilius Macer, of 
Verona, poet ; Agrippa, war- 
rior, and patron of the arts. 

Worship oj Isis at Rome. 

Pantomimic dances intro- 
duced on the Roman stage. 

constructed by 



Dedications of b-xiks first in- 

The legicms distributed over 
the provinces in fixed camps, 
which soon grew into cities 
— among them were Bonn 
and Mayence. 

The calendar corrected by 

DionysiuSj of HaiicamassuSy 

historian; and Dionyaius, 

Tub Jbw8. 

30. Herod kilUr Marianmo. 

29. Ephesus, next to 
Alexandria, tlie chief tilaee 
of trade in the Roman eiB> 

19. The Temple rebuilt by 
Herod— he also builds Cy- 
pron, Antipairis, Pharsaelis, 
and the tuVer of Phasffl in 

5. Cyreniua taxes Judea. 


I fore the Vulgar Era. 
J3. Archelaus succeeds Herod 
with the title of Ethnarch. 

34. Antony Ukes poaaarioo 
of Armenia, which become* 
a Roman province — leads 
an inglorious expeditioo 
against Parthia. 

20. Porus, king of India, soli- 
cits an alliance with Rome. 
Parthians defeated by Ti- 

14. Polemon conquers Bom 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 


146 years. — (Continued.) 

Clcot »tra obtains from An- 
tony a grant of Phoenicia, 
Cyrene and Cyprus. 

—receives all Asia from the 
Mcdiierranean lo the Indus. 

Cleopatra and Marc Antony 
defeated by Octaviua, at 

Alexandria tekenby Octarius. 
—Antony and Cleopatra de- 
stroy themselves. 

Egypt becomes \ Ro- 
man proviace 


Roman Empirb. 



36. Sextus Pompey defeated 
in Sicily. 

32. Antony quarrels with Oc- 

31. By the BATTLE OF AC 

TIUM Ociavius acquires 

the empire. 


29. Octa>itA 88 days triumph 
at Kume. 

Temple qfJantu ahut. 
Rome contains 4,101,017 
27. The titles of Augustus and 
Emperor conferred on Octa- 
vlus for 10 years. 

23. Agrippa in Spain. 

21. Athens finally subjected to 

20. CXCth Olympiad. 

& Tiberius at Rhodes. 

6. d. Varnn appointed gov- 
ernor of Syria, and Cyre- 
nius governor of Judea. 

22. Conspiracy of Murana. 

21. Augustus visits Greece 
and Asia. 

16. Lollius defeated by the 

15. Caniabria, Austria, Rhoe- 
bia, Vindelencia and Mcesia 
become Roman provinces- 
being conquered by Dru- 


13. Aueustufl assumes the 
title of Pontifex Maximus. 

12. Pannonia, conquered by 
Tiberius, becomes a Ro- 
man province. 

11. Germany subdued r-v Ger 

4. CymbelioeiUngofBritataL 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



PAKT n. 



Epochas or Periods. 

IPeri ^ 

to the R«ign of CoDBtaniine the Great, A. D. 306 ) Chri»tian§. 

. From the Christian Em I Period of the Ten Pereeeuiiom •/ 

" Extinctioo of the Weetem Empire, «* 476^ ** Northern Invaeione. 

™' « Flight of Mahomet, « (SS^ " Ji«aW«n and BeZMorfK* 

Crowning of Charlemagne at Rome, « 800 ( ** ^^oeen^^P^^ 

BatUeofHaatinge, «• 1066$ " New Weatem Emptre, 

Poimdmg of the Turltiah Empire, « 1299S " The Oruaadee. 

Taking of Conslanilnople, « 1463^ " Tamerlane, Wicklife, and BmB. 

vm. } w Tfte Reformation; Diseoveriee 

** Edict of Nantes, « 1598 { and Jnventiona. 

DL I u 7^ English Commtomtealth 

« Deathof Charles Xn. of Sweden, « 17181 and Wars of Louie XIV. 

X ? ** ilmerfcan and French Reveh^ 



BatUa of Wateiloo, « 1816 ( ifone. 

imsent time . 086(1) ( " Tm^emd The' Arts. " 

n. _^ I *» European RevolutUme Li'f era- 

Digitized by 


48 THE world's progress. 




GstoiM, the physician ; Phadnu, the fabu- 
list; Vaitua Paterculu9t Roman histo- 


The BIRTH OF CHRIST :-(see p. 44.) 
Herod Aniipas being at this time tetnieh 
of Galilee. 

8. Christ reasons with the doccon. 

The Druidt in Germany. 

PhUo^ Alexandrian Jew, disciple of Plato. 
SenecOf moral philosopher. 

Vakritu Maximua^ historian. 

Appion, of Alexandria, crammarian, called 

Ippion, or Alexandria, ftamm 
the "Trumpet of the World." 

A census being taken by Claudius, the em- 
peror and censor, the mhabitants of Rome 
are found to amount to 6,900^000.— ( ?7niT>. 
Hiat.}—[Mon than three times the number 
tff London at present.] 

Columella, bom in Spam; left twelve books 
on husbandry. 

25. P<mtiu9 Pilate, governor of Judea. 

26. John the Baptist begins Ms ministry. 

27. Christ bapUzed by Ju>m 

23. —At the marriage in Cana. — Matthew 

29. Twelve disciples sent abroad, "two and 

day, April 3^ at 3 P. M. ; Resurrection, 
Sunday, April 6; Ascension^ Thunday, 
May 4. 

33. St. Peter baptises Cornelius. 

ai. St. Paul converted to Christianity. 

39. St. Matthew writes his gospel. 

40. The disciples first called Chrietiana at 

41. Herod's persecution ; Sl Peter imprisoned 

44. St. Mark writes his gospel.— Death of 
St. James. 

45. Barnabas and Paul preach in Cyprus. 

50 Paul preaches in the Areopagus, at Athens. 
62. Council of the AposUes at Jorusalem. 

66. Paul preaches at Ephesus, and at Cm»* 


67. —pleads before Feliz. 

69. —pleads before Festus, and appeals to 

Digitized by 




806 yean.-^ProTH the Christian Era to the reign of Constantine, 

Roman Empiab. 

Gaios Caoar makes peace with the Parthiana. 

17 Qtrmanicua eonqueri Cappadoda. 
19 Oennanicus poisoned at Antioch. 

TliTace beeoiaea a Roman prorioce. 


Tiberius retuma to Rome. 

3. Cfnna's conspiracy detected. 

— Caius Caesar dies. 
6. Q. Varrus encamped on the Weser, gov- 
erns Lower Germany like a Roman pro* 

9. The Germans, under Arminitu, defeat and 
kill Varrus. 
Ovid ia banished to Tomos. 
14 Augustus dies ai Nola, aged 76, and is 
succeeded by 



33. Conquest of Mauritania. 
S7. Tiberius dies, aged 78. 

■Caligula, W- 

(noted for his profligacy and follj.) 
41. Caligula assassinated by Chereas. 

19. The Jews banished from Rome.— Tha 

Marcomanni conquered by Drusus.. 
21. The theatre of Pompey destroyed by fira. 

26. Tiberius retires to Caprsa. 

31. Sejanus disgraced and put to death. 

- Claudius 

succeeds to the thivne. 
43. —invades Britain with his general, Plav 

45. Vespasian, general in Britain. 
4& Census of the city, 6,900,000. 

51. Caractacus, the chief of the Britons, con- 
quered and brought to Rome. 

61 N e r ,^ 

a profligate and bloody tyrant 
66. —poisons Briianicus. 
66. RoitordamXiynli. 

69. Nero's mother, Agrippina, put to 
his order. 

Digitized by 




[Modem : Period J. — 306 years. 







Proorbss of Socibty, bto. 

J^ero's golden palace built ; of great extent, 
inclosing fields, ^Icc. The buildings in 
Rome more regular after the fire. 

Pliny, the elder, author of the first natural 
history ; Quintiua Curtius, historian ; Per- 
siusj satirist. 

jMspkuSj the Jewish historian. 

The Coliteum of Vespasian. 

The Capitol rebuilt 
Circunmavigation of Scotland. 
Destruciiou of Herculaneum and Pomprii. 

Ver^ beautiful paintings in the Baths of 
Titus ; the group of the Laocoon. 

QufntiUian^ orator ; Valerius Flaccus, poet ; 
Martial, Epigrammatist; ApoUonius, Py- 
thagorean philosopher; Eptctetus, stoic; 
Dio Chrysostom, Greek rhetorician and phi- 
losopher ; Philo ByHius ; Ignatius and Pa- 
pias, two of the fathers of the church. 

Tacitus, historian; Juvenal, satirist; Sta- 
tius, poet; Aid, Geliius, Latin gramma- 
rian ; Plutarch, moralist and biographer ; 
the younger Pliny. 

The Ulpian library; Public schools in all 
the provinces; Jurisprudence flourishes; 
.the city adorned with the Forum; Pillar 
of TrajaTiy and baths ; bridge built oyer 
the Danube. 

Sacrbo and Ecclbbiabtical. 

69. Paul is shipwrecked on the Island of 

Melita (Malta). 
60. Paul imprisoned at Rome 

63. Paul set at liberty. 

64. The first persecution of Christians by 

63 to 66. Paul visits Jerusalem, and trarala 
through the greater part of the Icnowa 

66. Pope Linus.* • 

The Jews at war with the RomaD8,and 
Paul beheaded. 
St. Peter crucified. 

67. The Jews mas.>qtcred by Florus.— Josephos. 
governor of Galilee. 

Pope St. Clemenu — Gamaliel 

68. Veiiipasian invades Judea. 

70. The destruction of Jertisaiem^by TKhm. 

77. Pope St. Cletus 

83. Pope AnacletoB. 

95. Second persecution of the ChriadMn by 

St. John writes his Ooepe! and Apoca* 
lypse, and is banished to the isle of Paimoe. 

96. Pope Evaristus. 

97. 7*tmo/Ay stoned. 
St. John returns from exile. 

98. Christian assemblies prohibited by Trajan. 

*The word Pope is used in acconlanee 
with the Roman Catholic usaKe,thouKh tha 
name was not adopted by their PoiiiiA tUi 
several centuries after. 

Digitized by 


— Christian Eira to ConslaTUine.] 




ROUAN Empikb. 



Coztoli subdues Armenia. 

Tiridates placed on the tbnme of Armenia by 


reigns 9 months, and is put to death hj 
69. : — q I h o , W- 

Judea subdued and Jerusalem destroyed by 

Vespasian conquers Lycia, Rhodes, Thrace, 

Chlicia. Byzantium and Samoe. 
RevoU ol the Farihians. 


77. A 



61. Revolt of the Britons under queen Bot^ 
dicea ; they burn London. The queen, de> 
feated by Huetoniuay poiiMns herself. 

64. Nero seta Hume on fire, and accuses tlM 
Chrisiians of the crime. 

—persecutes the Christians— iSieneea, lAh 
ctatiy and others put to death. 

• G a 1 b a , 


(2 months) defeated and Icilled by 


who is defeated by the urmy of 
— Vespasian, ^g 


Lt plague at Rome, 10,000 dying in 



HeretUaneum and Pompeii destroyed 
by an irruption of Vesitvius. 
80. Julius AgrieoUi, conqueror and governor 
of BriUiin, reduces Wales, enters Caledonia. 


-Dom 1 tian,f||f 
( a cruel tyrant.) 

86. Dercebal, leader of the German hordes, 
defeats Domitian, and compels him to pay a 
yearly tribute. 

88. Capitoline and secular games. 
War with Dacia 15 years. 

96. Domitian put to death by Slephantn. 

Nerr a, 

(well intentioned but enfeebled by age.) 


-TraJ an, 

(a «real sovereign anna warrior.) 
The Roman Empire at its greatest exienu 
J. Severutf general in Britain. 

Digitized by 



i.D. PaooREas OP Socibty. etc. 

[Modern : Period 7—306 years. 




3 6 


The first credible kietorian among the 

The great buildings of Palmyra.— Temple qf 

the Sun at Baalbec. 
The Roman mosaics. 

Jurisprudence improved by the publishraenl 
of Adrian's perj)etual code. 

Ptolemy, ihe celebraied Egyptian astronomer 
and geographer —Arridn, Appian, Maxi- 
mus, Lysius and Pausanius, Greek histo 
rians ; Lttcian, a satirical writer ; Hermo- 
genes, rhetorician of Tarsus. 

Tschang Heng, the Chinese astronomer 

Oalenj Greek physician ; Athzneus, a gram- 
marian ; Diogenes Laertius^ Greek histo- 

The e^ueafrian statue of Mareus Aurelius. 


100. St. John dies at EphesuSf at. 91 

107. Third persecution of the Christiana by 

10?'. St. Ignatius devoured by wild beasts. 
Pope Alexander I. 

118. Fourth persecution of the Christiars by 

119. Pope Sixtus I. 

126. Quadratus, bishop of Athens. 

127. Pope Telesphorus. 

130. Heresy of Prodicus, chief of the 

1^. Heresy of Marcion, who acknowledges 

three Gods. 
135. Polycarp and Aristidesy Christian fathera. 

139. Pope Hygenua. 

142. Pope Pius I. 

Heresy of Valentine. 

1!30. Pope Anicetus. 

Canon of Scripture fixed fcbout this tinae. 

l&l. Justin Martyr publishes his apology for 
the Christians. 

162. PopeSoler. 

167. Polycarp and Pionices martyred in i 

171. Pope Eleutherus. 
177. The Christians persecuted at Lyta 
Theophilus^ Taiian, and Montonaa. 

185. Pope Victor 1. 
St IrenMta. 

Digitized by 


--CkriUtan^ Era to Ctmstantine.] THE world's progress. 





KuuAN Empire. 


Pliny, proconsul in Biihjnia, sends Trajan his 
fcccoum ol the Christians.— Great victories 
of Trajan. 

Trajan's expcdiUon against the Parihiaxus. 

1 16 1 Seisure of Ct«siphon. 

117 Armenia Major again governed by its own 
I kings dependent upon Rome. 





100. The Huns emigrate westwar 1. 

101. Trajan reduces Oacia. 

115. Massacre of the Greeks and Romani bv 
the Jews of Gyrene. ' 



Nicomedia and other cities destroyed bv an ton «.-i,« 
earthquake. "wwoyea oy an 20. —makes s progress through nil the 

1^1. provinces -visiw Br/tain. builds there 
a wall from the Tyne to Solway Friih.— A 
Adrian in Asia Minor for seven yeare. ^*^' '^""' ^^^ ***® ^^^^^ ^^ ^^« Danube. 

Adrian rebuilds Jerusalem, und^r the name of 

A.!ia Capuolina, and erects there a temple 

to Jupiter. ^ 

The rebcUion of the Jews crushed after a war 

J* fi^« y«a"---The Jews banished from 

139.-— Antoninus Pius, W - 

i$n"J"^?* ^°^ ^'^ virtues and love oi peace.) 
140. I-olliiis Urbicus extends the Roman do- 
mmion in Britain, and erects a second ram- 
part, called the Wall of Anioninua. 

and DadaT ^""^"^"^ '^^ ^^"^"^ O^rn^^nn, 
14^ —introduces the worship of gerapis into 

162. —stops the persecution of the Christiana 

Enuttssy aent by Antoninus to China. 

War with the Parthians, lasts 3 yean. 

I61.-Marcus A u re li u s, W (An»^ 
(I he stoic philosopher.) 
ICQ ^'f^P^ "^ ihe thundering legion. 

168. Plague over the whole known world. 

169. The Marcomanni at war with Roma. 

^^eeded'bT^*"*' ^^" " ^^^^^^ 


(profligate ami cruel ;) makes peace 
^_ with (he Germans. 

GOTirS in Dacia. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Modem : Period /.— 806 yean. 

I'uoGRHss OF Society, etc. 






Paptnian. the greatest civil lawyer of axk'A- 
quliy—JtUitts A/riccmuSf chronologer. 

Camealla crrants the right of Roman ciiiren- 
ship to all the provinces, iliat thejr may be- 
come liable to the taxes, inheritance*^ dec 


i97. Pope Zephyrinus. 

202. Fifth persecution of the Christians i 
Severiis.— Tfer/M/Zian, an able defender ol 
Christianity.— C/em«n«, of Alexandria, and 
Mitiulius Felix y C. F.* 

Ammoniue^ founder of a new school of Pla^ 

tonic philostiphy at Alexandria. 
Dio CaseiuSf Greek historian. 

CeneoriuSf a critic and grammarian. 

Herodieaty Greeic historian. 
Longitmtt philosopher and critio 

217. Pope Calixtus I. 

The Sepiuagint found in a c 

228. Pope Urban I. 
234. Pope Pontianus. 

235. Anterus. 

Origen, C. F. 

Sixin porsecution of the Christians^ under 
Maximinus, in which Leonida*^ iret<BU»^ 
Victor^ Perpetua, and Feiicitae are mar- 

244. Ore^i^ory ThaumaturguetBDd Diofuuime 
of Alexandria, C. F. 

250. Pope St. Cornelius. 

Seventh persecution of the Chriattaiw. 

^ Christian Father. 

Digitized by 


"Ckrisitan Bra to ConstarUine.] 



Roman Empire. 


The SARACENS defeat the Romam. 



PERSIA ; the new klDfdora begun br Artax- 
; (the dTnasiy of the Sassasicia). 

Parthia tributary to Persia. 

Qonllan lefeati the Perdans under Sapor. 


189. The Capitol of Rome destroyed by light* 

191. Rome nearly desiroyed by fire. 

192. Commodus assaseinated by Martia and 


■ Pe r tinax, 

put to death by the suldiers. 
218. Heliogahalue, 

proclaimed by the Praaionan guards— 
murtlered after a reign ol"3 month.*.— The 
empire bought by Didiu9 Julianui, who 
is put to death by order of the senate. 

Septimus 8ev-erus,Q|} 

(eovcma «rith vigor.) 
—defeats nis comi^etiiors, Niger and Albi- 
194. —besieges Byzantium. 
202. — persecutes the Christians. 
203 —his sons Caracalla and Ge a go to Bri- 
tain, where 6O,U0U Roman ircjops died of 

Tne wall of Scverus between the Forth 
and the Clyde built. 

211. Severus dies at York, in Britain. 

Caracalla and Geta. f|P 

Caracalla murders Geta. 

212. — visits the provinces along the Danube. 
—Wars with the Catti and Alemanni. 

217. Caracalla is assassinated. 

- Macrinus, 

(a monster of vice and cruelty 

222.- Alexander Severus ,\_ 
(a beneficent and enlightened prince.) 
The Romans agree to pay an annual tri- 
bute to the Goins, to prevent them from 
molesting the empire. 
226. The vicioiy of Severus over the Persians 
at Tadmor. 

235. Severus murdered in a mutiny of the 
army ; succeeded by 
M a X i m i n u s , 

who defeats the Dacians and 


23Q. Maximinus assassinated by his troops 
near Aquilea. 

— Balbinua and Gordian, flw — 
241. The FRANKS first mentioned inhis- 

tory ; they invade Gaul. 

W. —are repulsed at Moguntiacum. 
Gordian put to death by 

Philip ,W(ihe Arabian,)- 

who makes makea peace with Sapor. 
247. The secular games restored. 


- D e c i u s 

persecutes the Christians. 
250. —slain by the Goth:*, who invade ths 
empire by croosing the Danube. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. [Modern: Period I.—Sm yean. 





Paooasss op Socibty, bto. 


Odin ia Scaadinavia. 

289. Pope DioDTsius. 

262. Paul, bishop of Samosaliai deiiet tiM 
divinity of Jesus ChriA 

PauluSi a Rooiin poet 

Longiniu at the court of Zenobie. 

Rome surrounded with a wall. 
Lonsinus die^. 

Porphi/ty, the Greek philosopher andopposer 

or Christianity. 
Extraonlinury tiavtU expedition of the Thra- 

cian Franks ir. t>) Mediterranean and 

Northern t-jeos. 


Diocletian's OrimUalform of government-^ 
the ntonarchy considered hereditary— nomi- 
nation of C»sars as co-rulers. 

Diocletian's batht^ containing 3,000 benches 
of white marble, while the walls were 
adorned with painting: 


251. St Cvprian, bishop of Carthage.— Mo> 
nasiic life originates about this time. 

Dispute between the churdies of Room 
and Africa about baptim. 

269. Pope Felix I. 

272. Ninth persecution under Aarelian. 

274. Pope Eutychianes. 

Manes originates the heresy of the Mani- 
chaans— rejects all thesacramen«e; refusec 
allegiaiice to temporal sovereigns, &c 

283. PopeCaius. 

The Jewish Talmud and Targum coni' 

Paul, the Theban, the first hermit.-<ReU- 
^ious ceremonies multiplied.— Pagan rites 
imitated by the CliristiaDs. 

286. ITieraXy chief of the Hierasians ; a 
that Melchizedec was the Holy Ghost, and 
denies the resurrection. 

Digitized by 


— Ckrisiian Era to CoTistantine.] 

THE world's PROOEESS. 


Roman Empxrb. 



HUNS on Uie Caspian Sea. 

251. _. 

purchases a peace witnine Goths.— Con- 
federacy of the Franks between the Rhine 
and Elbe. 
— a great pestilence prevails in the empire. 


.The Persians rictorious in Asia Minor. 

259 Persia :— Sapor's victory over the Roman 

260 The temple of Diana ai Ephesus burnt 

261 Sapor, the Persian, takes Antioch, Tarsus and 


Olenatus, king of Palmyra— he is succeeded 

by his wife. 
Zenobia^ who reigns with the titles of 

* Augusta,' and * Queen of the East.' 

Zenohia conquers Egypt, a part of Armenia, 

and Asia Mmor. 
Zenobia defeated at Edessa, by Aurelian, who 

destroys her magnificent capital, and carries 

her to Rome. 


—is successful against the Germans and 

26&-69. Four great piratical expeditions of the 

Goths into Asia Minor and Greeu. 
259. Valerian defeated and taken prisoner and 

Period of the 30 tyrants. 
The Persians penetrate to Ravenna. 
264. Alliance with Odenatus. 

267. Cleodamus and Athenius defeat the Goths 
and Scythians. 

268. Gallienus kiUed at Milan. 

Claudius II. 

defeats an army of 320,r 
269. — dies at Sirmium. 


The PoTsuns lefeai«d by ProbuAi 


- Gal 1 u 8 

E m ilianus . ^ 


flayed alive by the Persians. 
-Gallienus. ' 


A u r e 1 i a n ; H 
(a great warrior.) 

271. —defeats the' Goths and Alemanni. 

273 —reduces Palmyra after an heroic resist- 
ance, and takes queen Zrnobia prisoner. 

274. France, Spain, and Britain reduced to 

The Temple of the Sun at Rome burnt.— 
Dacia civen up to the barbarians. 

275. Aurelian killed near Byzantium. 
An interregnum of 6 months. 


(a descendant of the historian,) 
reigns with wisdom 6 months. 


- P r b u s , 1 

(a warlike prince.) 
—obtains several victories over the barba- 
rians.— The Franks permitted by Probus to 
settle in Gaul. 
282. Probus slain by his soldiers. 

Caru s 

killed by lighinmg. 

CarinuB and Nunierianus,^ 

(efleminate and cruel.) 
288. Fingal, king of Morven, dies. 

- Diocletian 

sends ambassadors to China. 
"The Era of Diodeiian," or of "the 
martyrs," Aueust 529. . , . 

287. Briuiin usurped by Carausius, who reigns 
7 years. The empire attacked by the north- 
ern barbarians, and several provinces 
usurped by tvrants,- Maxlmianua, a col- 
league of tre Emperor. 

Digitized by 




[Modem : Period I. — 306 years. 








Prooress of Socixty. Brc. 

The Oregorian code. 

Oreforyand Hermogenety lawyers; Blhia^ 
Sj)qrtianu*i9iad l^m'«cti«, hiatoriana ; Tre- 


296. Monk» in Spain and EgypL 
Pope Marcellmua 

303. Tenth Persecution of the ChrtaUana. 
904. Anu^iu9^ of Africa, C. P., coarertetf 
'rom idolatry. 

The pr^bUnian guard broken up by Conatao- 

MODERN: PERIOD SECOND.— 170 years — 

306. Persecution of the Chi latiana atoppedbr 


310. Po|)e Eusebiua. 
Arius excommunicated. 

311. Pope Malchiadea. 

314. Pope Sylvester I. 

319. Tolerauonof Chriatianity by Constantino 
the GreaL 

Foundation of Corutantinople by Con-iuntine 
the Great.— Celebrated dome of St Sophia : 
the splendor of the court ao great that it 
cost more than the legions. 

Constantinople becomea the seat of art and 

Oaaion, the Caledonian bard, supposed to 
hi>T6 flourished about thia time. 

Eutropiua and Marcelbnus^ historians ; Jiowi* 
bUeu9 and Eunapiua^ Greek hiaiorian. 

325. The Council of Nice (from June 19th, 
325 to August 25ih) consisiins of 31d bishops, 
who condemn Arianism. —EuMhius^ bishop 
of CsBsarea, C. P., and ecclesiastical histo- 
rian. — Lactantius. Athanasiu9, Ariutf 
Ephraim and Basils C. F., flouriah in the 
reign of Constantino. 

336. Pope Marcus. 

337. Pope Julius. 

Eleventh persecution. — Sainta invoked, 
the cro» reverenced, and incense used by 
the Christiana. 

341. Christianity propagated in EthiopU bj 

356. PopePelirll. 

St. Hilary and Gregory Ncuianzen^ of 
Constantinople, an eminent writer, C. F. — 
Eliua Donatusj bishop of Carthago.— 
CVr i7, bishop of Jerusalem.— Monastenea m 

Digitized by 


— Christian Era to ConslatUine.] 

THE world's progress. 




Roman Empire. 


Nartewt king of Persia, loBes Armenia, Meso- 
potamia, aiMi Aasyna. 

Alexandria lalcen by Diocletian. 

Hormiadas, II., king of Persia, buUda Ormut. 

From Constantine to Odaacer. 


291. The Franks make themselves masters of 

Batavia and Flanders. 
293. The Franks expelled from Batayia. 

296. Britain restored to the emperor. 

304. Diocletian and Maximian resign the Em- 
pire to 

Corutantiua and Galerttu. 







306.— Const ANTiNB thm Grbat, "_ 
(first Christian emperor.) 
Ltctnttw, Maximian^ and Maxentiua^ his 
three colleagues. 
Constantine defeats the Franks. 
312. Maxeniiuft defeated and killed. 
314. Civil war with Licinius. 
319. Constantine favors and tolerates Chns- 
lianiiy. , ^ , 

321. —appoints the observance of Sunday. 

322. —defeats and banishes Licinius, and be* 
comes sole emperor. 

325. —abolishes the combats of gladiators and 

331. Constantine orders all the heathen tem- 
ples to be destroyed. 

The firat general council at Nice. 

The seat of government removed to Constan- 
tinople, which was solemnly dedicated on 

Great famine and pestilence in Syria. 
Revolt of Sarmaiian slaves, 300^ are dis- 

pcrsed over the empire. /.., . 

Death of Constantine, and the accession of his three sons, 

— ^— Constantius, Constans,and Constantine.' 


ISO Greek and Asiatic cities destroyed by an 
earthquake. , ^ 

Hermanric, king of the Ostrogoths, founds an 
extensive empire. 

Gallus put to death by Constantius. 

CoDstamius dies at Tarsns. 

A diaadvantageotts peace with the Persians. 

340. Constantine, the younger, defeated and 

killed by Constans at Aquilca. 
350. Constans killed in Spain by Magnentlus. 

357. Six German kings defeated by Julian at 

361.— Julian, the Apostate, 

—attempts in vain to rebuild the temple 
at Jerusalem. 
13. —is slain in a war with the Persians. 


from the lower Danube to the con* 

364. Death of Jovian, andH^he accession of 
Valentinlan and Valens, under whom the 

extending from the Caledonian ramparia 
to the foot of Mount Atlas. 

Digitized by 




[Modern: Period Il.—VtOyear^ 




Aurelius Victor^ author of lives of calebraied 

Prudentiua and Auaonitu^ Latin poets; 
Papptu and Theon^ of Alexandria, mathe- 

daudiant Latin poet. 

MaerobitUy Platonic philosopher. 

Theododus establiahea ptMic ackocie^ and at- 
tempii the reetoiaiion of learning. 

The ThoadMtan code publiehed. 


373. The Bible translated into the Gothic I«b> 

379. The prerogatives of the Roman See much 

381. The second general Council of Consiaa- 


394. Symachus pleads in the Roman Senate 

for Paganism against St. Ambrose. 
386. Pope Syriciua. 

392. St. Chrysoatom^ patriarch of Constan- 
tinople ; St. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan ; 
St. Jerome, St. Martin^ and St. AuguatinCy 
* Chri«iian Fathers.' 

Jm<ige ttorship.^Tht Christian hier- 
archy begins. 

401. Pope Innocent I. 

412. Cyri2, bishop of Alexandria ; Isidore ax^ 
Soeratea^ ecclesiastical historians ; Oroaiua. 
a Spanish diiiciple of St. Augustine; ana 
Pela^ua, a Briiish monk, who denied origi- 
nal 9in, 4cc. 

416. The Pelagian hereay condemned by the 
African bishops. 

417. Pope Zosimus. 

418. Pope Boniface I. 

422. Pope Celeetlne I. 

429. Neatoriua, bishop of ConstanlinopIOf afr 
knowledges two persons in Jesus Christ. 

431. Third reneral Council at Ephesus. 

432. Pope Sixtus III. 

St. Patrick preaches the Oospel in Ira- 
435. Neatorianiam prsyalls in the East 

440. Pope Leo L (tLe Great). 

443. The Maniekaan booka burned at Roma. 
446. Flttviaiv, patriarch of Consuintiaopla, 

Digitized by 


— /'Vtfm CoasUnUtTU to Odoc^cer,] 

THE world's progress. 







EAaTKKN Empirb. 









HUNGARY, (ancient Pannonia,) invaded by 
the Uuna, from whom ii is named.— The 
Cioths expelled by ihe Huns, are allowed by 
Vaiens lo selile in Thrace. 

Valens defeated and slain by the Goths near 

Theodosius the Great,^} 

a zealous supporter of Christianuy. 

Theodosius defeats Maximus, the tyrant of the 
weaiem empire. 

Wkstern Empirb. 

3M. Valentinian I. 9 

elected by the Brmy. 
368. The Saxons invade Britam, but are de- 
feated by Theodosius. 


■ Grati an 

gains a victory over the Germans; su^ 
ceeds to (he eastern empire on the death ol 
Valens; Maximus is proclaimed emperor. 
— Graiian killed at Lyons. 

379. The LOMBARDS first leave Scandina- 
via, and defeat the Vandals. 


-Valentinian II. 

—is dinposisessed by Maximuti, but is re- 
stoied by Theodosius; makes Treves his 
3S4. —13 strangled at Vienna by Arbogastes, a 
Gaul, commander of the army. 

■ Theodo si us ^ 

becomes sole emperor of the East and West. 

Complete down fall of Paganism. 

Theodosius defeats Eugenius, the usur per of the West, and Arbogastes, the GanL 

Final division of the empire be iween the sons of Theodosius. 

• Arcadiu 


-Theodosius 1 1. ft — 
a child ; Athenius, mimster. 

Regency of the emperor's sister, Pulcheria. 

Persian War. 

Armenia dirided between the Persians and 

A great part of Constantinople destroyeil by 


Pannonia, Dalmatiaand Noricum gained fmm 
thie western empire. 

401. Europe overrun by the VTSIGOTHS. 

4U3. Alaric delcaied by Siillichu. 

406. The Vandals permitted lo settle in Spain* 

Gaul, Sec. 
4IU. Rome sacked and burned by the Gotha 

under Alaric. 
412 Beginning of the Vantlal power in Spain. 

413. Burffundian kinjrdom begun in Alsace. 

414. The Visigoths plant themselves in Tou- 

417. Tlie Alani defeated and extirpated by 

the Goths. 
420. FRANKS : — Pharamond, their 

first king, on the lower Rhine. 

- Ho nor i us 

424. — Valentinian III-H 

426. Britain evacuated by the Romiins. 

427. Pannonia recovered from the Huna 
42S. .fitius, the Roman general, defeated by 

the Franks anrl Goths. 

Franks :— Clodinn, king, extends his con- 
quests 10 the river Somme. 

433. A 1 1 i 1 a , '' The scourge of God," formi 
an immense empire from China to the At- 

437. ftius defeats the Goths. 

439. The kingdom of the Vandals in 
Africa, under G e n s e r i c , who 
ukes Carthage and plunders luily. 

441. The Roman territories invaded by the 
Huns, Persians and Saxons. 

445. Ths famous embawy from Britam, •oil- 
citing aid against the Picts. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Modem : Period //.—170 years. 




Proobbss op Society, Brc. 

2iozimut and Olympiodonu, Greek hteto- 

The pnnclple established that erory accused 
person shall be tried by hupeert^ or equals. 

Legislation of the Visisoths in Spain-^Eric 
beins king, and founder of the Gothic mo- 

The tottering empire of the west was finally 
overthrown by Odoaccr's sack of Rome, the 

great event which precedes the middle or 
dark age a." The form of the old 
Roman government remained— the senate, 
the consuls, dec.— but Italy, ravsged by a 
succession of wars^ plagues, famines, and 
every form of public tyranny and domestic 
slavery, was nearly a desert. 


447. Exttychn asserts the existence of oDiy 
one nature in Jesus ChrisL 

449. Ibus, bishop of EdesM ; and Eusebiua, 

bishop of Dory leu m, deposed. 
4jO. iSozomtn and Theodofet^ ecclesiastical 

451. The fourth general OiuncilatChalcedoo, 

at which Euiycheanism and Nestoriacism 

are solemnly condemned. 

461. Pope ITilarius. 
465. Pope SimpUcitts. 

Oligarchy of the bishops of Rome, Ooi>- 
stantinuple, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jam* 
salem— all striving for the supremacy.— 
The church now begins to aasume a poliift* 
cal aspect 

Digitized by 


^From Conttantijie to OJoacer.] 



Eastern Empirb. 




; Marcian, 


I Thncian, rofuaes to pay the annual 
tribute to the Uuns. 

- Leo I . , (the Thraclan,) flf 

first emperor ever crowned by the patriarch. 
War with the Gotha. 

Peace wiih the Gotha ; Theodoric ia receired 
from them as a hosuige. 


a turbulent reign: debaucSeriea and conspi- 
nieodoric becomes chief of the Ostro^ths, 

and inTades the empire. He ravages 


Western Empire. 

44a Franks :— Merovoeus 1st, Icing of the Me- 

fiius defeats the Huns. 

451. The arrival of the Saxons 
in Britain, under llengist and Ilorea, 
462. The city of VENICE founded. 
4&6. Valeniinian assassinated by 

-Petronius Mazimus 



- ATitusJ 
-Maj orian . 

458. Franks :—Childeric !., conquers 
as the Loire and takes Paris. 


as lar 


L t h e n 1 u s . ^^- 

(The last three emperors slain by • 

468- Spain :— The Visigoths, under Eric, esta 
blish their kingdom. 

472. O 1 y b i u s . W 

Eruption of Vesuvius, seen at Constan* 


■ Glycerins.' 


474. Julius Nepos. ^ 

475.— Rdmulus Auffustulus. W 
476. ROME uken by ODOACER, king of 
the Iferulii : 

1223 years aAer (he building of Rome; and 
commencement of the kingdom cf Italy ai- 
der Odoacer. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

MODERN: PERIOD m.— 140 years 








Proorbss of Socibtt. etc. 

Rise of the J'eudcU tyatem in France^ under 

Theodoric introduces the architecture of 
Greece to improve the buildings of Italy, 

Publication of the Gemara or Talmud of Ba- 

Burgundian law* published, be!n«: a collec- 
tion of the rights and customs of the Bur- 

The Salic law established in France. 

BoethitUf the Roman poet and philosopher. 

Use of burning glass in warfare at Constan- 

The Christian Era proposed and introduced 
by DionysiuSj a monk. 

The schools of Athens suppressed. 

The fables of Piljmy translated into Persan. 
Chess introduced into Persia from India. 

Justinian's pandects and code of laws. 

Architecture : the church of St Sophia built 

at Constantinople. 
ProobtSt a laamed Flatoniit. 


483. Pope Felix UI. 

—excommunicated by Acados, bishop of 

481. Christians persecuted by Hunoric, kiof 

of the Vandals. 

492. Pope Ge.a8iua L 

4&}. The Roman Pontiff asserts his 

496. Christianity introduced into Franca. 

513. Christianity embraced by the Peraraa 
kins, Carbades. 

514. Pope Ilormisdas. 

519. The orthodox bishops restored by Tustin. 

583. Pope John I. 

525. The Arian bishops deposed. 

526. Pope Felix IV, 

Extreme Unction introduced. 

629. The Order of Benedictine monks ut 

siituted at Mnnte Cassino, near Naples. 
53ri Pope Boniface II. 

633. Pope John IL 

635. Pope Agapetua 

636. '^ Sylvester I. 

Separation of the Annemans from the Greek 

638. Pope Vigilius. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 65 

—Od(acer to MahoTMt. [The " Middle or Dark Ages'' begin here.] 



Eastern Empire. 











An earthquake, lasting 40 dajfl, desrtroys the 

greater pan of Conatantinopie. 
Zeno makes Ttaeodoric general and consul. 

Anaataai us 

The Green and Blue factions. 

The emperor's persecution of the Catho- 
lics^ and protection of the Manichsans, oc- 
casions a rebellion headed by Viuilianus. 

The empire ravaged and the imperial armj 
destroyed bv Carbades, king of Persia. 

Long walb built to protect Constantinople 
from the Bulgarians. 

A great insurrection in Constantinople, 10,000 

Constantinople besieced by Vitalianus, whose 
fleet is consumed by the burning glass of 

Anastosius killed by lightning. 

-Justin I. 

a peasant of Daliiiaiia. 
Brilliant period of the Byzantine empire. 


ceiebrafed for hia code of laws and the 

victories of his generals, Beiisarius 

and Naraes. 

Beiisarius defeats the Persians under Chos- 


—quells a conspiracy in Constantinople. 

—defeats the Vandals in Africa. 
— eubdoes Sicily. 
—lakes Naples. 

—takes Rome, defeats the Ostrogroths in 

— the Huns in Thrace, and 

Europe, generally. 

4S1. FRANCE :-C 1 o y i s I . ,9 founder 
of tlie French monarchy. 

AIM. Alaric II., king of the Visigoths in Spain. 
4S5. France .— Battle of Soissont 

gained by Clovis. 
ASSf. Britain .—The Saxons defeated by Frinca 

Arthur and Ambrosius. 
490 .'—Italy :— ravaged by the barbarians. 

Britain :— kitisdom of Sussex. 
491. France :— Clovis subdues Thuringia. 

493. Italy :— c onquered by Tlieo* 
d o r i c , kiuK of the Ostrogoths.- Odoa< 
cer put to death. 

499. France :— Clovis concludes a peace with 

Theodoric in Italy. 
BOO. Burgundy becomes his tributary. 


— Clovis defeats Alaric near Poictiers. 

510. France :— Clovis makes Paris his capital. 

511. France .—Clovis dies. 

Childeberl I. 

512. The HERULU settle in Thrace. 

516, The Christian Era adopted. 

517. Gets ravages Illyricum, Macedon, Ac 

519. Britain :— Prince Arthur defeated a1 

Charford by Cenlic, who begins the third 

Saxon kingdom of Wessex. 
522. Spain :— Amalaric, the first Gothic king, 

who establishes his court in Spain— his caf^* 

tal, Seville. 

.^530. Britain :— kingdom of Essex. 

531. Spain :—TheudiM succeeds Amalaric 

532. Burgundy conquered by Childeber. 

536. Viti^es, kins^ of the Oslogroths, surr«» 
ders his possessions in Gaul to the Fver^ 

537. Italy conquered by Beiisarius. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Moderit : Period JJI. — 146 years. 









The manufacture of •ilk introduced from 
China by the monks. 

Procopiua, a Roman historian—the last of the 
classic writers. 

The Saxon laws ; the king's authority limit- 
ed by the WUtena^emU. 

Three orders ; the noble, the free, and the 
servile.— Trial by ordeaL 

Christianity mtroduced among the Picis by 

The old Roman municipal system in Italy 
overthrown by the invasion of the Lombarcis 
—and the feudal system establistied. 

Written Uum compiled among the nations of 
German origin— first by the Visigoths in 

Semicircular arches introduced In the archi- 
tecture of churchea, with much grotesque 

The Latin language ceases to be spoken in 
Italy, while it supersedes the Gothic in 

The origin of Jiefs. 

The Roman Catholic faith established In 

Gregory of TourSf the father of French his- 

Bretwalda, king of England, converted to 

AeathuSy a Grecian historian. 

Gildas. the first British historian. 

Evagrtaa, ecclesiastical historian.— CowsioJo- 
riis^ the historian of Ravenna, tutor to 
Theodoric. ^ . 

The Saxons, having conquered England, it 
relapsed, in a great measure, into the state 
of barbarism, from which it had been par- 
tially raised by the Romans. 

510. The MoTtotheliteSy who acknowledi[e4 
but one will in Jesus Chrisu 

592. The Titih general Council at Coutanti 

553. Pope ^elagius I. 

057. The church of St. Germain de Prea, built 
at Paris. 

560. Pope John in. 

The Tritheists acknowledge three Goda, 
and deny the reeurreciion. 

573. Pope Benedict L 

575. The first monastery founded In Bararfa. 
Great increase of miracles, 

573. Pope Pelagius XL 

590. Pope Gregory I- called The Great. 

The doctrme of purgatory first taught— 
Mass introduced. 

598. St. Augustine, first archbishop of Can- 
terbury, introduces Christianity into Britain. 

604. Pope Sabianus, or Sdhinian. 

606. Pope Boniface III. made supreme head 
of the church by Phocas.— The liUe of Uni- 
versal Bishop assumed. 

The Waldenses refuse submieaion to 


Digitized by 


'^Prom Odoacer to Mahomet.] 

TllE world's PROORE9S. 





EA.STBRM Empire. 

Europe, oembrally. 

Viiiges at Ravenna. ~ North Africa, Cor- 
sica and Sardinia, annexed to the Eastern 

Plague at Consiantinople — during three 
roonihs I'rom 6,0UU to 10,000 die daily. 

The I^mbard* settle in Pannonia. — The 
Tiirlcich monarchy founded in Asia. 

Siege of Petra. 

Naraea defeats and kills Toiila. 
Italy governed by Greek exarchs. 

A plasue extending over Europe and Asia, 
and Usiing nearly 60 years. 

Belisarius disgraced by Justinian. 

" restored:— he quells a conspiracy. 

' ■ ~ ' ly 

Great fire in Constantinople 

Justinian dies. 

-the city nearl; 



Justin II. 1 

Beiisarius dies in prison. 

The TURKS first mentioned in histonr. 
They send embassies to Justin, and (orm 
an alliance. 

Tiberius associated with Justin in the gov- 

Justin defeats Chosroes, king of Persia. 


-Tiberius TI.^ 

539. Italy : War. famine, and pestilence. 

The City or Milan ravaged by the Goths. 

542. Britain :— Prince Arthur murdered in 

600. POLAND a dukedom— Lech, its first 
duke and legislator. His brother, Zech, 
first duke of Bohemia. 

The Greeks form settlements on the 
Spanish coast, from the Siraiis lo Valencia. 

5o6. Civil wars in Prance. 

55a France:— CI otai re I. ® 

660. Britain:— the Saxon Heptar- 
chy commences. 

660. Britain:— the kingdom of Northumbna, 
formed by the union of Beniicia and Deira. 
— Eihelbcrt, king of Kent, subdues most of 
the Saxon kings. 

661. France :— C h a r i b e r t I . W 

565. Europe ravaged by a pestilence. 

568. Italy conquered by the I^mbards, under 
Alboin. He fixes his capital at Pavia. 

571. Britain :— Bretwalda II., king of Wessex. 

575 " East An^ia formed into a king, 
dom, and called Angle-land, whence the on- 
gin of the name England. 

Maurice, the Cappadocian, king; under his 
ni?a the empire extends to ihe Araxes,and 
almost to the Caspian Sea. 

The Avars flourish under Baian— invade the 
Eastern empire, and spread over Hungary, 
Poland, and Prussia. 

— P h o c a 8. ^B ~~<^ centurion, elected king. 
Hie empire invad»i by the Persians. 

683. Spain :— the Suevi subdued by the Visi- 

France :— C lotairell. 
686. Britain :— the kingdom orMercuifounded. 
Spain :— Recared, king. 

588. The city of Paris destroyed by fire. 

589. Rome inundated by the Tiber. 

11. Britain:— Eihelbert, kins of Kent, game 
the pre-eminence, and becomes Breiwalda 

Italy:— the Lombanls, under Autharis, 
successful against the Greeks and Franks. 
696. Istria, Bohemia, and Poland invaded by 
the Sclavoijians. 

596. France :-Thierry 11., king of Burguridv. 

597. Britain :— Christianity miroduced by Sl 
Augustine. . « , 

GOO. Italy ravaged by the Sclavonlans. 

07. Britain :— Supremacy of the Pope m 

Digitized by 



THE WORLD*S PROGRESS. [Modem: Period lII.-^l4&yearM 

Proorbss op Socibty, btc. 

Tho aristocracy acquire great power in 

. Fniiice, somewhat restrained by the mayors 
of the palace. 

Riles An\\ superstitions increase in all Europe. 
— Relics sousiUi for, and wor9hip|)ed.— £,i7a- 
nies aJilressed to the Virgin. — The burning 
of candies by day.— Exorcisms, 6cc. 

Hereditary Jie/s.— Aristocratic class. 

S^cundus, historian of the Lombarda. 
Eihclbert publishes the ^st code qf laws in 


COG. Pope Boniface IIL 
0)7. Pope Boniface IV. 

The Pamheon at Rome dedicated to Qod, 

the Virein, and the Saints. 
GOCi The Christians massacred by tho JewB tf 


618. Pope Boniface V. 

MODERN: PERIOD IV.— 178 ycarj. 

Proqrbss op Socibtt, bto. 

Isodorus, historian of Spain, grammarian and 

Islamism, and tho power of the Caliphs esta- 
blished in the East. In the Caliphs were 
united the highest spiritual and regal autho- 

Christianity introduced into China. 

In England, some improvement in ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture; circular arches intro- 
duced; churches built at Canterbury, Glas- 
tonbury, St. Albans, Winche.««ter, &c. 

In civil architecture, lorts and castles— Conis- 
boroush Castle in Yorkshire; Castletown 
in Derbyshire, &c. 

University qf Cambridge founded. 

Some of the monasteries of Europe continue 
ti) be the repositories of learning and the 

Celbacy 9/ the clergy enjoined. 


625. Pope Honorius I. He had a tasta for 
splendid cathedrals and processions. 
Monks and monasteries increase. 

Africa and Asia, with the churchee of 
Jerusalem^ Alexandria, and Antioch lost to 
the Christian world by the progress of Mo- 

G40. Pope Severinufl. 
610. Pope John IV. 

642. Pope Theodonis. He assumes the title 

of " Sovereign PontilT." 
614. Pope Martin 1. Ue ordains celibacy qf 

the clergy. 

S<'paraiion between the Greek and 

Roman churches. 

654. Pope Eugenius. 

657. Pope Vitalian. He established the uJ- 
vers^al ik^o of the Latin language in tkt 
service of the church. 

672. Pope Adeodatue. 

Digitized by 


-From Odifocer to Mahomet] 


Eastern Empirb. 

610 Ileraclius takes Constantinople, kills Phocas, 

an-J makes himself king. 
612 MAHOMET publUhei hta Koran, 

Syria ravagea by the Arabs. 
614 Jerusalem taken by the Persians. 


Constantinople taken and pillaged by the 

Europe, genera llt. 

601. Britain :— St, Paul's Church founded by 
Eihelbert, king of Kent. 

612. Britain :~Eihelfrith, king of Nonhum- 
bna, defeats the Britons, and destroys the 
monastery of Bangor. 

615. War between Lombardy and Ravenna. 

617. Britain:— Si. Peter's (now WesiriiinHier 
Abbey) founded by Sabert, king of Kent. 
Britain :—Breiwald IV. 

— From, Mahomet to Charlemagne. 

[Dark Ages^ continued. \ 









Eastern Empire, Asia, dec. 

The HEGIRA ; or Mahomet's Flight from 

Mecca to Medina. 
Era of the Mahometans. 
Ilcraclius defeats the Persians under Chos- 

Death of Mahomet. 

Abubeker succeeds him as caliph of the 

Omar, caliph. 

^*- takes Jerusalem, which is held 

by the Saracens 463 years. 
Omar takes Alexandria, and destroys 

another famous library. 

Constannine III 


C onstans II. ,^5 

(11 years of age.) 

The Saracens become masters of Africa and 

The Saracens take Rhodes, and destroy the 

Persia becomes a part of the empire of the 


The Saracens obtain peace from Consians, by 
agreeing to pay him 100,000 crowns yearly. 

Con^tans goes to Rome, and plunders the 

Moawiah, caliph, makes Damascus his capi- 

Constantine IV. 1W invades Sicily. 

Grand Cairo founded. 

Sie?e of ConMantinople by the Saracens, 
whose fleet is destroyed by the Greek fire of 
Callinicufl. The uiliph compelled to pur- 
chase a peace of thirty years, by paying a 
yearly tribute. 

Europe, generally. 

626. France :--D a g o b e r t I . W He 

builds the church of St. Deny, me burial 

place of the French kings. 
631. Samo, a merchant of France, makes 

himself king of Bohemia. 
6313. Britain: — Breiwald V.; he embraces 


634. Britain:— BretwaldVL 

038. France — C 1 o v i s II .^g5 years old. 
The kingdom divided, Sisebert, (18 years 
old,) being king of Ausirasla. 

612. Britain :-BretwaId VII. 

644, Britain :— The University of Cambridge 
founded by Sigeberl, king of E. Anglia. 

650. Britain : ~ Mercia converted to Chris* 

656. France :— C I t a i r e III. W 

, France :— C h i 1 d e r i c II. 

663. Lombardy conquered by Grimoald, duke 
of Beneventura. 

672. The Saracens driven from Spaio, b| 
Wamba., king of the Goths. 

Digitized by 





[MoiUm : Period JV. 178 pears. 







PEOORB88 OP Society, btc. 

Stone fmilding* and gUut come into use in 


The abbey or Whitby, and the monastery of 

Gilling founded. 
The Aneto- Saxons advance in civilization 

and poiccr^ by the introduciion of Chris- 

In France, ihe Teutonic langiiaj^e eupersodes 

the Liitin. — Naiiunal assemblies established, 

though confined to the ariaiocracy. 

In Persia, the Magian religion gives way to 

the Mohammedan. 
Severe persecution of the Jews in Spain. 

Julian, of Toledo, historian and momlisL 
The venerable Bede, £cc. historian. 

A king iirst elected in Poland. 

Adkelm^ tlie first British writer in prose and 

Sclavonian republic* in Bohemia. 

Christianity greatlv extended among the Ger- 
man nations and other people in the north 
of Eur(»pe; but almost exterminated in 
Africa, by the progress of Mohammedan- 

676. Pope Domnus. 

The popes become independent oftha 

Greek emperor. 
679. Pope Asfiiiho. 
G80 The sixth (general Council at Constantinib- 

pic, called by the emperor Constaniine, whc 

6S2. Pope Leo II. He osurps tha right of io- 


634. Pope Benedict n. 

635. " John V. 

636. ** Conon. 
687. ** Sergiua. 

The art qf making paper brought from Sa- 

marcand by the Arabs. 
George Syncellus, a Grecian chronologist 
Glastonbury Abbey rebuilt by Ina. 


701. Pope Jolm v.. 

704. The first province ziven to tha papa. 

703. Pope John VII. 


Sissinius (20 days). 

711. Custom of kiaring the Pope's fo^ intti^ 

714. Pope Gregory IL 

Leo (Eastern Emperor) attampca *.o pro 
cure the assassination of the Pope. ITm 
Romans defend him. 

Digitized by 


^From Mahomet to Charlemagne.] 

THE world's progress. 71 


Eastbrn Empirb, Asia, dec. 

EuBOP£, generally. 

673. France :— T h i e r r y 1 . ® 

675. Spain:— Wamba gaias a naval victotr 
over the Arabs, who attempt to invade his 


The kingdom of Bulfmria ftmnded. 
Yezid, caliph of iho Saracens. 



Moawiah n., caliph. 
Abdaliah, caliph. 

— ..Junlinlnn TT fW 

682. Spain: — Wamba abdicates and tunt 


Abdulmeiek, caliph. He discontinues the 
tribute to the Greek emperor 

690. France :— P epin d'Heristel ,flj 
mayor of the Palace and duke of Auslrasia, 
Qcfeais Thierry, and becomes king. 

JuAinian II. deposed, and his ncse cut off by 
Leonitius, who is also deposed by 
Absimerus Tiberius. 
Armenia and the provinces between the Black 

and Caspian Seas subdued by Caliph Abdul- 

Carthage rased, and the north coast of Africa 

completely subjugated. 

Justinian U. restored. 

Syria recovered, 200,000 Saracens slain. 



695. " — Childebert II.® 

698. Poland :— Cracow founded.— An elective 
monarchy established. 

Venice :— Luc Anafetto, first Doge. 

700. Britain :— Angl(vSaxon Octarchy. 

France :— Aquiiaine, Burgundy and Pro- 
vence become separate dukedoms. 

706. Briutin:— Alfred the Wise, in North- 


Africa subdued by the Saracens. 

710. Spain:-Roderic, king, ^ (iIm 
la*t of the Goth9.) 


Justinian put to death by Philip Bardanes, 
who reigns under the name of Philippicus. 

711. France :— D a g o b e r I M .W 


-. ■AnABtnainn TT f^ 


Theodosius III. 4v pn>. 

claimed by the revolted army oiAxiastasius. 

713. Spain conquered by tha 
Saracens under Muca. By the mar- 
riage of Abdallah, the Moor, with the widow 
of the Gothic king, the two nauoos ara 
united in interesL 

714. France :-Cbarle8 Martel, duke of Au» 


— - L e o I II . , (the Isaurian,) 9 son 

of a shoemaker. 

715. France:-Childeric 11. W 

716. Britain :-Eihelbald, king of Mercio. 

7ia Spain :-Pelagiu8 founds the kingdom tt 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Modern: Period /r.— 178 fears. 









PKoaiiBsa OF Society, etc. 



of tUe 






Winifred^ an Anglo-Saxon, preaches the gos 
pel to the Prisons. 

The venerable Bede dies— a grammarian, phi - 
losopiicr, liistorian, and theolocian. 

The Abasoidae, caliphs of the htracens, en- 
courage learning. 

Predegture^ a French historian. 

Virgiliits, a priest, is condemned as a heretic, 
for believing in the existence of aniipodea 

An organ sent hj Constantine to France. 

John of Darnascusy a founder of the scholas- 
tic pnilosophy. 

Fredegaire continues the history of Gregory 
of Tours. 

The schools of Bagdad, Cufa, Alexandria, 
Fez, and Cordova, promoted by the Abas- 
iiidae caliphs. 

Ignorance, profligacy, and misery, character- 
ized the age preceding Charlemagne. 

The iirst palm-tree planted in Spain. 

Golden period of leaminz in Arabia, under the 
caliph Ilarounal Rascliid. 

Pleadings in courts of justice first practised. 
Foundation of schools in monasteries and 

cathedrals, by (Charlemagne. 
The Gregorian cliant. 
The Synod of FrankforU 
George, the monk. 


726. Image worship being forbidden by Um 
emperor Leo, causes great disturbance. 

727. Peler's jtenct first collecied in England. 

728. Leo orders the pope to be seized. 

73U. Gregory excommunicates the emperor. 

The Iconoclaata. or image breaken. 
731. Pope Gregory in. 

736. The images throughout the empire d»> 
siroyed by order of the emperor. 
Monks persecuted. 
741. Pope Zachary 

753. The Pope dethrones Childeric, king of 

France, by a papal decree. 
752. Pope Stephen III. at war with the f^m* 

bards, assisted by Pepin. 

754. —he journeys to Pepin to implore his 

755. Commencement of the Pope's 
temporal power under the auspices 
of Pepin, who bestows on Stephen the ex- 
archate of Ravenna. 

757. Pope Paul I. 

763. Stephen IV. 

7G9. Council of the LateraiL 

770. The Easitcm monasteries dissolved by the 

772. Pope Adrian I., on whom the Ecclesias- 
tical state is conferred by Charlemagne. 

779. Imposition of Tithes enforced by Char- 
lemagne, for tne support of the clergj, 
churches, schools, ana the poor. 

785. Forcible conversion of the Saxons bj 

787. The seventh general Council at Nice, m 
which the doctrine of the Iconoclasts was 

791. Pope Leo IIL sends to CharlemagBd for 

Masses said/or money. 

Digitized by 


— i'Vrai Makomet to Charlemagne.] 

THE world's progress. 



EAflTBBN Ekpirb, Asia, Ac 

Tbe Arabs invest Coiuiantinople bv land with 
120,000 men, and by sea with 1800 ships. 
The city is saved by the Greek lire— the 
Amb fleet being ahnoet entirely destroyed. 

Leo confiscates Calabria and Sicily. 

The Greek poasosnons in Italy are lost in eaa- 
sequence of the edict forbidding image wor- 






Constantino V. (CopronymuB). 

be Arabs defeated by Conatantj 
Cyprtu, and Aniioch captured. 

Hie Arabs defeated by Conatantine.—- Rhodes, 
- ' " ioch 

Almanxor, caliph; builds Bagdad and makes 

it his capital. 
Asia Minor ravaged by the Turks. 

Great victory over the Bulgarians. 
^Lao IT.® 

Constantine VI. (Forphyrogenelus).f|f 
Irene (Queen mother) restores image worship. 
The empire is invaded bv Haroun al 

Raschid, caliph or Bagdad. 
Constantine imprisons his mother, Irene, for 

her cruelty. 

Irene ® pats him to death, 

and assumes the sole power, 
—proposes to marry Charlemagne 
—IS dethroned by Nicephorus. 
The Sacaoens ravage Thrace. 

Edropb, generally. 

725. France .-—Charles Mariel crosses tht 
Rhine, and subdues Bavaris. 

727. Britain :— Ina, king of Wessez, begins tte 
tax called Peter's pence, to support a col- 
lege at Rome. 

732. France :— Charles Martel gains a great 
victory over the Saracens near Tours. 

740. Spoletto taken by the Normans, but re> 
covered by the Pope. 

742. Fiance:— C h i 1 d e r i c III. ® 

732. France :— End of the Merovingian line 
of French kings. 

-Pepin Ic Bref,l 

first of the Carioviiigian line. 
753. Pepin le Bref aids the Pope with a laiiga 
army against the Lombards. 
Italy :— Ravenna a dukedom. 

766. Spain :— Separated from the Caliphate : 

761. Spain :—Proila, grandson of Pelagius, 
builds Oviedo, and makes it the seat of his 

768. France:— CHARLEMAGNE, or Charles 
the Great, reigns with his brother, Carlo- 
man, until 771 . 

774. Charlemagne Invades Italy; defeats 

Didier, king of Lombardy, and annexes 

Italy to his empire. 

End of the Lombard king- 

^om. . , 

778. A part of Charlemagne's army defeated 

at Roncesvalles. _ ,. , 

779 Charlemagne conquers Navarre, Sardinia, 

and the ^xons. 

Charlemagne conquers the Avari. 
— auempis to unite the Rhine and tha 

787. Britain :— First recorded invasion of Iha 
Danes:— The Sea Kings and Viking*. 

794. Charlemagne extirpates the Huns. 
Sweden conquered by Iva Viafam^ 

Digitized by 



TUE world's progress. 

PERIOD. y.—The Middle J^m.— 200 tfean 

A.D. Prosrcss of Sogiitt. 





Agricultwn and horticul- 
ture eTtMxinged hj Charle- 
magne; boin flourish in 
Spain under ihe caliphs, 

Oold minet worked in Spain. 

Paul Warefredu9 (Diaconus) 
ihe histonan. 

Haroun al Raschid, courting 
his alliance, presenta Charle- 
mao;ne wiih u striking dock. 
Tins clock was adorned with 
automaton figures, which 
moved and played on va- 
rious musical instruments. 

Fine Arabian breed of horaet 
introduced into Spain. 

Aleuin^ of York, a pupil of 
Bede, forms schools at Tours 
—patronized by Charle- 

Transient revival of learning 
under Charlemagne. 

Eginhard, histonan, secre- 
tary to Charlernaj^ne. 

The reign of Mamun (caliph) 
is regarded as the Augustine 
age of Arabian literature. 

St Mark's Church at Venice 

Turpin, archbishop, to whom 

is aiiribuicd ine famous 

<' De Vita CaroU Magni et 



600. The Pope weparatea from 
the Eastern Empire, and 
becomes supreme Bishtm of 
the Western. 

Charlemagne reforms the 

Many bishoprics founded. 
— G real increase of monastic 

813. Insurrection at Rome 
against the pope. 

816. Pope Stephen V. 

817. *' Paschal L 

The College of Cardinals 

824. Pope Eugenius 11. 

Christianity in Denmark 
and Sweden. 

827. Pope Valentine. 

a«. " Gregory IV. 

Missionaries sent from 
France to Sweden. 

831. Paschasius Iladbertus, a 
monk of Corbcy, father of 
the doctrine of iransub- 
Btantiaiion. This doctrine 
disowned by the English 

Ratramus and Scotus Eri- 
genoj theologians, holding 
mucli the same opinions as 

806. Charlemagne dl* 
vides the empire be* 
tweon his three sons. 

808. First descent of the NOR 
MANS upon France. 

813. Charlemagne dies, Jan. 


600. NEW EMPIRE of iha 
WEST founded by Charle- 
rnagne, who is crowned at 
Rome, by the pope, king of 
Italy, Germany, and France. 

802. Charlemagne receives an 
embaiMy from Nicephorus, 
and from Haroun al Raa> 

814. L o u i 8 1 . 

(Debonaire) an ingluriout 

and turbulent reign. 
817. Louis divides the empire 

between his three sons. 
820. Invasion of the Normana. 

833. I..othaire, a fourth son of 
Louis, associated in the gov- 

840. — Lothalre. 

841. —-defeated by his bixnHers, 
Louis and Charles, iu the 
battle of Fymtenoy. 

Division of the empire. 

France:— Charles I.fif 
(Um Bald). 

Oer.:— Louie I. 
—— — eumamed the 

Iialv:— Lothaire H 
wiih imperial dignity. 

The Normans plunder 
Rouen, and advance lo Paris. 

Digitized by 


TBS world's progress, 
(a. d. SOO-1056.)-^Charle7nag7ie to Wdl'um the Conqueror. 



EASTSiuf Bmpirs. 

I — N icephoruB .flf — 

SiU The Saracens ravage Asia 

Minor, capture Cyprus, and 

compel Nicephorua to pay a 








— Michael I-W 

(Caropaltes); at war with 
the BulgarL 

Leo V.flJ <ihe 


E^arthquakes, famine, fire, Ac. 
ravage the empire. 

—Michael 1 1 . W 

(Balboflor the Stammerer). 
Constantinople bwieged by 
the Saracens. The Bulga- 
rians Faise the siege. Tlie 
Saracens obtain possession 
of Crete, and name it Can- 

— ^T heophilus. ^g — 

-Michael III. W — 
(the Drunkard). 


813. Egbert, king of W( 
defeats the Britons. 

27. The seven king- 
doms of the Hep- 
tarchy united by Eg- 
bert, King of Wessex, 
under the name of ENG- 
LAND, or the Land of the 

Egbert. ® 

Invasion of the Danes. 

a weak prince. 

Scotland :-— Kenneth, king 
of the Scots, defeats and ex- 
tirpates the Picis. and be- 
comes sole monarch. 

The Danes return, and 
ravaire the country unmo- 
lesied, and bum the city of 

Ethelwolf makes a pUgrl^ 
mage to Rome. 

Tub W01U.D, elsewhere 

SOI. DENMARK becom* a 
kingdom under Goiricut 

8ia Al Mamun (caliph) a p»> 
tron of learning. 

820. First dismemberment of 
the Arabian monarchy. The 
dynasty of the Taherites 
founded at Khorassan. 

826. The Danish prince. Ha- 
rold, is baptized at IngeU 

833. Motnssim, caliph. Ha 
builds Saumora, which ha 
makes the seat ;f govenv 

Digitized by 


76 THE world's progress. [Period F.— (a. d. 800-1066.)~266 years. 

A.D. Proorebs op Socibtt. 


The ariatocratie Feudal sys- 
tem in b!1 its power. Here- 
ditary nobility, which, with 
the clergy, was ihe domi- 
nani order in ihe state. 

The barons independent or 
the king. Gradual intro- 
duction of the Ronuxn and 
common law. 

First inciosure qf lands at 
Spalding, where Richard de 
Rule* does much lo improve 

Clocks brought to Constanti- 
Dople from Venice. 

rhe Faroe Isles, and Iceland 
discovered in this century. 


811. Pone Sergius III. (Bucca 

Ignatiiis, patriarch of 

Peruecuiion of the Chris- 
tians in Spain. 
817. Pope Leo IV. 

830. Christianity propagated 
by Au.schariuB in Denmark 
and Sweden. 

855. Pope Benedict III. 

8j3. Pope Nicholas I. 

First coronation of a pope. 

859. Eulogius, archbishop ol 
Cordova, martyred. 

860. The schism of the Greeks 

864. The Bible translated into 

367. Pupe Adrian II. 

Sih Council at Constan« 
tinople — Phoiius, patriarch 
of Constantinople, deposed. 

872. Pope John VIII. 

8d2. Pope Martin n. 
881. " Adrian IIL 

835. « Stephen VI. 

Framgb, Spaim, Gs&many. 

855. Lothario retiree to a mo- 
nastery and dies. 

New division of the em- 
pire at Meneo. 

856. Germ. :— Louis II. H 

has Italy with the lui- 

perial di<rniiv. 

— esiablislies his court at 

85S. France invaded by Louis 

the German, who is finally 

compelled to retire. 

368. Lorraine annexed 
. France. 

877. Fr. .-Louis 11.^— 
(the Stammerer). 

879. L o u i s 1 1 1 . and 

Ci; r 1 c m a n flj 

roign jomily. 

884. France :— C h a r 1 c a^f 
the Fat, an usvrper. 
>5. Pans besieged by the 
Normans; ^[aiurnily defend- 
ed hy archbishop Goslin. 

886. Charles makes a di.sgrace- 
ful peace with the Normans. 

887. Germany : — A mold, 

empcror,^^— — <the im- 
perial dignity transferred 
from France to Germany). 

L France :— E n d a t wr— 

Digitized by 


^Charkmagnt to William I.] 

THE world's progress. 






CA.STERN Empire. 

Derline of the Caliphate be 
gma.— Jews an-.l Chnsiinn'* 
peraecuie<l.~Frequeni wars 
between lUe Greeiuoiid Sa- 

Basil I.W~ 

(the Macedonian;, defeats 
the Saracens. 

Crete and the Siciliet reco- 
vered from the Arubd. 

Ba«il commences the Mace- 
donian dynasty. 
Publication of the Basilica. 

Leo VI. B- 

(ihe philosopher 

849. Alfred the Great, bom. 

ijSj2. Ethelwolf defeats the 
Danes in the Isle of Thanei. 

837. Elbe lb a Id and Ethel- 

bert ^9— rei|n jointly ;— 
increase the influence of the 

866. -E t h e 1 r e d .^ 

8C7. The Danes conquer Nor- 

872. Alfrbd the Grbat^ 
defeats the Danes. 

879. Alfred abandoned by his 
subjects, retires to the Mt of 
Athelney, bat soon draws 
together hia friends and con- 
quers the Danes. 

Thk Would, cl.-ewhere. 

845. The Normans plunder 
llnnibui-v, and peiieiraie into 

846. The Saracens destroy the 
Venetian fleet, and besiege 

849. —defeated by the Pupe'a 

8G1. Sardinia and Corsica ra- 
vaged by the Saracens. 

856. The coasts of Holland 
plundered by the Normana. 

860. Gorm the Elder, (descend- 
ed from Odin.) unites Jut- 
land and the Danish Isles, 
and becomes king of Den- 

861. Iceland discovered by the 

862. RUSSIA: — Ruric, first 
grand Prmce, builds tlie city 
of I^oda. 

i8. Eerypt throws oflT its de* 
j)endence on tlie caliphs, un* 
dcr Ahmed. 

874. Iceland, a republic, found- 
ed by the Normans. 

875. NORWAY : — Harold 
Harfrage, first king. 

666. The Scythians seise Ci» 

89. Hungar^r : — Arpad layi 
the foundation of the Itinf* 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. [Period F.— (a. 

D. 800-1066.)— 266 yean. 


l»il002toSa OF SOCIETV. 


France. (iBiiMANV, Ac 


Oxford UnivcTsily foun.l 


830. Arnold, emperor of Gar- 

cJ — AlfrcU ihe Great c^ih- 

891. Pope Formosus. 

many, takes Rome. 

blishes A regular militia 
ami nary, ami ihc moiie ol 

896. " Boniface VI. 

»* Stephen VII. 

trial byjuni ; insiiiuieV«iV« 
anJ ftuirkela. — Johannes 

808. " John IX. 


Veneration for sainta and 

Scottu Erigenu^ a learned 

a passion for relics prevail. 

(the Simple). 

philosophical wriier. 

899. Ger.:-Louis II 1. 9 


England divided into eoun- 

900. Pope Benedict IV. 

Invasion of the Huagaf 

ties, hundredth and tithinga. 


The county cuuria, held 

Contests between the no- 

monthly, become the great 

903. « Leo V. 

bles and bishops 

aatcguartl of the civil rights 
of Englishmen. 

Hired troops substituted for 
the feudal. 

905. " Sergiufl III. 

912. The Normans in France 

912. France .—R o b e r t , duke 

embrace Chrisuanity. 

of Normandy. 

The Normans, undet 
R 1 1 , establish them- 
selves in Normandy. 

914. Pope John X. 

Ger.:— Conrad l.^S 
— — <ihe empire becomes 


The University qf Cam- 
bridge founded. 

919 Ger.:-Henry I-S— 

(the Fowler), fi<«t ol tha 

Saxon line. 

921. The Bohemians embrace 

921. France :— Robert L de- 

feated and killed by hia 

The Anglo-Sixon monarchy 

brother at Soi«sons. 

rised into importance. 

923. France :— Rudolph elect- 
ed duke. 

Italy: — Hugo, count of 
Provence, oppresses the aris- 
tocracy, who call to their aid 


928. Pope Leo VI 

929. " Stephen Vin. 
Eudes, monk of Cluni. 

931. Pope John XI. 

Mere children elevated to 
the highest offices in the 

France -.—Civil wars. 
929. " -Charles diea a 
prisoner at Peronne. 


Println? invented among the 


Chinese 0) 

936. Ger. :-0 I h o I .»— 
(the Great). 

936. Pope Leo Vn. 


Cordova, in Spain, becomes 
the seat of Arab learning, 

939. « Stephen IX. 

Fr.:-Loni8 IV.® 

science, industry, and com- 

(the Stranger). 

merce. Its celebrated schools 

of geometry .aainmomy, che- 

mistry and medicine, toge- 
ther with its equally cele- 

brated poets and philoso 

phers, render it famous 

throughout the world. 

Luitprand, the historian. 


Mints established in Kent or 

940. Burgundy, a fiaf Of tk« 


913. Pope Martin HI. 


Digitized by 


-^Qkarlenagne to William I.] 



890 Southern Italj subject to the 
Greek empire. 
War with the Bulgarians, 
Lombarria, and Saracens— 
the latter take the iaUiDd of 

IM Russian expedition uncfer 
Oleg, against Cunstaniino- 

WO -Constantine VII. ^ 
associates his four sons, so 
that there are fire emperors. 




Eastsum Expirb. 

Confltantinopla besieged by the 

Romanus, general of the fleet, 
usurps the empire, with his 
three sons, Christopher, Ste- 
phen, and 

-Constantine VIII.^- 

Romanus gains a naral victory 
over the Russians, who, led 
by Igor, enter the Black 
Sea with lO/MX) ships or ca- 

Naples annexed to the empire. 

The empress Helen usurps the 


391. Invasion of the Danes. 
The first land tax. 

901. E d w a r d' 

(the Elder), the first who 
takes the title of *^ Rex An- 

War with the Danes. 

934. — AthaUtan. W— 


934. —by the rictory of Bru- 
nanbureh, he becomes king 
of all Britain. 

940. — E d m u n d I .^ 
brother of Athelstan. 

The World, elsewhere. 

900. Scotland: — Constantine 


901 . Italy :— The republics 
of Venice antl Genoa 

906. The race of Fatimites in 

910. Spain :— Kingdom of Leon 
founded by Garcia. 

912. Spain :— Abderrahman HI. 
the greatest Arab prince of 
Spain— builds the splendid 
ciiy and palace of Zehra. 

914. Spain :— Ordognoll., king 
of Oviedo, makes Leon liis 

Commencement of the 
heroic age in Spain. 

921. Poland :-Lesko IV. 
" — Zemormysl. 

923. Spain:— Fniela, king of 

9M. " — Alphonso IV. 
927. ** — Ramiro II. 

930. Denmark .-—Harold VL, 
firs- Christian king. 

932. \rnolf of Bavaria, de- 
feate.l near Verona. 

933. Norway :— Eric, king— 
his cruelty leads the people 
to revolt. 

MO. Spain :— Ramiro, king of 
Leon, defeats (he Moors, aa- 
der Abilerrahman, inthe bal* 
tleof Simaacus. 

Digitized by 


80 THE WOELD's progress. [Perwd r.— (a. D. 800-1066.)— 266 y»«f». 






Th« mercantile character 
raised by a law of Athelstan, 
that a merchant who made 
three rovages over the high 
■eas wiin a ship and cargo 
of hia own, ahould enjoy the 
rank and privilegea of a 

The figure$ of ctrithmetic 
brought into Europe bf the 

Silver minea in the Hartz 

Manufactories of linena and 
wonileru in Flander»y which 
becomes the seat of western 

Cftber^ AraUao astronomer. 
Suidasj grammarian and lexi- 
Rhaxet^ Arabian physician. 

The Saxonjket, consisting of 
860 sail, in three squadrons, 
makes the circuit of the 
island, under the command 
of king Edgar. 

Abbo, monk and astronomer. 

Albirunius, Arabian geogra- 

Greenland diacorered by the 

Aitnoin^ historian. 

Dublin much frequented for 
trade, also many places on 
die Baltic. 


Framcb, Gbrmant, &C. 

94& Pope Agapetos IL 

966. Baptism of Olga, and con 
version of Russia to Chris- 

956. Pope John XII. 

Quarrel with the emper- 
on respecting investiture. 

959. St. Dunstan, archbishop 
of Canterbury, attempts to 
reform the church— enforc- 
ing clerical celibacy. 

The influence of the 
monks greatly incrnased. 

963. Pope 1^0 VIU. elected by 
Roman citizens. 

964. Benedict V. elected by a 

9G6. JohnXIIL 
Poland receives Christianity 

under Miecislus. 

972. Pope Benedict VI. 

973. Boniface VIL : deposed 
and banished for his crimes. 

974. DomnusII. 

975. Benedict Vn. 

9S4. Pope John XIV. 
996. »♦ John XV. 

9d9. Christianity propagated 
in RusaU by Waldimir— 
they hold to the Greek 

960. Germany :— Bohemia bo> 
comes tributary to Oiho. 

953. The Hungarians sub- 

9». Fr.:--Lothaiie l.^g 
—confers iho O^jkedoms of 
Bursundy and Aqvitaine od 
Ilugii the Great. 

957. Germany :— Otho defeBta 
the Slavonians in Saxony. 

964. Italy united to the empirs 
of Germany. 

Tuscany becomes a duke- 

973. Ger. :— O t h o 1 1. 9 
subdues the Boliemians. 

979. Otho at war with Lo 

963. — O t h o III. , W— 
(3 years of ase). 

996. Fr.:-Loui8 V.,f 
("the Slothful,") lastoTtha 
Carlovingian race. 

999. Ft.: Hugh Capet 
"-foufKler of the thir 
Oapelian Une of FreDcli 

Digitized by 


— ChaTlemagne to WiUiam I.] 

THE world's progress. 






Eastern Empirb. 

CoMtantine III. retires into a 

— R omanus II , 
poisoned by his wife, 



— Nicephorut II. W— 

—he recorers Cyprus and An- 
tioch rrom the Saracens. 

—Is murdered by 

-^ohn Zimisces.9 — 

Basil and Constantine 

Apulia and Calabria recover- 
ed and united to the empire. 

ENGLAMn, &.C. 




governed by Diiusian, abbot 
of Glastonbury. 
952. Scotland : — Malcolm I., 

955. Scotland :—Indulf, king. 


955. E d w y 

insulted by Dunslan* and 
deposed- his queen, Elgiva, 
put to death. 



marriefi the beautiful El- 
frida, after the violent death 
of Athelwold, her lover. 
960. Scotland:— Duff, kinjj. 

Wolves exDelled from 
England ami Wales, in con- 
sequence of a reward being 
offered for the purpose by 
the king. 

Violent dioputes between 
the monks andllie clergy. 

975. E d w a r d 

(the martyr), muniered by 
his stepmother, Elfrida. 

97S. —E their ed II.,flf~ 
(" the Unready.")— Dunsian 
still mJni«ier.--The people 
become discontented. 

981). Danish invasion, under 

The king purchases their 

Th£ World, elsewhere. 

950. Spain :— Ordono IH, Idng 
of Leon. 

966. Spain :—Sancho I., kinf 
of Leon. 

958. Italy :- War between thi 
Normans and Saracens. 

961. Candia recovered from 
the Saracens. 

962. Poland:— Miecislas esta- 
blishes Christianity. 

967. Spain:— Ramiro III., king 
of Leon. 

968. The Northmen devastate 
Galicia^bui are defeated and 
almost exterminated. 

973. Hungary :— St. Stephen, 
first hereditary king, extends 
the kingdom eastward ; gives 
it a constitution and written 

976. Spain :—lIizem, caliph 
of Cordova. 

Almanrar, regent, obtains 
many victories' over the 

980. Russia:— Waldimir I; 
marries Anna, lister of the 
emperor Basil II. 

963. Italy :— Venice distracted 
by violent commotions 

965. Sweyn I., or Sweno,kmf 
of Denmark, invades Eng- 

Digitized by 


82 TIIE world's progress. [Period v.— {a. d. 800-1066.)— 266 years. 

A.D, Paoaiisas of Socibty. 




Venice and Genoa carry on a 
flourishing irade between 
An* and Weeiem Europe. 

Siephe.i, duke of Hunga- 
ry, propagates Chrisuaniiy 
among nia aubjeciB. 

Papermadeqf cotton raga. 

Spain, ihe seat of Arabian and 
Jewish learning. 

Churches first built in the 
Gothic »tyte. 

Foundation of the House of 
Wisdom at Cairo. 

The Prench language first be- 
gins to be written. 

Leoy the grammarian. 

Ttio arcs faintly revive in Italy 
—paintings in fresco and 

Literature, the arts and sci- 
ences,and commerce flourish 
at Ghizni. 

Musical scale, consisting of six 
notes, invented by Guido 

Avicenna, a famous Arabian 
chemist and physician. 

Olaber Rad^ historian. 

CampoMM^ of Navarro, astro- 

Hermannua Contractu9;movik 
and mathematician. 


990. First ctsnoniztUion <^ 

996. Pope Gregory V. 

997. »• John XVL 

999. Pope Sylvester It 

Hungary a fief of the 
Romish church. 

1003. Pope John XVm. 

1009. PopeSerpius. 
1012. ** Benedict VIIL 

Persecution of the Albi* 
genaos in Laiiguedoc. 

1024. Pope John XIX. He 
gained nis election by bribe- 
ry. He was not of the clergy, 
but consul and senator of 

033. Pope Benedict IX., (ten 
years old). 

"Peace of God," pub- 
lished by the bishops. 

France, Gkrmamt, ^ec 

996.Fr.: -Robert 11.,^ 
—(the Wise,} succeeds I 
father Hugh. 

99S. — \a excommunicated by 
the pope for marrying his 
consul Bertha. 

— <duke of Bavana). 

Italy :— Ardoin, margrare 
of Ivrea, elected king. 

100^1. Italy :— Henry invited by 
ttie German party —Ardoin 
loses moi«t of luly and re- 
signs. — Pa via burnt in a 
quarrel between the troops 
and people. 

1015. Germany:— The empe- 
ror receives an annual tri- 
bute from Poland 

1024. Ger.. '-Conrad II, 
—(the Salic) first of 
Franconian line. 

1025. ExpediUon into Italy 

1029. War with the Poles. 
1031. Fr.:— Henry I.®— 

1032. Bargnndy amiezwl to 
the empire. 

Digitized by 


^Charlemagne to WiUiavi /.] 

THE world's progress. 







Eastern Empire. 

4. Scotland : ~ CoDstantioe 
IV. slain by 
995. Kenneth IV., (the Grim). 

Basil drives the Balgarians 
£rom Theasaly. 

Balg:aria again redursd to a 
Grecian province. 

— Romanus III.,S 

—expels the Saiacens from 

—poisoned by his wife Zoe. 

—Michael IV. W— 

England, &c. 

1008. Dreadful massacre of 
all the Danes in Eneland— 
upon which Sweyn lands a 
large armament, and brings 
war and all its miseries upon 
the country. 

lOOa Scotland :— Malcolm II., 
an able, renowned prince. 

1012. An annual tribute pro- 
mised to the Danes. 

1013. The Danes, under Sweyn, 
become masters of England, 

1016.— Edmund II. ,W- 
(Ironsides.) fights six baules 
with Canute, kin? of Den- 
mark, with whom he finally 
divides the kingdom. 

1016. Canute flff 

the Great, patronises litera- 
ture and the church. 

1027. Ireland : — Brian Bom, 
sole monarch. 

1031. Canute penetrates into 
Scotland— subdues Malcolm. 

1082. -performs a pilgrimage 

to Rome. 
1034. Scotl'd .'—Duncan, king. 

1035. —Harold I.J 
(Harefootr) cruel an( 
popular — ruled by Earl 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

995. Norway :—01af I. 
Ohrisiianhy introduced. 

997. Droniheim founded. 

Mahmud Sultan ufGhix> 
ni, adds Transoxiania, Ca- 
bul, and part of India to his 
dominions; patronizes litera- 

996. Spain :— Division of the 
Mohammedan kingdom of 

1000. Sancho III., (the Great,) 
king of Navarre, takes the 
title of emperor. 

1000. Savoy :— independent un- 
der Bervald, its nrsi count. 

Poland : — Boleslas L, 
(the Lion-hearted). 

1006. Pestilence in Europe for 
three years. 

1012. Spain:— Suleiman, ca- 

1014. Denmark :— Harold III., 

1015. "Norway :— Olaf II. 

1016. Denmark :— Canute II., 
(the Great). 

1019. Norway conquered by 


Venice, Genoa, and Pisa 

rise into importance. 
1025. Poland :-MiecislaB U. 

_ 1095. Spain :— Ramiro 1 , kmg 

of AiTagon. 
1037. Ferdinand I., of Castile, 

in right of his wife succeeds 

to Leon ; succcfisful against 

the Mohammedans. 
1036. Denmark : — Hardica* 

nute IlL 
1087. Norway :— Magnus Lt 

(the Good). 

Digitized by 


84 THE WORLd'i PRoaRESS. [Ptfrwd K— (a. D. 800-1066.)— 266 ^«an. 


FV*tf u#i, the Persian Homer. 
Franeot mathematician. 
Otorgt CedremUf hiatorian. 

Miehad Padlus^ a celebrated 
Greek philosopher and hia< 

English parents prohibited br 
law from selling their chil- 

First age of scholastic philoso- 


1038. The Pope, for his scan- 
dalous conduct, driven from 
Rome, but re-esuiblished by 
the emperor, Conrad. 

1044. —again driren from the 
throne, and succeeded by 
Sylrester III. After three 
months Benedict is restored 
by tlie Counts of Tusculum. 
But finding (he people will 
not tolerate his crimes, he 
sells tlie papal chair to Ore 

—deposed for simony, by 
a councU called by Henry 


1046. Pope Clement H. 

1018. DamaKualL,23 days. 
" Leo IX., the first who 
kept a regular army. 

1063. —is defeated and taken 

prisoner by the Normans. 
10m. The papal chair vacant 

one year. 

Excommunication of the 

Patriarch of Constantinople, 

and the Greeks. 

1055. Pope Victor U. 

Hiidebrand, the real 
head of the church from the 
time of Leo IX. The church 
improving in piety and dis- 

1057. Pope Stephen IX. 

1058. Nicholas IL 
Benedict X., (antipope). 
The election of pope 

transferred to a conclave of 

1059. Quarrel between the 
popes and the German em- 
perors, respecting investi- 
tures and nominauon to the 
Holy See. 

1061. Pope Alexander H. 

1062. Berenger, a celebrated 
French ecclesiastic. 

Alexander forbids the 
massacre of the Jews. 

1066. Alexander deposes Ha- 
rold, and gives England to 
William the Conqueror, 

France, OsajcAiir. &c. 

duke of Normandy. 

—defeats the Bohemians 
and Hungarians — claims the 
right of nominating to the 
papal chair. 

1016. France :— Dispute be- 
tween William ine Con- 
queror and William of 
Arques, for the duchy oi 

1053. Germany .-—Henry m 
causes his son, Henry, to be 
proclaimed king of the Ro- 
mans. This title was ap- 
plied, for several centuries, 
to the Icing's eldest son. 

Ger. :-Henry IV. f^ 
—(the Great), aged six years, 
under the tutelage of his 
1058. Roger, duke of Apulia, 
becomes a vassal or the 

1060. Fr.;-..PhillpI.W- 


Digitized by 


'^Charlemagne to William I.] 



Eastbrn Empirb. 

1938 Earthquake and famine at 

IMl iMichael V.,W 


1M2 -ZoedcTheodora.^— 

1012 -ConBianiine X.,^— 

First invasion of the Seljuk 
,^^j Turks. 
1W3 The Russians invade Thrace 

with 100,000 men, and are 

repeatediy deleaied by the 




— Theodora,fif 

the last of Macedonian dy- 
The Greek church becofies 

Michael VI. ,9 

OStra ioiichus). 

• aacB- 


—Constantlne XI. ,i 

England, &c. 

1099. -Hardicanuie.W- 
Scoi'd. :— Macbeth mur- 
ders Duncan, and usurps the 

The Saxon line restored 
under JL 

1(M2. E d w a r d® 

(the Confessor). The coun- 
try prospers under his mild 

1051. Rebellion of Earl God- 
win nnd his sons. 

William, duke of Nor- 
mandy, visits Edwani. 

1053. The Dane-gelt abolished. 

Earl Godwin dies 
The Welch and the Irish 
several times invade Eng- 
land, but are repressed by 
Harold, son of Godwin. 

1054. Macbeth defeated and 
killed at Laii^fanan, by 
Siward, earl orNorihwm- 

1067. Scotland:— Malcolm m. 


066. -Harold II., H- 
elected king: killed at the 

— WILLIAM I ,® — 
duke of Normandy, styled 
" the Conqueror." 

End of the AngI 
Saxon dynasty. 

Edgar Atheling lliea to 

Tub Would, elsewhere. 

1012. Denmark : — Magnus, 
(the Good,) of Norway, king. 

1047. Denmark :— Sweyn Ea- 
tritson, or Suenon V. 

lODO. The Pisans and Genoese 
take Sardinia and Corsica 
from the Saracens. 

1055. The Turks reduce Bag- 
dad, and overturn the eni' 
pire of the caliphs. 

1059. Sweden: — IneeUlu^ or 
Ingo I., the first Chrietian 

1060. Robert Guiscard, the 
Norman, is created by the 
pope, duke of Apulia. 

1062. 70,tJ00 Europeans sre 
killed, or made prisoners by 
the Turks in Palestine. 

1065. Jerusalem taken by the 

1065. Castile and Leon:— Al- 
phonzu, king. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

PERIOD. YI.— The MiddU Ages.-^Contirmed.y^ 

A.B. PK00RB88 OF SOOUTT, etc 





Feudal System introduced in 
Eagland hj the Normana. 

Surnames fim used among 
tbe Eaglish nobility. 

10»^ Knighta errant in Spain. 

Jhgulphu$j historian, secro' 
uiy 10 W;i:iam the Con- 

JUorianue Seotu*. 

Booketlkre first heard of. 

London Bridge and Westmin- 
ster MaU ^i:i 

LanfranCj archbiifedp of CBn> 

Dooniaday^ Book ronmJltd by 
order of Williaiu Jm Con- 

WilLiatn of Spires, raathepa* 

A rigid police established in 

England.— The curfew. 
I^orman Pretich taueht in JkJl 

the schools, and mane use of 

in all legal proceedings. 
Literature patronized m the 

East by Meleic Shah. 

Fortress of Newcastle^ and of 
Carlisle built. 


Popery at the height 
of its potoer, claiming 
eupreme dominion, tern' 
parol and epiritual, over 
ail the states of Christen^ 

1073. Pope Gregory VII., 
(Ilildebrand,) who attempts 
to free all ihe clergy from 
the civil jurimliction. He 
quarrels with the emperor. 

1074. Simony and celibacy 

1075. The pope sends legates 
to the various courts of Eu- 

todepoee the pope— isexcom 
barefoot to his holiness, makes 
his feet. 

1076. Tuscany and Genoa be 
the Empress Matilda. 

Francs, GBUiAirr, 6c Spain. 

1066. William, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, claims the crown of 
England, and makes war 
upon Harold to obtain it 

1071. Philip engages in a 
war with Robert, count of 

1072. Henry IV. of Germany, 
summoned before the pope, 
for selling fhe investiture of 
bishops. Treats the man- 
date with contempt. 

1073. —summoned again by 
Gregory VU. 

1076. —sends an ambassador to 
municated by Gregory. Goes 
humble submission, and kisses 

queathed to the Holy See by 

1076. Spain:— The Cid. 

1078. The pope sets up Ru dolph, of Bararia, as anti- 
emperor. Rudolph dies in 
103a Ger.:-Henry IV. de- 
grades Gregory for his in trigues against him, and makes 
an expedition into Italy, and procures another pope to be 
elected. The war continues till 

1084, when Henry triumphs 
over Gregory, who flees to 8a lemo, and dies in exile in lUSo. 

IXU. The order of the Carthu- 
instiiuted by Bruno. 

V» Pope Victor lU. 


Urban IL 

1065. Spain :— Toledo uken 
from (he Moora, by Don 
Rodrigo, the Cid, assisted by 
Raymond, count of Tou- 

1086. Spain:— The battle of 

1087. France: — War with 
England: Robert, duke of 
Normandy, opposes Wil- 
liam Rufus. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 
1066-1299— WI///flW the Qmqturor to Othnian I. 




Eabtrrm Empirb. 

Eudocia.H — 

Sbe fDarri«3 

Romanus III., _ 

(Diogenes.) He valiantly 
but vainly opposes the 
Turks — is dereated and 
laJcen prisoner by Alp Ars- 
Un,Emirof Omrah. 

^Michael VH.,® 


Andronicus LflB 

— Constantino XII. v 


Enolamd ic Scotland. 

1066. —William I-,W — ■ 

" THE C0WQ,UBB0R,"nr8t Of 

the Norman line. 

1068. Edgar Atheling, heir of 
the Saxon line, takes refuge 
in Scotland. His sister, 
Margaret, marries Malcolm 


1070. The feudal svstem m- 
trodaced by the king. All 
the offices of the government 
placed in the hands of Nor- 
mans. The Norman l*"" 
ffuaee introduced. 

Malcolm III. of ScoUand, 
ravages Durham. 

lOTi. Peace between the Nor- 
mans and ib^ Scots 

Syria and Palestine subdued 
by Melek Shah. 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1067. Poland : — Bolealas XL, 
—he conquers Russia. 

1068. Poland :— Romanus Dio 

1070. Norway : —Bergen buUL 

1076. Robert, the king's son, 
raises a rebellion m Nor- 

1078 Nic«phorus, W 


1061 Alexius I.W (Com- 

nenus). The empire m- 
vaded by Robert Ouiscard; 
the Norman, who defeats 
Alexius at Durazxo. 

After the capture of Jerusa- 
lem, by the Turks, the Chns- 
tlan pilgrims are insuitod, 
robbed and oppressed, which 
gives rise to the crusades. 
—Great struggle between 
Christianity andMohamme- 

1074. Syria: — Melek Shah, 
(Emir.) extends his domm* 
ions from ihe Jaxartes to the 

1076. Denmark :— Harold IV. 

Palestine invaded and 
subdued by Melek Shah.— 
Jerusalem takeiL 

1077. Hungary: — LadislML 

1079. PoUnd :— Stanislas, M- 
shop of Cracow, murderei 
The king excommunicated 
and dethroned. 

1079. Poland :—UladisIa8 L 

1083. luily: — Rome taken 

after a siege of two years, 

by Henry IV. 
1064. BOHEMIA erected mto 

a kingdom by the empereor 

Henry IV. 

1087. William invades Prance, 
and IB killed at Mantes. 

1037. —William II. ,W 

Revolt of the Norman 

1090. Sicily conquered by 
Roger the Norman, after a 
war of thirty years with lt« 
masters, the SarmeeniL 

Digitized by 



THR world's progress. 

[Period VI.—Tke Middle Ages,-^ 








France, German r & Spain 

1093. Conrad, son of the em* 
peror, rebels. 

The popes continue to struggle against the empire, 

1091. Spain :— Pedro I., k. 
—of Navarre and Arragon. 

The Crusades :— Peter, the Hermit, preaches against the Turks in all the countries of 
Christendom. ■ • 

I The Council op Clermont. 

The FIRST CRUSADE ;— P e t e r the H e r m i t , and Walter, the Pennyless, set 
out with a vast rabble, 3iX), 000 of whom perish before the Wiuriors are ready to start. 

The chieftains of the first cruside were, 

I.Godfrey of Bcaillor 

or Uouloa:ne. 
•2. HughofVcrmandois. 

3. R o b e r t of Normandy 

4. Robert of Flanders. 

5. Stephen of Charircs. 

6. Raymond of Toulouse. 

7. nohemond. 

8. Tancred. 
600,000 warriors, 100,000 


Nathan Ben Jechiel^ learned 

Knights of St. John insti- 

Anna Coninena, daughter of 
Alexius I., Eastern emperor, 

William of Poilou^ first trou- 

Abelard^ French scholastic. 
Jeffrey of Monmouth^ histo- 

The Knighta Templar: 

Tograiy Hairi^ and AbdaUah 
Sharfaddin, Arabian poets. 

Scholastic Philosophy attains 
its highest pomt by the 
WTiiin» of Peler Abelard, 

Peterj the Lombard, (master 
of sentences). 

1099. Pope Paschal IL 

1118. Pope Gelasius II. 

1119. <* CalistusII. 

1123. First Lateran, or ninth 
general council. 

1124. IlonoriusII. 

1104. Spain :~Alfonzo I., kin; 
of Navarre and Arragon. 

1106.Ger.:-Henry V._. 
— maintains the right ofm- 

1108Fr.:-Loul8 VI.,fg 
— Le Gros. Abbe Sugar, 

1109. Germany :— Henry en- 
ters Italy, takes the pope 
prisoner, and compels him 
to crown him. 

1114. Henry V. marries iMa 
tilda, of England. 

1118. Spnin:— A>fcDao L cap- 
tures Saragossa. 

1120. Rivalry between Eng- 
land and France com- 

1125. Germany :~Lot hairs 

1 1 .® opposed by Pre- 

doric, and Conrad, duke of 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 


Eastbiuv Empire. 





Order, learning, and com 
merce revire. 

By the courage and talents of 
the Comneni, the empire ia 
feared or respected Dy the 
nations of Asia and Europe. 

Invasion by the crusaders: 
great numbers pass through 

BatUe of Borylaeum, which 
secures the march of the 
crusaders through Asia Mi- 

Acre taken by the crusaders. 

Tripotls taken by cnisaders. 

Berytus and Sidon taken by the 

— John L. fj (Comne- 

nus)^ noble prince ; refornu 
Ihe manners of his people. 

Tyre taken by the cnisadfera. 

England &, Scotland. The World, elsewhere. 

1093. Scotland :— Malcolm III. 
invades England, and is 
slain near Alnwick Castie by 
Roger de Mowbray. 

l(m. Scot. :— Donald Bane, 


William again invades 

Sct'd. :— Duncan usurps 
the crown. 

William quarrels wl'.h 
Anselm, archbishop of Can- 

1098. Scotlaml :— Edgar puts 
out Donald's eyes and de- 
thrones him. 

1100. William U. accidentally 
shot by Sir Walter Tyre). 

— H e n r y I 

(Beauclerc,) grants theling- 
liah a charter, and marries 
Maud, a Saxon, thus uniting 
the Norman and Saxon in- 
1101. Robert, duke of Nor- 
mandy, invades England. 

1106. Henry invades Norman- 
dy ; takes Robert prisoner 
at the battle of Tincnobrai. 

Scotland :— Alexander I. 

1107. Henry quarrels with An- 

1120. Shipwreck and deaih of 
Prince William and 140 no- 

1134. Insurrection in Norman- 
dy suppressed. 

Scotland :— David I. pro- 
motes civilization. 

10^. Hungary :—CoIoman. 

1096. Ecrypt: — Mustali. :h« 
eishih Fatimile caliph. Ho 
takes Jerusalem. 

1097. Baldwin founds the 
principality of Edessa. 

099. Jerusalem taken bv the 
crusaders, under Godfrey 
who is elected king. 

1102. Poland :—Boles]as IIL 

1 106. Denmark : — Nicholas. 

1106. Italy :— Venice, Genoa, 
and Pisa greatly enriched 
by the crusades. 

1109. Norway :—Segurd'8 ex- 
pedition to Palesune. 

1117. Persia:— Sanjar subdues 
Khorasan and Samarkand. 

1119. War between Pisa and 

1120. Italy: — Rise of the 
bouse of Guelph. 

Zen^i, governor of M 
Bul, a great prince. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period VL—The Middle Ages.-- 






PnooRsss OF Society, eic. 

AristoOe's logic cornea into 

Pandeett of the Roman Utw, 
(Justiniaa,) discovered at 
Amalfl, and the study o( the 
eivU law revived. 

Gratian collects the canon law. 

WiUiam of Malmabury^ Eng- 
lish hiatorian. 

Vacariut teachea civil law at 

Otho, bishop of Friesengen, 
historian, introduces the pe 
ripatetir. philosophy into 

Benjamin qf Tudela^ a JeWj 
travels from Spain to India, 
by Constantinople, and 
turns through Egypt. 

The magnetic needle known 

in Italy. 
Siiidas, lezicograrber. 
Eben Bxra^ orToledo, Jewish 


Arnold, of BresetOj condemn* 

ed and burnt. 
E%utathiu9y co'Pmentalor on 

Homer and Dionysius Per. 

Bank 9f Vmine established.— 
Poire at Leipsic. 

London cmtaina 40,000 inha- 

Poem of the Cid. 

Collegef of theology, philoso- 
phy and law at Paris. 

Enslish commerce confined to 
the exportation of wool.— A 
wooller manufactory esta- 
blished at Worsted, and soon 
after at Norwich. 


1127. —makes war against 
Roger, king of Sicily. 

113-3. Innocent II. and Anacle- 
tua, rival popes. 

1137. A pretended Messiah in 

113S. —another in Persia. 

1139. Second Lateran, or tenth 
general council. 

Framcb, GsaUANY &Sr*ASX. 

1 1 12. Spain : — Alfonzo VH., 
king, Leon and Castile. 

1 131. Spain :-6arda IV., king 
of Navarre. 

Ramiro II., king of Arva> 

1135. Lothaire in Italy— cap. 

ture of Amalfi. 

1137. Pr.:-Louis VII.® 

— Cle Jeune). 
1133. Germany : — H o u s e 

of S u a b i a : 

—Conrad I-Sf 

1139. Portugal becomes a king. 

dom.— Henry of Besai^.oa, 

1141. 'Germany and Italy: — 

Dissensions of the GueJfa 

and Ghibelines. 

1143. Pope Celestin IL 

1 144. '' Lucius II. 

1145. " Eugeniusin. 

1147.TheSecondCrusade excited by St. Bernard, 
and joined by the emperor Conrad and his nephew Fre- 
deric Barbaroesa, and Louis VII. of France. 

1149. France :— Louis divorces 
his queen, Eleanor, who 
marries Henry of Anjou. af- 
terwards king of England ; 
thus Guienno and Poitou are 
lost to Franco. 

1150. Spain :— Sancho V., king 
ol Navarre. 

1152. Germany and Italy:— 

1153. Pope Anastasius IV. 

1154. Pope Adrian IV. (an Eng- 
lishman, Nicholas Breaks- 

1159. Pope Alexander IIL 
Victor IV., antipope. 

1160. Order of the Carmelites 

The Waldenses and 
Albigenses begin to ap- 
1164. Pascal UL, antipope. 

1167. Rome taken by Frederic Babaroesa. 

1166. Calistus UL, anUpofM. 

Frede r ic I. , ) 

1157. Spain : — Castile and 
Leon divided under Ferdi- 
nand II. and Sancho H. 

1158. Germany:— The empe- 
ror Frederic receives the 
title of king of Bohemia at 
the diet of Ralisbon :— con- 
quers Poland, and makes it 

1162. Frederic destroys Mitan 
Spain : — Alfonzc H., 
king of Arragoo. 

Digitized by 


1066-1229.— Continued.] 





—Manuel Commenus. yh — 

Edena beini; retaken by the 
Turks, gires rise to the 
eecoaa crusade. 

The Normanst under Ro^er, 
arrive before ConBiantinfv 
pie i are repulsed by Itfanuel. 


EAaTBRM Empirb. 

England & Scotland. The World, elsewhere. 

The Greeks reduce Apulia 
and Calabria. 

Manuel forms the desini or 
conquerin? Italy and the 
western empire, but fails. 

Kelso, Melrose, and Holy- 
rtKxl house founded. 
1127. Matilda, the king's 
daughter, marries Geoflrey 


1135. Stephen* 

of Blois. 
1136. Matilda asserts her right 

to (he throne ; 

David, king of Scotland, 

assists her. 
1138. —is defeated in the " bat- 

tie of the Standard." 

1141. Stephen made prisoner 
at the battle of Lincoln. 

Civil war : Stephen and 

1149. Henry Plantagenet in- 
vades England. 

1 130. Sweden :— Ragwald L 
1133. " Magnus L 


1154. —Henry II..W — 

1168' TVumuM a Becitre/ intro- 
duced to the king's notice by 
Theobold, archbishop of 
Canterbury— becomes chan- 
cellor and preceptor of the 

1159. Becket sent as ambassa- 
dor to France. 

11G2. —made archbishop of 

Canterbury — opposes the 

1164. —resists the constitutions 

of Clarendon — flies to 

1166. Scotland :— William. 

1139. PORTUGAL becomes a 
kingdom, tu:der Alfonso l.fv 

Sweden :— Suercher H. 

1147. Russia: — the city o/ 
Moscow founded. 

IICO. Denmark:— The 

infested with pirates. 

1160. Sweden :-£dk 31 

1157. Denmark: Waldemarl. 

1158. Venice a great maritiffla 

1162. Sweden .'—Charles VH. 

1167. Italy :— League of the 

Italian cities to 

their liberties. 

Digitized by 




\Petiod VL—The MiddU Ages.— 





PaooiiESS OF Socii^rv,eic. 


Founilation of the military 
order of Santiago. 

Circuit Judges appointed in 


1178. Jnnoeenrin., antipope. 

Tho pope Alexander, by a special art, relievos the rlersy 
of ljt>rk*iliire from keeping the archdeacon's dogs and hawics 
during his visiiaiioii. 

TIjc Waldcnses spread over the valley of Piedmont. They 
circulated the Sacred Scrip lures. They were the fore- 
runner!! of Protcsuintisin. Con demned by the Eleventh Gene- 
ral Cuuocilf and severely per secuted. 

1179. Third Laieran, or Ele- 
venth General Council. 

Robert Ware^ first French 

)>oei. Tr.m^ilaiion of his 
list, ties Jinis fl^ AiifrleteiTe, 
by Layanion, the first Eng- 
lish cum position. 

John TzeteSf Greek gramma- 

MaimonideCy of Cordova, one 
of the most learned of the 

Hcnruy of Himtinffton, and 
Williantj of Newbury, his- 

Rainulph de Glanville makes 
a digest of laws and customs 
of England. 

Dreadful massacre of the Jews 
at the coronation of Richard 


Teutonic order instituted. 

Boahodrii Ibu Shadad, author 
of a J Ah of Saladin, in Ara- 

The Jews become the princi- 
pal bankers of the world. 

Order of the Holy Trinity in- 
■lituted in Germany. 

1131. Pope Lucius IIL 

1185. Pope Urban in. 

1187. Pope Gregory VIIL 
1187. " Clement IIL 

l*'aANC£, GfiRMANV, ic SpAIN. 

I17n. France:— The Waldcn- 
ses. They deriveii iheir 
name from Pe.'er IVaido, a 
merchant of Lyons. 

1171. Frederick's fourth expe- 
dition into Italy. 

1 176. Frederick defeated at iha 
battle of Lcgnano. 

1178. Henry, the Lion, duke 
of Saxony, depos«d, and 
Saxony divided. 

1160. Fr.:-Ph Hip II.,W 

1183. The Peace of Constattce 
re-establishes ine indfpcnti^ 
ence oi Italian republica. 

1188. Spain : ~ Alfonxo IX. 
king of Leon. 

1100. Third Crusade led by Philip Augustus, of 
France, and Richard, of Eng land, and Frederick Barba- 

1191. Pope Celesiino III. 

1198. Pope Innocent HI. 

emncror and king of li 
and the Sicilies. 

1196. Richanl Coeur de Liou 
seized and retained in cap 

1198. Philip, of Buabia, and 
Oiho, of Saxony, dispute the 
crown; the former sup- 
ported by the Ghibelines, 
and the latter by the Guflts. 

Digitized by 


1066-1299.— Continued.] 



Eastern Empire. 



-Alexius n. 


- Andronicus L 



Isaac II.W- 


The empire invaded bj the 

Iconium taken by Frederick 
fiarbarossa, bu'. afterwards 

— ^Alexias Angelti«,^f- 
ostirper and tyrant. 

Englaxd & Scotland. 

1170. Bocket returns to Eng- 
land, and i& murdered at Uie 

1172. Henry conquers 

1174. Treaty of Falaise, In 
wiiich Willifim agrees to do 
homage (or Scotland. 

Ucnrv makes a pilgri- 
mage to the shrine of Bucket. 

I189.-Rtchard I.' 
(CoBur de Lion), 
gages in the thiitl cruaade. 

The World, elsewhere. 

1171. Egypt :—Saladin, buI. 

—He extends his domi- 
nions in Egypt, and con- 
quers Syria, A»>yria, Mcso- 
potamia, and Araljia. 

1174. Poland :—Miecislau8 III. 

1 175. Portugal— « fief of the 
Holy See. 

1178. Poland:— Casimir, (the 

1182. Denm«rk :— Cnmite. 

1183. Siiadin lakes AlepiM), 
nnd deposes the sultan or 

118.1. Poriupal :— Sanrho I. 
1186. Stliuim dircii.o all bis 
eflbris against the crusaders. 

1187. —gains the victory of 
Tiberias, and takes Jerusa- 
lem, which leads to 

1190. The third crusade. 

1191. Kingdom of Cyprus 

1191. Acre taken by tha cru- 


1193. Richard defeats Saladin in the battle of Awalon; but, 
abandoned by his associates, concludes a truce of Juea 

1193. John attempts to seize 
the crown in the absence of 

1193. Saladin diesL 

Digitized by 


94 THE world's progress. [Period VI.— Tke Middle Ages.^ 







The power of the pope eupre me — Rome mietresa of the world, and kingf her VMaalB 

The UDirefBitj of Bologna 
contains 10,000 studenis. 

VilU Hardouin^ historian. 
Saxo Grammaticua,\\vaumwcL. 

Univertity of Parit founded. 

The order of Franeiwan fri art inetiluted. 

1200. The pope ezcommunica tos Philip of France. 

1202. The fourth crusade by the French, Germans, and 
Venetians under the Marquis of Monserrat. Tliey take 

1204. The Inquisition in Fran ce. 

The works of Aristotle, im- 
ported from Constantinople, 
condemned by the council 
of Paris. 

Period of the Troubadours in 
France: the MinstreU in 
England; and the Minne- 
aingers in Germany. 

University of Padua founded. 

Stephen Langton, archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

Bitter persecution of the 

The doctrine of iransub- 
■tantiation and auricular 
confession established. 

1215. Fourth Lateran, and 
iweiah General Council 
against the Albigenses, and 
all heretics. 

1216. Pope llonorius III. 

1217. The fiiUi crusade by 
Andrew II., king of Hun- 

1227. Pope Gregory IX. 

1229. The Inquisition at Tou« 

The Scriptures forbid- 
den to ail laymen. 

Normandy reunited to 

1210. Germany :— Otlio plaea^ 
under the ban of the pope. 

1212. — Froderickll 


Spain :— The Christiana 
niin the battle of Navas de 

1215. Otho loees the battle of 

1217. Spam v-Feidinaod, king 
—— of Caouie.^ 

l223.Fr.:Loui8 VIII.9 

(The Lion). 

Crusade against the Al> 



1226. Fr. : Loui 

1227. Germany :— Crusade of 
the emperor after being ox- 

1230. Spain : — Castile and 
Leon unite<l by Ferdinand 
III., who tal'es Conlova Se* 
viile. radix, kc from tha 

Digitized by 


1066-1299.— Continued.] 

THE world's progress. 




Eastbrm Empirb. 

England dc Scotland. 

— AlexiM IV. _ 
The cruaadera plunder Con- 

Baldwin, count of Flanden. 





- Peter 




— John of Brienne,^^ 

king of Jeruealem, and em- 



Richard, returning home 
in disguise^ through Ger- 
many, is imprisoned. Is 
ransomed by hia subjecta for 
10,000 marks. 

— <leclarefl war against 
1199. Richard dies. 

1200. John, 9 

1201. Prince Arthur supported 

by France. 

Thi World, elsewhere. 

1207. The kingdom laid under 
an interdict. 

1208. John ezcommunicaterl, 
London obtains the right 

to elect its own Lord Mayor. 

1213. The pope declares John 
a usurper. John submits to 
hold his crown as a vassal of 
the pope. 

1214. Scotland :— Alexander II. 

1216. Magna Ghana signed at 
Runny mede. 

1216. -Henry III-W 

(4th PlantageneL) 

Earl of Pembroke, pro- 

1224. Henry's province of 
Poiiou seized by the king of 

1229. First expedition of Henry 
into France for the recovery 
of his estates. 

1233. First discovery of coal 
at Newcaatle. 

1202. Denmark : — Waldemar 

Poland : — Lesco, (the 

Livonia :— Institution of 
the order of Phorl swords to 
conquer the Pr usaians. 

1206. Genghis Khao 
subdues the north of China. 

1210. Italy .—First war of Ve- 
nice and Genoa. 

12ia Russia:— JuijelL 

1214. Frederick cedes to Den- 
mark all the provinces be- 
yond the Elbe and Eiser. 

1216. Tartaiy :— Overrun by 

the hordes of Genghis Khao. 

1217. Norway:— HacoV. 

1222. Two Greek kingdoms io 
Asia, Kice and Trebizond. 

John Ducas, emperor of 

Hungary : — Charter of 
Andrew U. Foundation of 

the national liberty. 

1234. Italy :— War of the Lom- 
bard cities with Frederick of 

236. Dreadful invasion of 
Europe by tha Mongola, un- 
der Biattt Khan. 

Digitized by 




[Period VJ.— The Middle Ages.— 





Prooress op Society, etc. 

Robert, of Gloucester, the firsi 
English wriier in rhyme. 

First war fleet in Spain at the 
conquest of Seville. 

Founciaiion or the Alhambra 
near Granada. 

S(. Edmund, of Canterbury, 

The University of Salaman- 
ca founded. 

Siik manufactory in Lucca; 
toooUen in Milan and Tus- 

Peter, of Albano, aairologer, 
physician, and naturalist. 

Rubruquia travels among the 

Private war and judicial com- 
bats suppressed in France 
by the laws of St. Louis. 

Parliament in England. 

The monaalic orders, by their 
toeallh, rigid discipline, 
and popuiar influence , be- 
come yowerful aids to pon- 
tifical atnbition. 


V2A\. Pope Celestinc IV. 

1243. Pope Innocent IV. 

Coniirmal atrugglea with 
the emperor Frederic. 

Sect of the Ftagellants. 

1254. Pope Alexander IV. 

The Jews every where 

1261. Pope Urban IV. 

The popes claim the 
right of ^ireseniing \d every 
benefice m the world. 

Fkamob, Gbrhavy ^Spaut. 

123S. Germany : — Froderie 
again excommonicated. 

1243. The Hanseattc 
I e a g u e~the chief towna 
are Lubec, Cologne, Bruns- 
wick, and Dantzic. 

1216. Henry of Thuringia set 
up for emperor by the pope, 

1247. William, of Holland. 

11^8. France :— Louis sets out 
on the seventh crusade. 

1250. Germany: ■ 

Conrad WW — 

1252. Spain: — Alfonso X. • 
king of Castile and Leon. 

1261. France :— Burgundy falto 
to the crown. 

of Naples. 

The pope succeeds in his long struggle for the do- 
of Italy, and places Charles of Anjou on the thranft 

1265. Pope Clement rv. 

1266. Henry of Castile, a Roman senator. 

126S. No pope for about three 

1271. Pope Gregory X. 

1263. Pragmatic sanction- 
foundation of the liberties of 
the Galilean church. 

1270. France :— Louis DL setB 
out on the eighth and laM 
crusade, and dies befora 
Timis— eucceeded by 

— Philip III.W — 
(The Hardy). 

Digitized by 


1005-1299.— Continued.] 

THE world's progress. 



Eastbkn Empirb. 

— Bfichacl Palaologus-W- 
— ncoreis Coostantinople. 

T\m Mongols in Aaia Minor. 

TIm MoDgolfl uJu Anlioch. 

Enoland a Scotland. 

UMO. Richard, earl of Corn- 
wall, heads the sixth cru- 
sade, and redeems Jerusa- 

iai2. Second expedition into 
France— defeated and com- 
pelled to make peace. 

ilM6. Henry marries EleanAr, 
of Provence. 

1249. Scot : Alexander El. 
—Repulses Haco, king 
of Norway — obtains the 
Scottish Isles. 

1258. Famous parliament at 

Oxford. Simon de 

Mont for t. 

1259. Peace with France. 

1265. First regular parlia- 
ment.— Civil war— the king 
made prisoner at Lewes— is 
released, and gains the bat- 
tle of Evesham. 

1270. Prince Edward Joins the 

Tub World, elsewhere. 

1241. Denmark :— Erie VL 

1249. The Hanse towns enp- 
ture Copenhagen. 

1250. Ejtypi :— The Mame- 
lukes rule— take Dama» 
cus and Aleppo. 

1255. Nice :— Theodore Lasca- 
ris, emperor. 

1256. Hulaku enters Persia, 
becomes sultan— takes Bag- 
dad, and puts an end to 
the caliohate. 

1268. Italy :-Dreadful naval 

war between Venice and 

1289. China :-Kublai Khan 

builds Pekin, and makes it 

his capital. 

1261. Norway :— Iceland sub- 

Italy .-—Charles I. 

1262. —becomes a papa] fief. 
Greenland tributary \M 

Norway :- 

-Magnus II. 


1266. Abaka Khan of Penia. 

1266. Magnus, of Norway, 
cedes to Scotland the H« 
brides and the Isle of Mao. 

1270. Hungary:- 


Digitized by 




[Period VL—T%e Middle Ages.^ 





Proorbsb of Sooikty, eic. 

Marco Polo travels in the 
E&st as far aa Pekin. 

First patent of nobility grant' 
6(1 to his goldsmith by the 
kii'f; of France. This was 
designed as an attack upon 
the I'eudai barons, and all 
the landed and hereditary 

Literature and science flourish 
in Spain, under Alfonso, the 

Chivalry and the tournaments 
introduced into Sweden. 

University of Lisbon founded. 

Roger Bacan^ of Oxford, the 
most learned man of the 
middle ages. 

Inmitution of the three great 
courts of law in England. 


Francs, Germany, & Spam 

1272. I^nguedoc falls to tiia 


1273. Ger. :— Rodolph 

founds the house o I 

1274. 14th General Council at Lyons; first re-uniao of 
the Eastern and Western Churches. 

1276. Pope Innocent V., 4 moe. 
** Adrian V., 1 mo. 
" John XXI., d mos. 

1277. Nicholas III., enriching 
his family at the expense of 
the church— he introduces 

1281. Pope Martin IV. 

1285. Pope Honorius IV. 

1288. Pope Nicholas IV. 

Nicholas IV. patronizes civil and religious literature, and 
improves and embellishes Rome. 

AUitrt, the mathemaucian, and 
Provencal poet 

1276 France at war with < 

1283. Germany 

makes his son, Albert, duke 
of Austria... 

1286.Fr.:-Phnip IV.9 
(the Fair.) 

1286. Spain :-AlfoDzo in. 
king of Arragon. 

Digitized by 


1066-1299.— Continued.] 



Eabtbrn Empikb. 





— — AndronicdB, fW- 
(ihe Elder.) 

DnioD with the Latin church. 

PezBecution of the Greeks. 

Othman establiehefl an inde- 
pendent rule, as chief of 
400 families, in the noith of 
Ar'a Minor. 

England & Scotland. 

1272.— Edward I.W — 


1276. War between England 
and Wales. 

1283. Edward has a son bom 
at Caernarvon, from which 
the title, Prince of Wales, 
descends to the eldest son of 
the king. 

Scotland :— Robert Bruce ond 
John Balliol contend for the 

1289. Last payment of Uibute 
to the pope. 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1272 Hungary: 

-Vladislas VI. W — 


1276. Sweden : — MagnuB L 

lussia :— Hanseatic set- 
tlement at Novogorod. 

1279. China:— Kublia Khan 
subdues the souihem king- 
dom, and becomes the Great 

China visited by Marco 
Polo. • 

1279. Poland :-Lesco II. W- 


1279. Portugal :— Dcnnis,\^ 
the father of his couu- 

1290. Norway :-Eric 11.®— 

1282. Sicilian vespers. 
1282. Denmark :— ParlianienI 
at Wuricmburg. 
First Ilandveste. 


1286. Denmark :-Eric VI. 

1289. The Mongols invade 
Hungary and Poland. 

1290. Hungary : —Andrew IIL 


the Venetian. 

Polantl : Wencesla^ 

king of Bohemia, takes Cra* 
cow, and becomes duke o 
Lesser Poland. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Perunl VL—The Middle Ages,^ 

Proorbbs of Society, etc. 



Petery of Albanoj aslmlogcr, 
phyEician, and naiurallsi.' 

John Holy wood, of England 

Richard Middleion. 

Cimabtte^ the first of modem 
painters at Florence. 

Amolf d\ Lapo^ the father of 
tnuUem Italian architecture. 

The Jn/luenee 0/ the 
eruaadet teas great 

expanding the 

mind of Europe-^e- 
fining the general 
manners — exciting 
a spirit of geogra- 
phical research and 
adventure-^and pro- 
moting improvement 
in the arts and sci- 
ences — thus under 

First letters of marque grant- 
ed by Edward 111. against 
the Portuguese. 

1293. Celestine V.xhe abdi 

1292. The papal chair vacant 

two years and three months, 
bistituiion of the order 

of the Celestines. 

1291 Pope Boniface Via 

1296. Struggles with France. 

1297. CanonisatioD of Louis 

Pramcb. Gbrmany dc Spain. 

1291. Germany : 

— Adolphus,^ 
of Nassau. 

Spain r-JamesIL k. of 

mining instead of 
s trengthening the 
power of papal liomej 
oy advancing li be- 
ral ideas and free- 
dom of thought. 

129&. Spain:* Ferdinand IV. 
in Castile sa d Leon. 

Philip BucccsBfuIIj iii> 
radas Flanders. 

1298. Germany : — Adolphut 
deposed by a Diet, wnich 


— Albert I.f 
son of Rodolph.— AdaTphua 
slain in the struggle which 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 




Eastern Empirb. 

Capture of Acre by the Mu- 
melukes— «nd of the king- 
dom of Jerusalem. 

The Mongols drive the laat 
■ultan of Iconium from his 

The Genoese obtain the trade 
of the Black Sea, and rise to 
great power 

England 6c Scotland. 

Thb Woald, elsewhere. 

Othnnan mvadea Nicomedia, 
and esubliahes the Ottoman 

I'i'.H. Edward decides the 
Scottish dispute in favor of 

1^2. A piratical warfare be- 
tween England and France. 
—Philip gets possession of 

1292. Hungary:— The pops 
sets up Charles Martel, 
crown prince of Naples, as 

1294. China:— Tymw ChajL 

1295. Poland :- 

— Premislss U.fW- 
1296. Poland:— Less II. 8 

1296. Ball 1 defeated; sub- 
mits to Edward. 

1297. Scotland :—S i r WIL 
I i a m Wallace .— S i r 
William Douglas, 
Robert Bruce, and 
other chiefs head a rebellion 
against the English. 

1299. —they are defeated at \299. Foundation of tha 
Falkirk by king Edward I. i OTTOMAN or TURKISH 
F.MPIRE in Bythinia, uii- 
if0» )ihmanL 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

PERIOD YlI.— T/ie Middle Air«.— 1209 to 1458.— 







Proorkss op Society, eic. 

Univen«ity ai Lyons founded. 
—Rapid advances in civili- 
Kaiiun —Revival of ancient 
learning.— Improvcmenui in 
the arid and sciences— and 
progress of libcriy. 

Thk Mariner's Com- 
pass invented at Naples, 
by GF/'ota, native of Amalii. 

University at Avignon. 

/> a n r e , the father of modem 
Italian poetry, flourishes. 

Amid the struggles of the 
Guelfs and Ghibelines, 
Italy becomes the cradle oi 
modern literature and im- 
proving civilization. 

Uoivcrsiiy at Orleans. 

University at Perugia. 

University at Coimbra. 

Kniffkte of Si. John at 

Order of Knishts Templar 
abolished.— The barons in 
England extort from Ed 
ward II. a reformation of 
abusejt. Parliaments are to 
be held every year, and to 
appoint to all important 


France, Germany, & Spau. 

1302. First convocation of tbe 
States-General in France. 

Guienne restored to Eng- 

1304. France at war with 

Germany:— The Swiss 
towns rise inui importance 
— oppressed by the House of 

1303. Pope Boniface VIII. 

Council of Paris. 

Bull unam sanctum. 

Pope Benedict XI. 

V^acancy in iho papal 
chair nearly eleven months. 

— The papal power de- 

1305. Pope Clement V. 

Seal of the popes t ran sferred to Avig- 

1306. Persecution of the Jews 
in Franco. 

Germany * — Rudolf 

of Austria. 9 ■ 

1307. Persecution of the 
Knif^hts Templar. 

Ger.: — WilUam TeU 
shoots Geslcr. 

1308- Germany : ^H e n r y 

of Luxemburg. ^f^— 

General insurrection is 
1309. Spain: — Ferdinand IV. 
takes Gibraltar. 

1311. General Council at Vien 

Another vacancy in the 
papal chair of more than 
two years. 

1316. Pope John XXII. 

Taxes imposed upon all 
the countries of Europe, to 
enrich the treasury of the 

1311. Lyons united to France. 

1312. Spain :— Alfonso XI. 
of Castile and Leon. 

1314. Fr.:-Loui8 X.®- 

Ger. :— Louis of Bava- 
ria, and Frederick of Aus- 
tria, conten«l for the crown. 

1315. Fr :— Edict for the en- 
frauchiwmeni of slaves. 

Battle of Moraranen— the 
Ausirians defeated by the 

1316. Fr.:-Phi lip V.W^ 
(the Ix»ng. ) He succctls bjf 
virtue of the Siilimie .kw 
now first established. 

Digitized by 


THE world's progress. 
154 years. — Olkman to the Fall of the Eastern Empire. 



Eastern Empirx. 

W«r of the Catalana, under 
ILager do Flor. 

Othman incresMS his poeses- 
•ioftg ; abandons the pasto- 
ral life, and fortifies towns 

Enoland &. Scotland. The World, elsewhere. 

1303. Edward invades Scot- 
land. — Wallace betmyed 
and beheaded. — Scotland 

Edward recovers Gui- 

1306. Scotland : — R o b e r i 
Bruce proclaimed king 
—is obliged to flee; but. 
Edward dying, resumes his 

Hie Knights of SL Johc of 
Jerusalem, established at 


ScoL :— Bruce strengtn 

ens himself by repealed ad- 

va -«ages and prudent con- 

du V, 

1314. Edward invades Scot- 
land, and is defeated at the 
Battle of Bannock- 

The Scots invade Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

1301. Hungary :— Andrew, the 

Venetian. ^|f 

Exiincuun of the house 
of Arpad. 

— Wenceslas III. of Bo- 


1304. — Otto v., of Bava* 


1305. Polai rt ;— Vladlslas IV., 
in Little Poland, and 

Duke Henry, of Glogau, 
in Great Poland. 

Russia subject to the 
Khan of Tarlary. 

1307. Switzerland: 

W m . Tell escapes from 

SWISS Republics 
founded, Nov, 7. 

1306. Hungary :—Carobert, of 


1309. Poland united into one 
monarchy under Vladislas 

Naples: — Robert, the 
Good. He nspires to the 
dominion of Italy. 

1310. Italy:— The Council of 
Ten established at Venice. 

1313. Italy ;— Maitco Vimonti. 

1314. Tunis made iribuuiry to 

1316. Italy :— Cartruccio, Lord 
of Lucca and Pisa 

1317. Robert, the Good, aaena- 
tor of Rome, and 

1318. —lord of Genoa. 

1319. Final establishmen of 
the oligarchy at Venieck 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. [Period VII.— Th€ Middle Ages.' 









PBOORBaa OP SoGiBTT, etc. 

DarUty dies. 

John de Muri» introduces 
notes ofdifTerent lengtti into 
music— and the method of 
distinguishing them. 

Romance poetry of the middle 
ages flourishes. 

Mayrunis commences the cele- 
brated disputations in the 

Clock constructed on roathe- 
maiical principlea, by Rich- 
ard Valigfon. 

Unna^ a monic, and astrono- 
mer of Oxford, constructs a 
fnap of tlie northern seas. 

Thoma8,of Bradwardine, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

Giotto, a shepherd boy, the 
first who drew portraits 
from life. 

Greek literature revives.— 
Barlatim teaches Petrarch. 
—Leonlitis leciures on Ho- 
mer at I'^kirence. 

First comet, whose course has 
been accurately described. 

GUNPOWDER in use at 

the l>ii(ile of Cref^-sy, 
Lippo Moinmt Giotirto, Flo- 
rcncine painter. 

First htMk at Genoa. 


13^. Contest of the popes 
with Louis of Bavaria. 

1338. Crusade preached againsi 
I^uis, who sets up Nicholas 
V. as anti-pope. 

1334. Pope Benedict XII. 

1339. Struggles in Rome be- 
tween ihe Colonna and the 

1342. Pope Clement VI. 

Democracy at Rome, under Rienzi, the last of the Tri- 

Matuifaclure* improve in 
England. — Cmnmwce in- 

Bartolu^ and Baldu», cele- 
brated jurists 

Merino sheep introduced into 
Spain, by Peter IV. of Ara- 

Sir John MandevilWa Tra- 
vels, the first English boolc 
in proee. 

13o2. Pope Innocent VI. 

1354. Rienzi killed.— Albenoz, 
cardinal legate, restores the 
papal dominion. 

France, Germany, d: Spam. 

1322. France: 


I V.S-<lhe Fair.) 

Germany :— Frederic, of 
Austria defeated and laJcen 
\m\. Germany : — Louis ex- 
communicated by John XII.* 
—appeals to a general coun* 

1328. Franco:— Philip VI 
of Valols.9 

1332. France :— The Flemings 
revolt and ackno^vJedge Ed- 
ward III. as king oi Franca. 

1338. France:- War with Eng- 

Germany :— Declaration 
of the Diet of Frankfort, 
that the pope had no tempo- 
ral power in the empire. 

I.oui3 ^ides with the 
English against France. 

1316. France : — Normandy 
overrun by Edwani, with 
his son, the Black Princo.— 
French defeaio*! at Crensy. 

Germany :— C h a r 1 e s 
IV., king of Bohemia. 

The empire offered to 
Edward III , who declines. 

1330. France :— .1 o h n ,Bs — 
(the Good.) 

1355. Germany :— Promulga- 
tion of the golden BuU. 

1356. France :— King John de- 
feated and taken prisofter at 
P->iiier3.— Charles the dau- 
phin regent. 

Insurrection in Pans. 

1360. France:— John regains 
his liberty— cedes much ter 
riiory to England. 

Digitized by 


1299-1463— 154 y«?ar5.— Continued.] THE world's progress. 







Eastern Empire. 

Disputes and civil war be- 
tween the emperor and his 
too, .Michael. 

Oriclian, sultan of the Turks, 
makes Pnisa his capital. 

Andronlcus, WT 

(the younger.) 

— John Cantacusene. 


War with the Genoese, defeat 
of the Greeks and Venetians. 

John PaiflBologUB.W 



England dc Scotland. 

1322. Lancaster executed. 

1323. Conspiracy against the 

1327. Peace between Scotland 
and England. — The inde- 
pendence of Scotland ac- 

— E dwardIII. 
1329. Scotland :— David 

1332. Edward invades Scot- 
land.— Balliol crowned, but 
«oon expelled. 

1333. Battle of Halidon Hill. 
—Balliol restored — does ho- 
mage to Edward. 

1338. Struis;§le for the French 
crown,which lasts 120 years. 

1340. The victory of Helvoet 
Sluys ogives spirit to the 
English navy. 

David, of Scotland, hi- 
vades England. 

1^6. Battle of Creasy. 

\\\7. Siege and capture of 

1350. Victory over the Spanish 
fleet. — Parliament divideil 
into two chambers, lords 
spiritual and temporal. 

1366. Edward, the 
Black Prince 
gains the battle o 
F o i t i e r s . — John made 
prisoner. -Two years' truce. 
—Edward again invades 
Scotland— is obliged to re- 

1368. —again invades France. 

Amumh L, Sultan of the 1360. Peace of Bretignl. 
Torko. ' 


The World, elsewhere. 

1320. Russia : — The grand 
duchy of Wtadiniir confe^ 
red on Ivan Daniloviisch. 

1326. Tarury : — T a m e r • 
lane born at Kesh. 

1327. Italy :-lnvaded by Louis, 
emperor of Germany. 

1333. Poland: — Casimlr the 

1339. Italy:— Simon Bocane> 
gra, doge of Genoa. 

1340. Denmark : — Waldemar 
IV. restorer of the kingdom 

1342. Hungary : — Louts the 

1343. Italy : Commercial 

treaty between Venice and 
the sultan of Egypt and 

1347. Italy :— R i e n z i , the 
last of the Tribunes, rules 
at Rome. 

1360. Italy :— Naval war be- 
tween Venice and Genoa. 

I3Sj3. Establishment of the Ot- 
tomans in Europe. 

1354. Italy :-Hienzi killed- 
papal (owcr restored. 

1366. First war between Hun- 
gary and Venice. 

1359. Hungary :— Conquest of 
the principalities lymg on 
the Danube. 

Digitized by 




[Period VIL^Tke MidtUe Ages,-- 









Paoa.lliiib OF SUCIETV, rlc. 

Petrarch and Boccacio. 

Charles V. founds a college of 
medicine and astrology at 


Foundation of the Univertity 
qf Vienna. 

Oeof. Chaucer, father 
of English poetry. 

Myateriea played in France. 

WickUffe'9 tranalation of the 

University qf Heidtiberg 

Proissart't Chronicles. 
John Van Eyck^ invented oil 

painting — founder of the 

Flemieh school. 

The first mill in Germanr for 
the manufacture of linen 


laucer's Astrolabe written. 

Rerival of Greek literature in 


1362. Pope Urban V. at Avig- 
non— beauiitiea the city oi 
Rome— presents the right 
arm of Thoma-s Aquinas to 
Charles V. of France, aaan 
object of worship. 

1370. Pope Gregory IX. 

1378. " Schism of the West :" 
Pope Urban VI. ac- 
lcnowled»ed in the empire 
and England. 

Clement VIL acknow- 
ledged in France, Spain, and 

1339. Pope Boniface IX. at 

1391. The English clergy for- 
bidden to cross the sea for 

1394 ?ope Benedict XIll. 

Chaucer dies. 

John Qmser^ English poet. 

Franck. GeiiMANY Ac Spain 

136».Fr. :-CharlesV.W 
(the Wise.) 

1365. War with Navarre— bat- 
tle of Arooy. 

1378. Germany:— Wtncea- 
las, (Icing of BcliemiaX 

1380. Fr.: CharlesVI.^ 
(the Maniac). 

1382. Battle of Rosbecq— the 
Flemings defeated — Arte- 
velde killed. 

1386. France :-^ Fruitless at- 
tempt to invade England. 

1392. —Charles seised with 

1394. Germany :— The emper- 
or imprisoned by the poopte 
of Prague. 

1400. Ger. :— R o b e r t t^V" 
(Count Palatine). 

Digitized by 


1299-1463.— 154 ygflrs.— Continued.] THE world's PROGRESS. 



Treatj with Murad, the Otto- 
loan emperor. 

Eastern Empire. 

1399 Bajaxei 1., sultan of the Turks. 

laei Manuel n.9 


Enolamd & Scotland. 

The World, elsewhere. 

1362. The Black Prince aids 
Peter the Cruel, of Castile, 
to recover his throne. 

1369. A new war with France ; 

1371. Scotland :— Robert 11.^ 

the House of Stuart. 
1376. Death of the Black 


1377.-Richard II. W— 
First Speaker of the House 
of Commons. 

1378. Fruitless invasion of 

Insurrection of Wat Ty- 

1382. The king marries Anne, 
daughter of Charles IV. 

13^. The Scots, assisted by 
France, invade England. 

1385. The English bum Edin- 

1388. Batile of Otterboume. 

1390. Scotland : Robert HI. 
Persecution of the Wick- 

1362. Italy: — War between 
Pisa and Florence. 

1369. Tartary:— Tamerlane 
makes Samarcand the capi- 
tal of his new empire. 

1370. Poland :— Extinction ol 
the royal race of Piasts. 

1396 Victory of Nicopolis.-Sigi9- 
mood, of Hungary, defeated 
by Bajazei I. 

14021 Bajezet defeated and made 
prisoner by Tamerlane, at 
I Um battle of Angora. 

1378. Italy .-—Silvester de Ma- 
dici, gonfaloniere of Flo- 

1380. Russia :— Dimiiri Ivano- 
vitsch victorious over the 
Tartars, near the Don. 

1332. The Tartars Back Mos- 

1334. Persia : — Invaded by 
l^merlane ; Inpahan taken. 
—Pyramids of human heads. 

13S6. War between Austria 
and Switzerland. 

1386. Batile of Scmpach:— 
the Austrians defeated. 

1387. Denmark & Norway :— 

., ^ja -the Semi- 
ramis of Uie nonh. 
1391. Italy:— Pisa falls tmder 
the yoke of tlie Visconti. 

Margaret, } 
imis of t 

1398. Henry, of Lancaster, 

House of Lancas- 
ter: JL 

1399. —Henry IV.W — 
Richard II. deposed. 

1401. Rebellion of Owen Glen 

dower, and 
1403. of the Percys, who are 

defeated at the battle of 
' Shrewsbury. 

1396. Tamerlane overruns 
Kipchak and Russia. 

1397. Union of Calmar, form- 
ing Denmark, Sweden, and 
Norway into a single mo- 

1399. Invasion of India by 

Digitized by 




[Petiod VIL—7%e Middle Ages.^ 

A.D. Proorxsb op Sogibtt, etc. 







RodrigOy of Zamoroj Spanish 

Univeraity of Leip9ic found- 

Thmnaa i KtmpiM. 
John Hun, 
Jerome^ of Prague. 

First Portuguese colontee on 
the coast of Africa, Madei- 
ra, &c. 

George of Peurbach^ astrono- 
mer at Vienna. 

Peter dPAiUy^ theologian. 

The arts promoted in Italy by 
Coamo de Medici. 

England increases her trade 
with the Mediterranean. 

Michael Waihgemulh, Ger- 
man painter, (teaclier of 

Fra. Filippo Lippi^ painter. 

ING at Mayence. 

John MHiier BegiomonUmuej 
German astronomer and 


1404. Pope Innocent VII. 
1406. '^ Gregory XII. 

1409. The council of Pisa de- 
poses Gregory and Bene- 
dict, and elects Alexander 
V.;— neither will yield, so 
that there are three popes at 

1410. Pope John XXm. 

Francs, Germany, &. Spahc 

1414. CouTUiil of Conetcmee. 

1416. John Huss, and Jerome, 
of Pragae, burnt by the 
Councifof Constance. 

1417. Pope Martin V. 

1407. France : — Murder ot 
Louis, Dulce of Orleans. 

Spain:— John It, kjnf 
of Castile. 

1410. Spain :— Feniinaud, king 
of Arragon. — Yua«ef III., 
king of Granada. 

1410. Fr. :— Civil war between 
the parlies of Orleans and 

Germany : — Death of 

1411. S i g i 8 m u n d , (king 

of Hungary),® empe- 
1413. Prance: — The French 
defeated by Henry V., of 
England, at AgincourL 

1416. Spain :— Alfonzo V., king 
of Arragon and Sicily. 

1419. Sigismund succeeds to 
(he Bohemian crown. 

1422. France :— Death of Char- 
les VI —Henry VI. pro- 
claimed at Paris king of 
France and England. 

— Charles VII.^ — 
at Poitiers. 

1127. Orleans besieged by tho 

1429. —saved by Joan of 

Charles crowned at 
Rheims ; makes a vain at- 
tempt to gain Paris. 

1431. Josn of Arc taken pri- 
soner and burnt as a witch. 

1431. Germany : — Sigismund 
visits lutly, and is crowned 
emperor by Pope Eugenius 

1435. Peace of Arras, between 
France and Burgundy. 

1436. France .'—Recovery of 

1438. Pragmauc sanction of Bruges, estabMshes the liber 
ties of the French church. 

1429. Pope Clement VIII. at 
Avignon, resigns, and ends 
the ^'Schism of the West" 

1431. Pope Eugenius IV. 
Council of BaeUs. 

Digitized by 


I299>1453:— 154 ycgr5.— Continued.] THE world's PROGRESS. 



Eastern Expirb. 

Sohrinan L, Sultan of the 




Emoland Sc Scotland. 

1406. Scotland :— James I. 

Tub World, elsewhere. 

1406. Italy :— l»i« conquered 
by Florence.— Subjugation 
of' Padua and Verona bj 

KohamnMd L, Sultan of (ha 

Amorath II., Sultan of the 

- John VU. 



The emperor risits Italy to 
obtain help against the 
Turks— sQbmits lo the pope. 

I4ia —Henry V.fjJ — 

1414. —claims the French 

1416. — gains tbe battle 

of Agincouri. 

1420. Treaty of Troyes.-Henry 
marries Catharine, daughter 
of Charles VI., and is de- 
clared heir to the French 

1422. Death of Henry V. 

-Henry V I . »- 

1424. The Duke nf Bcdfonl 
defeats the French at Ver- 

1427. —besieges Orleans. 

1429. The siege raised by the 
Maid of Orleans. 

1431. — ehe is taken prisoner 
and burnt 

1435. Death of the Duke of 
Bedford, followed by the 
loss of all the English pos- 
sessions in France, except 

1436. War with Scotland. 

1437. Scotland :— James II. 

1412. Italy :-Sack of Rome 
by Laiiii«las, king of Naples. 
Denmark, Norway, dec. : 

Eric VII., of Pomerania.\ 
1415. Conquest of Ceuta, 

the Portuguese. 
1419. Bohemia :— Hussite war. 

1420. Discovery of Madeira 
by the Portuguese. 

1421. Bohemia :-Death of John 
Ziaka, the Hussite leader. 

Italy :— War of the Duka 
of Milan against Florence. 

1429. Florence:— Cosmo di 
Medici, patron of the 
arts and scieneea. 

1431. Italy :— Second war of 
Venice and Milan. 

1431. Poland :-Vladi8lasni. 

1436. Italy:— Third war be- 
tween Venice and Milan. 

1437. Portugal : — Expedition 
into Africa. 

1438. Portugal:— Alfonso V., 

king. 9 

Digitized by 




[Period VJI.— l'he Middle Ages.-^ 




Fkamcb, Gxrmany & Spain. 

1433. Germany : — H o a a « 

of Austria: 

-Albert H.S— 

(king of BohemU andlBuii- 


1440.6er.:-Frederic 111. 


Franco :-The dauphin. 



Leonardo da Vincij eculptor, 
architect, and painter— dia- 
coren penpecuve. 

1444. —establishment of the 
companies of Archers, the 
first national sunding army. 


Pet. Peruginoy founder of the 

1446. Germany : - War with 
Hungary, for refusing to 

Jioman school of paintings 
teacher of Raphael. 

^i«^.h. young pr.««, 


Library of the Vatican, found- 

1447. Pope Nicholas V. 


The Axorea dieeovered. 

144a Concordat of AschaflTen- 
berff, by which (ho liberties 
of the German church are 

Alain Chartica^ French poet 



Flourishing period of Flan- 
ders' /rorfc— All European 

naiiuna have warehouses at 

1451. Expedition of Fnd«M 

Bruges and Ghent.— BooA 
trade at Ma^ence. 

to Rome. 

1463. Austria made an hendl. 

lary duchy by Frederic 
End of the French UM 

English wars. 


Digitized by 


1299-1453.— 154 years.— Continued.] THE world's PROGRESS. Ill 






Eastbrm Evpirb. 

iDimTecUon of Scandeberg- 
Tictory over the Turks near 


Battle of Varna — Vladlalaa. 
king of Poland, defeated and 
killed by the Turk& 

I xn. V- 

(Palsologue,) the laatof the 
Groek emperoia. 

Mobammed IL, Saltan of the 

Siege and capture 
of Constantinople 
bj the Turks: 


England 4c Scotland. Thr World, elsewhere. 

1444. Truce with France.— 
Marriage of Henry to Bfar- 
garet, of Anjou. 

1447. Gloucester arrested for 
treason— dies suddenly. 

1450. Tnaurreetion of Jack 
Code— calling himself Mor- 

Civil Wars uf 
**the Roses:" 

Richard, duke of York, 
claims the throne. 

Scotland :— Struggles be- 
tween the kfaig and aristo- 
cracy for power. 

1440. Hungary: — VJadisUtf 
chosen kmg.9 

1441. Italy :-Peace of Marti- 

1443. Alfonso V., of Arraffon, 
unites the crown of the Two 


1445. Poland :Ca8imir IV. 

1446. TarUry:-Ulugh Beg. 
patron of astronomy and 

1448. Denmark :— Christian L 
of Odenburg.U 


Sweden :— Charles Vm.' 

1450. Italy :— Francesco Sfor- 
sa, duke of Milan. 

Norway : Christian 


crowned at Drontheim. 

Delhi :-BeholLodi en- 
larges (he kingdom. 
1453. Poland : —Confirmation 
of the national liberty in tlM 
Diet of Petrikan. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

PERIOD Vm.~1468-1598.- 












Philip de Cominet^ French 

Wood engraving inrented. 

Post-OJleea in France and 


Faust dies at Paris, tehither 
hejoumevs twice to sell his 
Latin Bible. 

Beerhard Inrents ihe pedal to 
the organ. 

Printing in England— Cos- 

Printed musical notes. 

Hungary :— Maihias patroni- 
zed liierature and ihe arts. 

Large librarj at O fen— 900 
copjisis of manuscripts. 

German ballads— war songs of 
Veil Weber. 

Watches first made at Nurem- 

Mikrond and Rondemir, great 

Persian historians. 

Lady Juliana Bemers, one of 
the earliest female writers 
of England. 

Hans Holbein^ painter. 

Franchino Gafurid, teacher in 
the first public school qf 
music at Milan. 

Joequln de Prez. ffreateoi mu- 
sical geniofl or nis age. 


1455. Battle of 
Sl Albans. 

of York: 
1461. — Ed 
ward IV 

W- gains 
the battle of 
Tow ton. 


1471. Battle of 

Bamet : 

slain —Hen- 
rv VI. (lies in 
tne Tower. 

1483. Ed- 
ward V. 

Prolecior. •• 
The kin? Jc 
his brother 
murdered in 
the Tower. 

ard III. 

1485. -Henry, 
earl of Rich- 
mond, lands 
at Milford 

of B o 8 


defeated and 





1479. War with 
England . — 
of the no- 
bles ; — they 
take the king 

1461. Louis 


Civil war.— 
— Peace of 

ivil wa] 

Spain ani> 

1475. War be- 
tween Louis 
and- Charles 
of Burgun* 

1476. —who is 
defeated at 
Morat, and 



Ariois and 


united to the 


les VIII. 

1464. Spain :- 
Henry IV. of 


1469. Marriage 
of Arrason, 
with Isabel, 
la, of Caa- 

1479. Union 
and Arra- 
gon un<ler 

II. and Isa- 


— X i m e . 
n e s , bishop 
of Toledo. 

1481. Port. :— 

John n.^ 

1481. First au- 
da-fe at So- 

Digitized by 


THE world's PR'^RESS. 


OAman to the Edict of Nantes. 


The emperor besieged in hia 
court at Vienna— dclirered 
bj 6. Podiebrad, of Bohe- 






1456. Turks re- 

loTtnoiui or tbe Turks. 

Uoirenity of lagoldstodL 

Marriage of Maximilian and 
Maria of Burgundy. 

1454. Struggle 
between Cos- 
mod da Me- 
dici and tbe 

1458. The 
French rule 
in Genoa. 

Pope Pi- 
us II. 

1463. War of 
Venice with the Turks. 

1464. Pietrode 
Medici at 
Pope Paul 


1466. Galeaz- 
zo, duke of 

1469. Loren- 
zo de Me- 
dici, suc- 
ceeds Pietro. 

1471. Sixtus 
IV. pope. 

Power of 
the Medici 


147a Conspi- 
racy of the 
Pazzi at Flo- 
rence.— Giu- 
lio, brother 
of Lorenzo 
de Medici, 

I4B4. Innocent 
VIU., pope. 

1464. War with 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1464. Poland :— War with th« 
Teutonic Order. 

1456. Hungary: Mathlai 

Corvln,^ .*nakefl his 

country turmidable to her 

1462. Russia :— Ivan I. 
the Great— takes the 

1466. Peace of Thorn.— East 
Prussia a fief of Poland.— 
Weal Prussia ceded to Po- 

1468. Uzun Hasan, master of 
all Persia. 

mle pf 

1470. — forms an alliance with 
the Venetians and the duke 
of Burgun dy against the Turks— con- 
quers Hagdad. 

1472. Russia:- Ivan marries 
Sophia, niece of the Greek 

1474. —shakes ofT the Tartar 
yoke, and captures Novo- 

1477. Hungary — War with 
Frederic IIL 

1479. Fruitless 
attempt upon 

1480. -capture 
and destroy 

1481. Bajazet 


the tirsi un- 
warlike sul- 

1481. Denmark !—R 

gartially ackiyiwledj 

ledged in 

1488. Hungary: 
takes Vienna. 


Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period VIIL'-' 

A.D. Proorkss OFSociBTY,etc. Enoland. Lksj). Francb. 










Martini Behaim^ (Nurein* 
buri;.) publishes a map of 
the iDorUl. 


First priming press at Copen- 

The teeond voyage of Colum- 
bus. —K Spanish colony ai 

The diaeoverie* of John and 
Sebastian Cabot. 

Third voyage of Columbus. 
He discovers Trinidad and 
the Coniinent. 

Lisbon, iho great seat of trade. 
—Venice declines. 

Maritime enterprises greatly 

Sir Thomas Morels UtopicL, 

Nicholas Machiaveliif states- 
man and historian. 

Anaerigo Vespucius's Toyaee. 

Flourth voyage of Colutnbus. 

Raphati^ Michael Angela, Ti- 
tian, CorregiOj painters. 

St. Peter* s^ and other magnl' 
ficeni churches built. 

The celebrated tapestry, after 
Raphael ;— Cartoons woren 
in the Netherlands. 

Melanclhoa, and other 

Roger Ascham, tutor of queen 

Hans Sachs, founder of Ger- 
man drama. 

Copernicus, discorers 
the tnip. system of the Uni- 
verse— hin great work, De 
Orbium Coelestium Revoiu- 

First complete circumnavi- 
gation of the globe, by Ma- 

House of 
—Henry VII. 

14S6. Imposture of 
Lambert Symnel. 
The Star Cham- 
ber established. 

1493. Perkin War- 
beck, pretendfl to 
be Richard, duke 
of York— defeated 
on Blackheaih. 

1497. Cabot makes 
discovenes in A- 

1499. Earl of 
Warwick, last 
of the Plantage- 
neis, executed. 

1509. Henry 


joins the League 
of Cambray. 

1513. Invasion of the 
Scots. — B.iule of 
Flodden— the king 
and chief Scots 

1515. W o I 8 e y , 
chancellor and car- 

1520. The Emperor 
Tlsits England. — 
Meeting of Henry 
and Francis at the 
" Field of ihe Cloih 
of Gold." 

1521. The Reformed 
doctrines opposed 
by Henry, in his 
book vn the Seven 
SacraMcnta — he 
receives the title 
of " Defender of 
the Faith." 

1487.: — 



1503.: — 
ret, of 




Spain an* 

1491. Br«tag. 
ne united tn 
the crown 
by the king's 
with Anne. 

1494. Inraaion 
of Italy. 

149a— Louis 


1499. in- 

vades Italy 
the Milanese 

1600. Treaty 
with Ferdi- 
nand, of Ara- 
gon, for the 
conquest and 
pariitioQ of 

1510. The 
Council of 
Tours, to 
support the 
king against 
the Holy 


1492. C o 9 • 
Quest of 
by Giinzala 
de Cordova. 

Discov e ry 
of Ameri- 
ca, by Co- 

149a Vasco 
d e G aoi a 
doubles the 
Cape of 
Good Hope, 
and reaches 

1606. Colitrp. 
bus dies at 

1507. Cardinal 

Board of 
trade at Se- 

— invades 

luily— victory 
of Marigna- 
no — Genoa 
and Milan 

1516. Concor- 
dat with the 
pope, instead 
of pragma- 
tic sanction. 

1521. First war 
with Char- 
lea V. 

1516.-C h a I • 

kms oi all 
Spain, and 
the Nether- 
1519. Con- 
quest of 
by Cor tes . 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 





1492. Piclrt) II. 

Fucceeda his 

father. Lo- 

-Maximilian I.W- 

renzo, in Flo- 



Pope Alex- 

ander VI, 


1494. Expedi- 

tion of Char- 


les Vlli. in- 
to luly. 

1499. Amerigo 


voyage to 


1500. Partition 

of Naples 


France and 



Secretary oj 


UfUTerriiy of Wittenburg. 

1503. Naples 
annexed to 
the Spanish 

Pope Pius 

Pope Ju- 
lius II. 


Biaximilian enters Italy to be 

crowned by the pope, 
—joins the League of Cam- 

1508. League 


—divides the empire into ten 

of Cambray 
against Ve- 

1510. Holy 
League to 
expel the 

1511. Council 
of Pisa. 

1513. Pope 
Lbo X. 

(de Medici.) 



patron of li- 


terature and 



diet of Augsburg. 

The build- 


— cbablbs y.W — 

ing of St. 
Peter's com- 

of Spain. 



The archduke Ferdinand, mar- 

1519. Cardinal 

ries Anne, sister of Louis— 
whence the accession of 

de Medici 

holds rule in 

Bohemia and Hungary to 


the House of Hapsburg. 

1522. PQpe 

Diet of Worms. 

Adrian VL 



Thb World, elsewhere. 

1493. Wars 
with Egypt, 
and Venice. 

1503. Peace 
with Venice. 

1505. War with 

1512. Selim I., 

- de- 
tTirones and 

Euts to death 
is father. 

1514. The Per- 
sians defeat- 
ed at Kalde- 
roon. — Me- 
and Kurdis- 
tan added to 
the empire. 

1516. Cairo 
taken by 
storm.— Ma* 
meluke do- 
minions an- 
nexed to the 

1520. Soliman, 

1488. India:— SekanderLodi, 

king of Delhi. 
149^ Poland :^John Albert. 

AMERICA discoyered by Co- 

1493. Soanbh colony at Ilto 

1499. Voyage of Amerigo Ves. 
pucius. — Sooth American 
coast explored. 

ISOl.PolanJ :— AlezAnder.i 

1602. Ismail Shah Soofi makea 
himself sole sovereign of 

1506. Poland :—Sigi8mund L 
K (ihe Great.) 

1509. Bohemia :— I^uis,9-<. 
3 years old. 

1510. America : — Settlement 
at Uarien. 

1511. America .'—Cuba con- 

1512. America: — Florida 

1513. South Sea first reached 
by Balboa. 

1516. Hungary and Bohemia : 
-Louis II. Sf 

1517. India :-Ibrahim Lod^ 
king of Delhi 

1517. America:— FVrs/po/enf 
for importing 2^cgroe»^ 
granted by Spain. 

1518. Corsairs in Algiers. 

1519. MEXICO conquered by 
the Spaniarr^s, under Co^ 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period VIIL^ 



PROORKsa OP Society, etc. 

Xavier plants Christianity in 

ArioatOt Kalian poet. 

Albert Durer. 

F.rsi work on military archi- 

JSrgens invents the spinning 

wheel for spinning flax. 
RabelaiSj French humorist. 

1633 Botanic Gardens at Padua. 







Ignatiut Loyola founds the 
order of the Jesuits. 

Papal bull declaring the Ame- 
rican natives to be rational 

The diving bell invented. 

Calvin founds the Univer- 
sity of Geneva. 

Pins first used by Catharine 
Howard, queen of England. 

John Knoxy Scottish Refor- 

A commercial treaty between 
Portugal and Japan. 

Needles first made. 
Vasalius's work on Anatomy. 

1529. Sir Thomas 
More, Lord Chan- 
cellor. — Rise of 
Cranmer^ archbi- 
shop of Canter 

1532. The king mar- 
ries Anne Boleyn. 

1533. Bishop Fisher 

and Sir Tlmmas 
More beheaded. 

Henry excom- 
municated by the 
1536. —marries Jane 
Seymour. — Sup 
prciHiion of the 
smaller monaste- 


1617 Revival of Stoicism, by Justus 

Palesirina, founder of Italian 
church music. 

Giacomo Carisimi. 

1618 Orange trees introduced into 

1643 Henry invades 

France takes 


1544. French fleet 
gain a victory over 
the English, ofl" 
the We of Wighr 



VI. S 

Somereet invades 
Scotland —defeats 
the Scots at Pin- 

Formal e.Ma- 
blishmenl of Pro- 

1525. Francis 
defeated and 
taken pri- 
soner at Pa- 

1527. Second 
war with 
Charles V. 

1529. Treaty of 
Cambray. — 
Great en- 
given loans 
and sciences. 
—The Lou- 
vre com- 

1532. Calvin 
French war. 
—Siege of 

ui the 

1542.; — 

Earl of 

Spain ano 

1533. Truce of 
Nice— for 10 

Attempt to 
recover pow- 
er in Italy; 
hence the 

l.7l*2. Fourth 
French war. 

1514. Peace of 
France gives 
up Italy. 

1547. Henry 

l*He fa- 


ri ne de 

M e d i .M , 


1536. Acquin- 
lion of Mi> 

1540. Portu- 
gal : — Lis- 
bon,the mar- 
ket of the 

1542. Cona> 
mercial trea- 
ty between 
Portugal aod 

Digitized by 








Graeral insurrections of the 
intry, under Thomas 


Cbarlea marries Isabella, of 

Deattioi Frederic^ of Saxony. 

The Turks invade Germany. 
—Diet of Spires.— Luther- 
ans first called Proteetanis. 

League of Smalcald. 

Italy. Empi'Sb!' Thb World, elsewhere. 

1^3. Clemeni 
VII. , pope. 

1625. Spain ac- 
quires the 
by the victo- 
ry of Pavia- 

1527. The Me- 
dici expelled 
from Flo- 

1530. Medici 
restored. — 
Charles V 
crowned ai 

1534. Paul III., 


Congress of Nice between the 
Emperor, the Pope, and the 
king of Franco. 

]bi3 War m aiHan::e wUh England 
against France. 


Diet of Worms. 

1537. Cosmo 
de Medici, 
duke of Tus- 

1540. Investi- 
ture of Mi- 
lan confer- 
red bv Char- 
les V. on 

1^61 War of the Smalcaldists. 

Wa I Duke Maurice, elector of Saxo- 

$15. Council 
qf Trent. 

1523. Sweden :— Revolt under 
Gustavus Vasa .—The 
Danes expelled —Union of 
Calmar dissolved. 

Denmark and Norway: 

—Frederic I. flf 

IS25. Albert, duke of Prussia. 

1526. Invasion 
of Uuogary. 

1529. Invasion 
of Germany 
—Siege of 

The Otio- 
man navy 
under ihe 
couimaiid of 

1535. —who 
seizes Tu- 
nis. — The 
Charles V., 
restores the 

1541. Destruc- 
tion of an ar- 
mament, led 
by Charles 
V. against 

1530. Malta giver to tho 
knighus of Miodee 

1532. Union of Norway and 

1533. Conquest of Pe- 
ru, by Cortes. 

Russia :— Ivan IV., (the 

1536. Cortes discovers Califo^ 

1647. The 
Turks in- 
vade Persia, 
and capture 

1543. First standing army in 

1545. South America:— Minea 
of Potosi discovered. 

1548. Poland :—Sigiflmund n^ 

8 (AugUMlM> 

Digitized by 




[Period VIIL^ 




Proorbss of SOOIBTT,etC. 

Scaliger^ Philologist. 
JHontcagnCj French Essayist. 

Cardan^ialian philosopher. 

Seaiing wax comes into use 
in Europe. 

Foundation of Jesuit Colleges 
in opposition to Protestant 
Schools. The first at Co- 
imbra, in Portugal. 

Only two carriages in Paris— 
hordes and litters generally 

Snuflffirst brought into France. 
—Knives first made in Eng- 

TonpuUo Taan Quarim^ 


Camoent^ Portuguese poeU 

Thomaa TaUia, Eogliah mu- 


1549. The English 
Liturgy comple- 
ted and establish- 
ed by act of Par- 

1533. Northumber- 
land intrigues to 
seule the crown on 
Lady Jane Grey, 
his daughter-in- 




— Mary.W — 

Catholicism re- 

1554. The queen 
marries Philip, of 

Spain.— Lord Dud- 
ley and Lady Jane 
Grey executed. 

1555. Bloody perse- 
cution of Protes- 

1557. War with 
France to support 
Spain.— Calais 


1558. — Eliza- 
beth. W 

Cecil, Lord 
Burleigh, Secreta- 
tary of'Siate. 


The Puritans 
begin to rise. 

1568. —Mary, queen 
of Scots, takes re- 
fuge in England— 
and is imprisoned. 

1570. Civil wars of 
the Desmonds in 
in Ireland. 

i!)m abo- 
by par- 
1565. : — 

1565. : - 
o I Pro- 
testants . 
1567. : — 
ed — I he 
earl of 
ed and 
soned at 


1570. :- 


1552. Fifth war 
with Char- 
les V. 

Spain ahd 

1557. The 

French defeat- 
ed at St. 


1558.— at Gra- 

1559. Peace of 



— Francis 

II. W- 

Duke of 
Guise, min- 
1660.— Char- 


1562. Religious 
liberty grant- 
ed lo the Hu- 

First civil 
religious war 

supported by 
England -de 
leated at ^ 

1567. The se- 
cond war. — 
defeated at 
St. Denys. 

1569. —routed 
at Jamac— 
C o n d e 

1564. CCTcat, 

in India, lost. 

1556. Ciiarles 

abdicates — 

Philip n. 


1557. Portu- 
gal : — Seba» 

tian. ^g — 

1564. Acquisi- 
tion or ih« 

1567. Duke of 
Alva, pover- 
nor of tha 

1570. War 
with the 
Turks.— Na- 
val victory 
ai Lepanta 

Digitized by 







Treaty of Pamau secures reli- 
gious liberty to the Protes- 

Fruitless dege of Mentz. 



Charles abdicates. 

— ^F erdinand I . W — 
king of Hungary and Bohe- 

C^oTonation by the pope relin- 

1530. Julius 
la, pope. 

1665. Marcel- 
Paul IV., 


-Mazimilianll. W- 



1551. Tripoli 
taken from 
the Maltese 

1652. Invasion 
of Hungary. 

1553. War with 
Building of 
the mosque 
of Solyman- 
yahf at Con- 

1559. Pius IV. 

Peace of 
Chateau — 
the French 
wars in Italy. 
lity for 66 

1562. Council 
of Trent re- 

1666. Pius v., 

1569. Florence, 
a grand du- 

de Medi 
c i , declared 
grand duke 
of Tuscany, 
by Pius v. 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1553. New Mexico dise«Taiad 
by the Spaniards. 

1456. India :-.JelaleddiD Ak- 
bar, a patron of science and 
literature, aided by his min- 
isters, Abu FazI and Sheikh 

—raises the Mogul em- 
pire to i(s greatest splendor. 

1559. Naval 
Tictory of 
Galves, gain- 
ed by Dra- 

power of 
the Turks at 
its greatest 
height, un 

1565. Unsuc- 
cessful siege 
of Malta. 

1566. Death of 
Soliman at 
the siege of 




1559. Denmark and Norway: 
—Frederic Il.fv 

Decrease of the infla«DCe 
of the Hanse townn. 

1560. Sweden :— Eric XIV. 8 

1562. War with Russia and 
Poland.— An En^l^sh am- 
bassador in Peina. 

1564. Coligny sends a colony 
of Huguenot*! to Florida- 
destroyed by the Spaniards. 

1568. Prussia -.-Albert Frede- 


Sweden > John HI. IB ** 

War of Venice with 

the Porte. 
Cyprus reduced by the 
, Turks. 
I Battle of 


1270 Peace of Stetin, between 

Denmark, Norway, and 

157 1 Russia devastated by the 

khan of Crim Tartary.— 

Moscow burnt. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period VIJZ.^ 





Paoaassa op Socibtt, etc. 

CervarUea^ author of Dod 

Titian^ and Paolo Veronete^ 


Sir rrancia Drake's voyage 
round the world. 

Sir Philip Sydney' a Arcadia. 

Oregorian Reformation of the 

Greenland discovered by Sir 
Francis Drake. 

1586 Tobacco first brought to Eu- 



First netjoapaper in England. 

Teleeeopee inrented by Jan- 
sen, a German. 

Taaao, Italian poet. 

The Conocci, celebrated pain- 

In England r—SSpowcr, 
Shakbpearb, Beau- 
mont & Fletcher, Ben Jon- 
son.— Napier invents loga- 

Lord Bacok, celebrated phi- 

Lope de Vega, dramas and 

Kepler^ Tycho Brahe, astro- 


1678. The queen 
sends help to the 
revolted Nether- 

1583. Levant Com- 
pany chariercii. 

1584. Raleigh's co- 
lony in Virginia. 

1583. War with 

1586. Sir Philip 
Sidney killed at 

1587. The Queen of 
Scots beheaded. 

1568. The Spaniish 
armada destroyed. 

1589. Alliance with 
Henry II. in aid 
of Protestantism. 
—Troops sent to 

1693. Act for reli- 
gious conformity. 

1594. Sir John Haw- 
kins's Voyages 

1696. Cadiz taken, 
and the Spanish 
fleet burnt, by the 
earl of Essex. 
Sir Robert Cecil, 

599. Troubles in 
Ireland : — Revolt 
of O'Neill, earl of 


1581. :— 
the king. 

Anne, of 


1572. Massacre 
of St. Bar- 

1573. Peace of 

1574. -He n- 


Fifth war 
with the Uu- 

6. The Ca- 
1577. Sixth re- 
ligious war. 

1583. Revolt of 

1589. House 
of Bour- 

— H B N R Y 


1590. Siege of 
Paris, raised 
by the Spa- 

1593. Henry 
abjures Pro- 

1591. Jesuits 

1595. War with 
Spain con- 

1598. Peace of 

Ministry of 
of order. 
Edict of 
toleration to 

Spain ahd 


I57a Port.:^ 


1589. Portugal 
falls under 
Spanish do- 

1588. Defeat of 
the Spaniali 

1589. English 
under Drake 
and Norris, 
from Lisbon. 

1698. PhiUp 

ra. W — 

Digitized by 







— ^Rodolph II.W— 
king of Bohemia aooUun- 

The imperial authority disre- 
garded bj the princea of the 
empire, who wage war 
among the naelvei. 

rnion of Protestants at Ileil* 

1572. Gregory 
XIII., pope. 

I57a Cyprua 
yieldeu to 
the Porte ; 
1574 Florence : 
—Frances Ma 
ria succeeds 

1580. Charles 
dulce of Sa- 

1583. Sixtus 
v., pope, 
active and 
abuses in 
the church ; 
resiures the 
Vaiiciin li- 

1590. Urban 
VII., pope. 

XIV., pope. 

I50I. Innocent 

IX., pope, 

two months. 


VIII., pope. 

1592. TheRi- 
alio and Pi- 
azza di San 
Marco built 
at Venice. 


peace with Ve- 
1574. — Murad 



1576. War with 

1580. War with 
the Druses 
in Syria. 

1553. First 
trade with 

1569. Predato- 
ry incur- 
sions of the 

Revolt of 
the Janiza- 

1593. War with 
the Empire 
in Hungary. 

15»1. The 
Grand Vi- 
zier takes 

1595. Moham- 

med III. 

power in 
Hungary de- 
clines ; de- 
feated at 
Gran— re- 
Toltof Wal- 
1597. Moham- 
med leads his 
troops, and 
defeats th« 
Germana at 

Tub World, elaewhera. 

1574 Poland:— Henry, of V» 

1575 Poland :— Stephen Ua- 


1578. Alliance of Sweden and 
Poland against Russia. 

iif79. Commencement 
ofthe Republic of 
HOLLAND, by the union 
at Utrecht: 

William, Prince 
of Orange, stadthol* 

1584. North America: 
—First English colony found- 
ed in Virginia, by Sir W. 

15S5. Persia acquires power 
under Abbas the Great. 

Hollond : — Maurice, of 
Orange, sladtholder. 

1586 Battle of Zinphen: death 
of Sir Philip Sidney. 

1588. Denmark: — Christian 

IV. W 

1592. Sweden: — Sigismund, 
king of Poland. 
India:— Miznm Shah, re* 

Pulsed from Choui, by th« 

1594. The Falkland Isles dif- 
covered by Hawkins. 

1595. The Dutch first in Indiu 
Sweden :— The regent as- 
sumes independent auth> 

1598. Russia : —Boris Goda* 

nov, JIf begins a nan 


Sigismund lands in Swa 
den, to re-establish hia pow- 
er—but is defeated, and r^ 
Uiina to Poland. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

PERIOD IX.— 120 ytwrs.- 




Proorbss of SoGiBTY, etc 

Enclish East India Compa- 

Q/ luunJed. 

Erportaiion of Eng.ish wool 

Conference at Hampton Court. 

New Translation of the Bi- 
ble hf^un; (published 1611). 

Dr. Gilbert discovers ihepow- 
er of electricity, and of con- 
ductors ami non-conductors. 





1604.- Acadia 
Ionized by 


1601. Earl of Essex be- 

1603.— James I-Sf— 
Union of the 
English and 
Scotch crowns. 

1605. The 


Telescopes invented by Gali 

Coffee at Venice. 
Tobacco in Virginia. 

Bacon's Inductive Philoso- 

Harvey discovers the circv^^n- 
tion of the blood. 

Thermometers invented by 

Inigo Jones, celebrated archi- 

Martin Opitz, German poet. 

Ne^ro Slavery co vaiencedin 

1606. — Discovery 

1607.— E n g 1 i s h 

settle meni at 
(Isi permanent 
one in N. Ame- 

1606. — Quebec 

1609. —Jesuit mis- 
sions in Para- 

1616.— The Tobac- 
co plant Introdu- 
ced into Virgi 





Peter Paul JRubens, painter. 

Miutsinger, the dramatist. 

KeiAer's " Asironomia Nova 

TorrieeUi invents the barome- 

The Parian marbles brought 
to England by the earl of 

1620.— Neero 
slaves first im- 
ported to Virgi- 

E m igra- 
ti n of Pu- 
ritans to 
New Eng- 

1621. —John Car- 
ver, Ist Gover- 
nor of N. E. 

Vm. New Am- 
sterdam set- 
led by the Dutch. 

1612. English factories at 

1616. Minietryof Villicrs, 
duke of Buckingham. 

1617. Sir Francis Bacon^ 
lord chancellor. 

1618. Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh's un.'^uccespful 
voyage to America — 
he is" beheaded on iiis 

nation of 
Henry IV., 
by Ravail- 
— L o u S ■ 


I GUI). 


first published in 

1627. Boston found- 

629. Wouter Van 
Twiller, gover- 
nor of New Am- 



(9 years oUl>. 

Mary de Me- 
dici, rejjcnL 

1614. Lasi as- 
sembly of the 

IGlo. The king 
Anne, of 
Civil war :— 
C o n d e 
heads the 
nots . 

I62t. Ministry 
uf Cardinal 

1625.— Charles I. 

Buckingham, prime 

1627. War with France, in support of 
the Huftto- 


1629. No parliament for reduced by 
eleven years. famine — af- 

1630. Peace with France. ler a siege o| 
ten mm-.ha. 

Digitized by 


1598-1718.— jErfic/ of Nantes to the death of Charles XII., of Sweden. 


; Spain 

^» PORTU. 

K()9 Expul- 
sion of 



War of 

ston in 

1621 Dutch 

I Spain 






oi S{>an- 
Ifleei otr 
by the 
1923 Naval 







1606. Truce of Co- 
inorra, for twentj 
years, with the 

1 60S. Protestant 
i/m'on, uiuier Fre- 
deric, tho elector 

0. The Catholic 
league, under the 
duke of Bavaria. 

1612. Matthias. 


1615. Truce of Co- 
morra confirmed. 

161S. The Thirty 
Y e a r ■ ' War 

1619.— Ferdinand 

1620 Victory of the 
While Mountain, 

near Prague. 

Massacre of 
Prague.— The Pro 
tes'iini religion to- 
tally auppreased. 

1626. Victory ofTil 
ly over Christian 
iV., of Denmark, 
at Lutter. 

recovers all che 
shorea of the Bal- 
tic, except Siral- 

1629. GustavusAdol- 
phus lands in Ger- 
many. — Diet of 
Raiiabon. — Wal 
lenstein dismisreil, 
iucceeded by Til- 


1605. Leo XL, 

Paul v., 

lG09.Tu8canv : 
-Cosmo II. 

the empori- 
um of the 
Levant trade. 

1618. Compi- 
racy of Bed- 
mar, the 
Spanish en- 
voy, to re- 
duce Venice 
under sub- 
jection to 

1621. Gregory 
XV., pope. 
Tuscany : — 
Ferdinand II. 

1623. The fa- 
mous library 
of the Pala- 
tine at Hei- 
delberg, sent 
to Rome. 

162S General 
Italian war 
on the death 
of the duke 


1605. Revolt in 
Syria and 
under the 
pasha of 

IG06. Com- 
treaty with 
Fratice and 

first brought 
to Turkey. 

1617. -Mueta- 

pha I. A- 

I61S. — Osman 

n 9 — 

Great Per- 
sian victory 
at Shibli. 
1620 War with 
Poland, and 
ful mvasion 
of Poland. 

1623. Murad 

IV. A 

restoius tran- 

16-25. Truce 
with the em- 
pire renew- 

Thb World, elsewhere. 


1601. Sweden : Charles IX. 

1605. India : —Jehangir, sai- 

1609. India :— Arrival of Haw- 
kins, first English envoy 
from the East India Com- 
Sweden : — G u s t a v u s 

Adolphus. flS 

1611. Sweden: — War wiih 
Denmark.— Cal mar and Ris- 
by loai.— Axel Oxensiiern, 
minister. — Russia devasta- 
ted by Poles and Tartars. 

Russia: — Michael Ro- 
manoff, czar. 

1615. Denmark :— First stand- 
ing army. 

1616. India :— Sir Thomas Roe. 
aniba5<4a(Ior from James I., 
of Eiii-'land. 

Sweden predominates in 
the north. 
1618. 77k Synod of Dart— 
Arminius condemned. 

Seiilemeni of Tanquebar, 
in Coromandel. 

1621. Dutch West India Com- 

Sany incorporated. 
w,2. Pernia :— Ormuz gained 
from the Portuguese by t.'>e 
help of the English. 
1C25. Netherlands: — Hcr.ry 
Fredpric— Breda, uikcn b) 

1627. Persia :— Shah Soofi L 
1629. Peace of Lubeck. 

Digitized by 




[Period /X-- 


PnoaRBSs OP SociBTT,etc. 

1630 Lotteries for money first raen- 




Caiieo (int imponed into Eng- 


Edttard Com, the great ju- 

Pedro Caideron de la Barca, 
Spaninh dramatini. 

Flourishini? periud of Jloteer 
trade la the Dutch cities. 

Rembrandt^ Van Dyke, pain- 

The Jansenists, founded by 
Jansenius, bishop of Ypres. 
Printing in America, 

First Swedish manufactories. 
Perein, Caspar, Daghet, and 

Claude Lorraine^ French 


Coff'ee brought to England by 
Nut. Conupius. 

Condd and Turenne, the great- 
est generals of the age. 

The Dutch sole 
masters ol Bra- 
1032. Maryland 
settled by a culo- 
nv under Lord 

1635. Connecticut 
settled.— Guada- 
loupe and Mar- 
tinique, by the 

1637. Maine and 
New Hampshire 

Harvard Col- 
lege founded. 


1630. Wenttror/h, earl of 

Sirartiml, minister. 
Laud, archbishop of 

1633. The king visits 

Scotland — is crowned 

at Edinburgh. 


16.39. First print- 
ing ojfice in Ame- 
rica, at Cam- 
bridge, by Sam. 

1610. Whole num- 
ber (if emi^ranij* 
to New Er.j,'i;ind 
previous to this, 

1643. Confedera- 
tion of the colo- 
nies of New 
England, lor 
mutual defence. 

1637. Tntbles in Scot- 
land, caused by Char- 
les's plan lo overthrow 
the Scotch prcsbyteriau 
church, and enforce 

1639. War with Scotland. 

1640. Parliament assem- 
bled — dis^lved with- 
out cfll'ctirifj any thing. 

The Scotch invade 
England— take posses- 
sion of Newcastle. 

The Long Parlia- 
ment, Nov. 3. 
Impeachment of Straf- 
ford and Laud. 

1641. StrafTord beheaded. 
— Courts ol Star Cham- 
ber and High Commis- 
Mon abolished.— Ri'b<'I- 
lion of Roeer .Moore in 
Ireland. —.Mas^icre ol 
Protestants by Irish Ca- 

1642. Civil W a 1 and 

Revolution . 

Rise of Roundheads 
and Cacaiiera, toth of 
the popular panv.— 
Battle of Edgehill, inde- 

1643. Roynlists victorious 
at CHrt.<»arane— tieii'aicd 
at Newbury.— Sjlemri 
league and covenant be- 
tween the Scotch and 
English parliaments. 

1631. Treaty 
with 8wo 
den and th« 
popular prm- 
ces asain^i 
the emper- 

1635. Alliance 

against Spain, 
for the par- 
tition of the 
Au:<tri.iii Ne- 

1636 Alh.tnce 
with Sweden 
acamai Aus- 

Invasion of 
Gascony by 
the Span- 
iards, and of 
Picardy, by 
the Impe- 
rialists, who 
threaten l*ap 

1 638. Invasion 
of Spain, 
siege ol l-'on- 

1640 Tunn la- 
ken by the 

The first 
Louis d'orw 
1611 Allianco 
with Porta- 
gal agaiiijit 
Spain. — (;a. 
taloma and 
Rou'^illon re- 
volt, and sub- 
mit to France. 
1642. Cinq 
Mars and do 
Thou be- 


(the Great.) 
Antte, of 
Austria^ re- 

Victory of 
Roscroi over 
the Span- 
iards, by 

Ministry o 
Cardinal M» 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 








Ijoob of 

the Ja- 




iter in- 

Jolin IV. 
dake ol 


1631. Sack of Mag- 
deburg, by Tilly. 
— Gusiavua Adol- 
phus takes May 

1632. Defeat and 
death of Tilly, at 
Lech. — Gustavus 
takes Munich. — 
VVallcnstcin again 
in cooimand.— Bat- 
tle of Lurzen.— 
Victory and death 
ofGusiavus Adol- 

1635. Peace of Prague 
with Sixony. 

1636. Swedes victo- 
rious .11 VVittstock. 

1637.— Ferdinand 

nr^ — 

On Win successful 
aeainsi the Swedes. 
1638 B«mhanl. of 
S.IXC Weimar," de- 
featii I he Iniperial- 
Iwsat Bheirifield— 
takes* Bnsac. 

1639. Battles of Ol- 
nitz and Urandiez, 
pained by the Swc- 
di>ih general, Uau- 

1640. Prussia— Fre- 
deric W^illiani. 

I64Z The Swedes de- 
feat the Austrians 
at Leipsic. 

1&I3. — inrade Hoi- 
Btein, and compel 
the Danes to desert 


1631. Peace of 
Chiera9Co. — 
The influ- 
ence of France 


l634.Murad ir 
vades Pej 
sia — lake I 

1636. Peace 
with Poland 

1637. Troubles 
on the Tar- 
tar frontier; 
Azoph taken 
by the Cos- 

Bagdad ta- 
ken by the 
All the con- 
quests of Ab- 
bas recover- 

I&IO. Ibrahim. 

1642. Recap- 
ture of Azoph 
from the Cos- 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

!632. Sweden: — Christica, 

queen 1 
1632. Sweden: — OxenstierOi 


Russia:— War with Po- 
land; twc years' siege of 
Smolen«ko.- Rus.*>ian army 
capitulates, and (he Polish 
king advances to Moscow. 
1634. Peace of Wiasma, disad- 
vaniageous to Russia. 

1639. Holland. —Great naval 
victory by Van Tromp^ over 
the Spanish fleet in the 

1640. India :-Madra« foaidad 
by the Engliah. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Pefiod /X— 120yffafi.— 





Des Carietf French philoso- 

Airgutu inrentecL 

Engraving in mezzotinto^ im- 
proved by Prince Ruperu 



Railroads toith wooden rcula^ 
near Newcaaile. 

Jeremy Taylor^ Alger. Sid- 
neyj English wriiers. 

Le Seur and Le Brun^ French 

Air pumpa invented. 

About this lime flourish Mo- 
Ui^re, La Fontaine^ Cor- 
neiUe, Muflame de Sevig- 
ne, Roeliefoucault^ Rncine^ 
BoileaUj and PaacaL, in 

VeUuquex and MuriUOf Span- 
ish painters. 


1646. Thomaa 
Mayhew^ preach- 
er tu the Indians, 

1647. Peter Stuy- 
vesant^ governor 
of New Amster- 

1648. Cambridge 
platform adopt- 

1W9. J. Winthrop, 
governor of Coiv 

1650. Selilemenl of 
NorUi Carolina. 

1652. John Cotton 

1655. E. WiHtlotc 

Great Britain. 

1644. Battle of Maraton 
Moor— royalists defeai- 

UU5. Battle of Naseby. 

1616. The king seeks re- 
fuge in the Scottish 

1647. —is delivered up to 
parliament for j&400,lX)0. 

164S. Cromwell routs the 
Scotch, under Hamil- 
ton. The presbyte- 

rianii expelled from 
parliament, which re- 
ceives the name of " the 

1649. Trial and execution 
of the king. 

The Commonwealth. 

1650. Cromwell subdues 

The Scots proclaim 
Charles U. He 

1651. enters England— la 
defeated at Worcester, 
and escapes to France. 

1652. Naval war with 

Holland. Blake, 

A s c o u g h , and 

P e n n , English ad- 

16{33. Long parliament 
diswolved by Crom- 
well.—" tiarebone's par- 
liament" summoned. 

Oliver Crom- 
well, Lord Pro- 

Milton,, private secre- 
tary to Cromwell. 

1651. Peace of Westmin- 

Bier. Alliance with 

Holland. . 

1655. War with Spain 
Jamaica conquered by 

1658. Death of Cromwell. 
— R ichard Crom 
well, Protector. 


1645. : — Mar- 
abal TureniM 
lakes TrevML, 

1648. Faciioiis 
ofilie Fron- 
de ; diMsen- 
sums lament- 
ed by Cardi- 
nal d e R e I z . 

1649. Court re- 
moves to Sl 
Cermains. — 
Siege 01 Pa- 

1650. Co nd 6, 
C o n t i , aou 
L o n g u e - 
V i 1 1 e . im- 


flees to the 

1652. Maza- 
rine reiirea 
to Sedan. 
Cunde fliea 
to Spain. 

1653. Maxarine 
enters Paris 
in triumph. 

1659. Peace o/ 
the Pyre- 
nees.— Mar- 
riage of Lou* 
is XIV. to 
Maria The- 

ma, of Spain. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 











Thb World, elsewhere. 

1644. Invasion of 

1644. Innocent 

1M4. Nnval vicmry of the 

IluDj^aryt by Ra- 

X., pope. 

Swedes over the Danibh 

cocEi— the empe- 


ror forced to yield 


1645. Sweden :-Peace of 

to the demands of 


Bronifiebro with Demnark. 

1&16. Revolt of 

Candia, the 
theatre of 

Naples, un- 


1647. Netherlands:- William 



China: — The Tartaru 
place a prince of their own 
on the throne— the first of 
the present dynasty ofTaing. 

164& Pbaob of 

164a Moham- 

1648. Poland:— The Ukraine 


med iV. 

Coraacks revolt, and cut the 

L I A , signed at 

Polieh army to pieces. 

Munater, between 

— John Cassimlr.flif — 

France, the em- 

pire, and Sweden. 
—The principle of 
a baJatice of pow- 

er in Europe first 


1650. Moham- 
med Riopri- 
li. grand vi- 

16S3.Naval de- 
feat by the 
Venetians in 
the Archipe- 

1653. Holland: — John d« 
Wilt, Grand Pensionary ; 
De Ruyiei, admiral. 

1664. Defeat and death o( 


eti froin 


Sweden :— Christina re- 
signs.— Charles X., l8t oi 


1666. Aloxan- 

the House of Deux Poiii". W 



der VII., 

Poland :~-War with Rus- 


1667. — Leopold 


16S7.War wiih 




Uacoczi, for 

1657. Denmark :— War against 

aiding Swe- 

the Swedes, who overrun 

den against 

Denmark, and mcnuce Co 

1668. Denmark : — Naval vic- 

tory over the Swedes. 
Denmark :— Peace of Roe 


Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period IX.— 120 ycufs.-^ 





Proorbss of Sooibtt, etc. 

Logwood first cat in the bay 
of Uonduna. 

Salvator Rota, landscape 

Huygena^ Dutch astronomer. 

Persecution of Janaenistt in 

Chain alutt invented by De 

Canal of Languedoc, from the 
Mediierraneun to the Atlan- 

Gobelin tapestry manufactory 
in Paris. 

Bayonets invented at Bay 

Orreiu invented. 

Fouiumiion of the Academy 
of ArchUftclure^ ami liie 
Hotel des Inralidesj at Pa- 

Cassini, haliati astronomer 
and maiheniHtician. 

D'Herbelot, Pnecal, Bour- 
daloue. La Bruyre^ Mai- 
branche, French writers. 

Christopher Wren, architect, 
commences Si Paul's. 

Ruysdael, celebrated Dutch 

William Templey historian. 

Butler^ Waller, and Dryden, 
English poets ; Henry 
More, Leighton, Baxter, 

Ifonaar/, architect ; Giradon, 
sculptor, of France. 

1663. Canada made 
a royal colony. 

16G3. BUiofs In- 
dian Bible prin- 

i664.New York 
occupied by the 

1667. — cedei to 
them by the 
peace n| Breda. 

I67i). Conclu.sionof 
iliQ * American 
treat} * between 
England and 

1675. Kins Phi- 
lip's War in 
New England. 

1677. Maine pur- 
chased by " 

1659. Richard resigns.— 
Rump parliament call- 
ed, but suon ex)ielled. 

Restoration ol 
the Stuarts. 

Hyde, earl -jt 
Clarendon, chancellor 
andprime muii^icr. 

1661. New parliament.— 
Alliance with Portugal. 

1662. Mdrriage with Ca- 
ilierine, -.jf Portugal. 

Aciol Uniformity. 
Dunkirtc sold to 

1661. War with Holland. 

1663. Naval victory by the 
duke of York. 

Great Plague in 

1666. Great Fire in Lon- 

1667. Peace of Breda.— 
New York ceded to 

Banishment of the 
earl of Claremlon. 

1668 Tnple league— Eng- 
land, Sweden, and Hul- 
ls i id, again<4i France. 

1670 The Cabal nnn- 
i.^try.— Secret treaty 
with Fiance. 

1672. War with Holland 
in conjunction with 

1673. Ministry of Danby. 
Test Act paw»ed. 

1674. Peace with Holland. 

1678. The Popish PloL 


1661. Death o< 
general of 

lAi T«llicr. 

166^ Disputes 

with the (K>pe. 
—6000 troopa 
sent agaiiMt 
the Turks in 

16»>4. French 
East India 

1600. Acaile- 
niie des Sci 

ences Luuvois 

1607. War with 
Spain. Lou- 
is claims 
Spani^ih Ne- 
therlands for 
his wife— in- 
vades Bel- 

166S. Peace o 
Aix la Cha 

gelle with 

1672. War w'ith 

1673. French 
at l.-<pahan. 

1674. The 
Dutch de- 
feated at tha 
battled of 
ten— Tu- 
rcnne rava- 
ges the Pala- 

1675 Death of 
Turenne at 

of Pero la 
Chaise, ilie 
king's con- 

1077. Victory 
over the 
Prince o( 
Onmae at 

1675. Peace 
of N i m e • 
e u e n "vnh 
Holland and 
Spam— re 
stores ttar- 

SuiUiiy tp 

Digitized by 












01 Por- 







of the 



f'ver ihe 


iarJs ai 



Spain : - 


gal :— 
lion at 
KJn; Ue- 

— Pedro 


Peace of 


(he Je- 
suit, dri- 
ve a 
lo pro- 
lect Hol- 


1663. The Diet per- 
manent at Raiis- 

1664. Montecuculi 
victorious over the 
Turics at St. 6o- 

1665. The Tyrol uni- 
ted to Austria. 

1673. War of Austria 
.ind France. 

1675. Tiirenne and 
Montecuculi op- 

So««ed on the 
.hine. — Victory 
of Consarbruck 
over the French, 
under Crequi. — 
Treves taken. 

1676. General revolt 
of Hungarians un- 
der Emeric 



1661. War 
with Aus- 

1662. Invasion 
of Hungary. 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1667. Clement 

IX., pope. 
1669. Candia taken from Ve. 
I nice by Kio- 

Peace with ihe Porte. 

1670. Cosmo 
III., grand 
duke of Tus- 
cany.— War 
between Ge- 
noa and Sa- 

Clement X., 

1674. Revolt of 
Messina in 
favor of 

1676. Meanina 
blockaded by 
the Dutch 
and Spanish 

Deaih uf De 
Innocent XI. 

eaih of the 
atheist, Spi- 

1672. The Sul- 
tan invades 

1673 —defeat- 
ed by Zo- 
briiiki, at 

1G76. Peace of 
with Poland. 

1678 First war 
with RuRsia, 
on account 
of the Cos- 

1660. Demark :— Peace of Co 
peidiagen. — The Swedes 
restore Uomholm, and Dron- 
Revolution in Denmark. 

Sweden :— Charles XL^B 

Peace of Oliva. 

Prussia acknowledged in- 
1660. Pwland :— Great victory 
of Marshal John So 
b i e 8 k i over the Tartars 

1G67. Holland .-—Peace of Bre- 
da : loss of New Nether- 

16C8. First embassies from 

Ruwia to France and Spain. 

India:— Ri'«e of the Mah- 

ratta power.— Sevnjce takes 

and sacks Sural. 

1670. Den. :— Christian V.^g 

1672. Sea fight between the 
Dutch fleet, under De Wilt 
and De Ruyter, and the 
En2li.<«h and French fleets- 
Dutch defeated. 

Den. :- William III.W 

1674. Poland:— John Sobiep- 
ki.# — 

1675. The Swedes invade 

1677. Battle of the Lund, be 
tween the Swedes and Dane* 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[Period /X--120 years.-- 










Bernini, Iialinn sculptor. 

Museum Tor Natural IlLstory, 
ai London. 

Jardin des Pinnies, at Paris. 

Penny post edtabluhed In Loo- 

Kemjifer'8 travels in Japan. 

John Ditnumk, *^ Pilgrim's 

Principia, publish- 

OUo Von Ouericke, inven- 
tor of ihe air-pump and 
electrical machine, died. 

Tele/;rat)ha iitvenieJ. 

Sew ton 3 

G. Batt. Lulhj, from Flo- 
rence, founder of French 
opera viusic. 

Arch. Corclli, celpbraied vio- 
linist and compo!9erai Rome. 

White paper tirsl made in 

Leibnitz, German philoso- 
pher, loundi the Academy of 
Sciences at Berlin. 

First opera in London. 

Pureed, English musician. 

Bank of England. 

Telescopes, first rejlccting 
one made on the principles 
of Sir Isaac Newton. 

1C86. Sir Edmund 
uf New Ensland 

I6SS General sup« 
pression of char- 
ier governmenL". 

1689. Montreal de- 
Biroyed by the 
Five nations 

Leisler usurps the 
government of 
New York. 

1690. The English 
ceiilemenifl of 
Schenectady, N. 
Yiirk,Ca<c.), Me. 

and Salmon Falls 
N. 11., destroy oil 
by a 'party ol 

Port Royal, No- 
va Scotja, reilii- 
ccd by Sir Wil- 
liam Phipps.— 
Expedition again-'i 
Canuda, un^uc- 

1691. Schuyler 
defeats the French 

at La Prairie. 

Grrat Britain. 

Witchcraft superstition in New- England. 

John Locke and Sir Isaac 

Neioton in England. 
Boiteau, Fenelon, and Bayle, 

in France. 
Bank of England. 

Phcsphortu discovered. 

1692. New Hamp- 
shire purcha!«ed 
by Allen. 

N. York : Leis- 
ler executed. 

1693. N. York:— 
Episcopacy in- 

William and 
Mary's College 
1697. Kidd's pira- 

1699. French colo- 
ny in Louisiana. 
—Gold mines in 

Rifle of the names of 
Whigs and Tories. 

1683. " Ryehouso Plot." 
Execution of Loni 
Ru!t!4el and Algernon 

In this reign the Iloy- 
al Society ol Lundon 
wa^ insmuted by Wil- 
kins, biihiip of Cliesier. 
— Bombay ceded tc 

1683.-JameB II . fiR 

Rebellion of Mon 
month, in England, and 
.Argyle, in Scotland, 
both defeated and exe- 
Judire Jeffries. 

1&S6. Tli« king favors the 

1087. — re-esiabli.shes the 
Court of High Com 

ICr^. "Revolution 
o P l&SS."— The Whiss 
and Toriea unite in np- 
piyin? to the Prince id 
Oraii^r', who ImuU m 
England witli I5,()t)(> 
men— Ihe king ileea to 

16S9.-WiHlam III 


France, the 
most ftirrai- 
d.tble jKJwer 
in Europe. 

IGfKi. Invasion 
uf the Span- 
ish Nether- 

IGSi. Truce of 
Ratubon fur 
twenty years 
with Spain. 

and Mary II .^— 
War with Franca. 
Jam«>s II. lamh in 
Ireland— be&ieges Lon- 
don Ifrry. 
1691). William in Irelaml. 
—Battle of the Boyne 
Jame.^ deleated, return-* 
10 France. 

1691. Limorick taken, and 
William acknowledsjed. 

1692. InvaMon of Eitg- 
land undertaken by the 
French in favor of 
JamM— Naval victory 
by the Dutch and 

1693. Bank of England in- 

1694. Death of queen 

lf)97. General peace 
1693. First partition treaty, 
between France, Eng 
land, ami the Empire to 
di!«pose of the crown of 
1699. Visit of Peter the 

as. Re TO- 

cation of 

the Edict 

of Nanies. 

16S8. War ol 
Spain — the 
Empire. Hol- 
land, Sivoy, 
and England 

1669. (2 rand al- 
liance against 
Fratiee, head- 
ed by Wil- 
liam III. 

1690 Naval 
victory over 
the Dutch 
and Engli^b 
otf Dieppe. 
Victory of 
at Fleurus. 

1692. Marshal 
burg tic- 

fe.its William 
at Steenkirk, 

1693. —at Ne- 
Institution of 
the order of 
St. Louis. 

France ajMl 
the aUies. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 



1680. Great part of 
Alsace seized by 

1683. Turkish war, 
sie^e of Vienna by 
iheTurks— viciory 
of ih'j Germans 
and Poles, under 
Charles, of Lor- 
raine, and John 

Treaty of the 
Hague against 

1686. League qf 
Augsburg against 

1666. Buda taken af- 
ter being held by 
the Turks 145 

I6d7. Decisive victo- 
ry of Mohaez : 
Croatia and Tran- 
sylvania subdued. 
Josepti I. crown- 
ed king of Uun- 

16^9. Grand alliance 

ratified at Vienna. 

The Palatinate 

desolated by ihe 


1690 Joseph I. elect- 
ed king of the Ro- 
mans by the Diet 
of Augsburg.— 
Victor* '8 over the 


of Cata- 
lonia in 
favor of 

sion of 



Peace o f Rys wic k 

for the 

1607. Victory over 
the Suitan Musta- 
pha at Zenia, by 
the Prince Eugene. 



1682. War with 

1683. Toul 
rout before 

1681. Alliance of Venice with 
Poland, and the Empire 
against the Porte. 

1G69. Alexan- 
der VIU., 

1691. Innocent 
XII., pope. 

1693. Battle of 
Marsa^lia — 
the allies in 
Italy defeat- 
ed by the 
Marshal Ca- 

1688. Russia 
declares war. 
1687. Revolu- 
tion in Con- 


1689. Defeat at 

1690. Musta- 

f)ha Kiopri- 
i drives the 
acroFs tlie 
Danube — re- 
covera Bel- 

1691. Ahmud 


Defeat and 
death of Kio- 

1694. Chio ta- 
ken by the 

1695. Musta- 

Pha II .^ 
1696. — ■leads 
his own ar- 
my. — Victo- 
ry of Olach. 
1699. Peace of 

The Otto- 
man power 

Thb WosLD, elsewhere. 

1680. Sweden:— Diet of Stock- 

1682. Ilusaia :— Ivan and Pe> 

xeTj^Sf their sister, So- 

phin, regent. 
1663. Denmark :— The Code of 
king Christian published. 

1686. India :— The pe<kin con 
Golconda and Besapore. 

1687. —The English factories 
in Bengal eup pressed —after- 
wards restored. 

1688. Prussia :— Frederic IIL 

usflia :— Ivan resigns— 
Sophia is confined in a con- 
1689. Peter thh 

Great . iwg 

1692. Ruf»ia: — First trade 
with China. 

India :— Height of the Mo- 
gul power, annual revenue 

China:— Great influence 
of Jesuits. 

1693. Swetlen :— The king de- 
clared absolute. 

1695. Holland: Bombard- 
ment of Brusfel.s by the 
French, under Villeroi. 

1696. Poland :— Denih ot So- 
bieski— succeeded by 

1697. — Ftedc.-ic Augustus L 
Sweden :— C h a r l s a 

X 1 1 .W--(I5 years old.) 

Ruf«i)ia :— Introduction ol 
various ma.,ufactures — 
equiptneni of a fleet, etc. 

1699. Den. :-Frederic IV ?|f 

Alliance of Denmark, Rus- 
sia, and Poland, against 
Charles XII. of Sweden. 

Digitized by 



THE world's FROGRbiiS. 

[Pef^ad IX.—V2Q ycari,-^ 


Pint manuractories in Russia 
and Denmark. 

Fendon, Botsuetf MaaiUon^ 
in France. 

National Deb: of England 
commenced. ' 








Proorbbs op Socxbtt, etc. 

Ooifrey KneUer, 


Firsi Rutaian newspaper. - 
Si. I'eieraburgh founded. 

Flourishing period of French 
literature.-- Qr9».l splendor 
in the French courL 

A newpaper in America. 

Incorporation of the United 
British Ea$t India Com- 

Prunaic acid discovered by 

A post-office in America. 

The famous bttU " Unigeni- 
tu» " against the French Jan- 

Rise of commerce in Austria ; 
first manufactories. 

Law'» bank at Pan't. 

The monasters of Mafra, * the 
wonder of Portusal,' built. 

Prior, SieeU, De Foe, Addi- 
son, A lUrish in England. 

First standing army in Eng- 

The coffee tree brought from 
lava to Surinam. 

1701. Yale College 

1702. Rice intro- 
duced into Caro- 
lina from Mada- 

17UJ. Apalachian 

Indians subdued. 

Maine ravaged 

by French and 


1704. Captain 
Church's expe- 
dition against the 
Boston News 

Letter., first Ame- 
rican periodical. 

1706. Carolina in- 
vaded by the 
French and Span- 

1707. Unsuccessful 

expedition against 
Port Royal. 

l708.The Haybrook 
fUa/form^ form- 

17U9. First paper 
money in New- 

1710. First post- 
office at New 

Fruitless expe- 
dition against Ca- 

17 la '* Queen 
Anne's War" 
closed by the 
treaty of UircchL 

1715. Indian war in 
South Carolina. 

1717. New- Orleans 
settled by the 

Grbat Britain. 

1700. A British fleet sent 
to assist Charles XII., 
of Sweden. 

Foundation of the 
national debt in this 

1701. War of the Spanish succession. 

1702. The French invade Holland, un 
derBoufflers— repulsed by Marl- 


A nne.)H 

1703. Meihuen neaty of 
commerce with Portu- 

1704. Marlborough enters 
gains the battle of 

Gibraltar taken by 
K»oke. • 
1706.rreaty of union 
with Scotland. 

Battle of RamiUies, 
1707. Victory of Almanza 
lish and Poriugue.<)c. 

The first United 
Parliamen t o f 
Great Britain 

1705. Battle of Oudenarde, 

Sardinia and Minor 
the English. 

Unsuccessful attempt 
of the Pretender to land 
in Scotland. 
1710. Victory of Vendomo 
Dr. Sacheverell's iriul. 
— Collision of Whig 
anil Tory principles. | 

1713. Peace of Ut 
Perpetual separation 

of France and Spain— 

?[uires Newfoundland, 
ludson's Bay, nlvo .Mi 
braltar. The Rhine is 
between Germaiiy and 

1714. Factious at court— 
di^iace of Harley, 
chancellor of the exche- 

Death of the queen. 
— II ouseof Hano- 

George 1.0— 

Robert Walpole, pre- 
1713. Insurrection of Ja- 
cobites. — Battles of She- 
rid'muir and Preston. 
War against Sweden. 

1718. Quadruple al 
Emperor, England, Ho 
France against the desi 

1702. Revolio.' 
the Hugue- 
nots jaupprefui- 
ed by Mar- 
shal Viliars. 

Villeroi Ue- 
over the Eng- 

— French de- 
ca captured by 


r e c h I . 
of the crownr 
Enifland ac 
AcukAa, and 
norcd and Gi 
the bouudaf. 

1714. Peace » 
Radsiadt : tiis 

Emperor ac 
Philip on 
the cession 
of Loinb.v- 
dy, Naplt-a. 
and Sai'itinia. 

1715. Louis 

XV. ^- 

DiUe ol 
Orleans re- 

§ent. — Du- 
uis, minis- 
liance: th» 
Hand, and 
gns of Spaio. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 







Dea(h of 

ihc king, 
' of Anjou 
a* hH 

irui I Philip 

iands ai 
and eo- 

iiA taken 
by the 
Port. :— 
John V. 

and Por- 

Spain an 
ing Em- 

na taken 
bv Ber- 

ter of 


I70I. Grand alliance 
between England, 
the Empire, tu pre 
of Frunce and 8pa 

1702 Bailies of Stol- 
hafen, H«»chHiedi. 
and Spires, gained 
by ti»e French. 

1705. —Joseph 


1710. Treaty of the 
Hague between 
Endand. Holland, 
and the Empire. 

1711. — Charles 


Ministry oi Count 

1713. Pragi/iatic 
sanction, vesting 
the Buccession to 
Austria in the 
daughters of Char- 

1714. Peace of Ras- 
tadi and Baden 
with France. 

1718. Q u a d r u 
pie alliaice 
against Spain. 

of the Hague, 

Holland, and 

vent the union 


1702. Victory 

of Luzzace 
eained by ihti 

Flench over 

the Inipe 


1706. French 
driven from 
Italy by • 
prince Eu- 

I7U7. All the 
Spanish pos- 
Bei>sionB in 
Italy aban- 
doned to the 



1709. Charlei. 
XII. takes 
refuge at 
hence war 
with Ru!i»ia. 

1714. War of Venice with 
the Pone. | 

1715. Corinth laken by the 
Turks — the Emperor joins 
Venice— sie ge of Corfu 
raised on the news of their 

1716. defeat at 
the battle of 

1717. Defeat of 
Crusca— loss 
of Belgrade. 

1718. Peace of Papsarowiiz, 
between the Porte, V^cnice, 
and Hunga ry. 

Tub World, elsewhere. 

1700. Russia :— Peter the Great 
invades Iii^ria— ilefeaied hy 
Charles Xil., at Narva. 

War o( the Northero 

1701. PRUSSIA erected inioa 
kingdom under 

Frederic I fif— 

Charles XI!. )nva<les Po- 
land—is vicioriou.<« at Riga 

1702. —enters Warsaw— takes 

1703. Victory of Puliusk 
Poland:— The throne ca- 

clared vacant, and 
1701. Stanislas Leetzinski 

elected king.® 

1706. The Swedes victorious 
over the Si^xons and Rus- 
sians at Traven»tadi. 

07. Ruf'^ia :— Revolt of the 
('o!»sack Mazeppa. 
1 708. Charles invades Ruseia, 
crosses the Dnieper, and is 

1703. defeated at Puliowa. 

Sweden at war with Den- 
ma ik. 

Poland :— Frederic Augue- 
tus re-ascenilH ihe ilinme. 

1712. Victory of the Swedes at 

1713. Pruf5.«ia :— Frederic Wil 

Ham 1.S — 

1714. Russia:— Naval victory 
over the Swedes.- Aland and 
Finland conquered. 

1715. Neiherlanils Barrier 

treaty ol Antwerp with Aus- 

Sweden .-—Return of Char- 
les—Prussia and England 
juinthe alliance against him. 

1718. Charles XH, invades 
Norway ; is killed at the 
siege ol Fredcric>hall. 
Sweden:— Ulrica Eleo 


Digitized by 




PERIOD X.~97 y«4ir«.— 






Cotton Mather^ " Magnolia^" 
ami Increase Mather^ Hist. 
of War wiih Indians. 

Inoculation introduced by 
Lady Montague. The same 
year introduced into Boston 
by Dr. Boylston. 

Academy of Sciences at Peters- 

The " Appeliantg," in France, 
headed by the Cardinal de 
Noailles, appeal from the 
bull '* Unigenitua," to a ge- 
neral council; but without 

Behring's Strait discovered. 

Balloons invented by Gusmac. 

In England : In France : 
Pope, Sioift^J. B. Roua- 
Young, aeau^ Le 

Thompson, Sage, RoUin, 
WatlH, Lord Montesquieu. 
Bolinf broke, 

ffallet/y astronomer. 

First Lodge of Freemasons in 

Iruh linen manttfactories, 
and English steel and cutkry 

L. Holberg. Danish drama- 

1719. First Philadelphia news- 

1721. First New-York news- 

1723. Vermont settled. 

Increase Mather ^ died. 

1724. Trenton, N. J., founded. 

1727. Great earthquake in 

1728. Cotton Mather, died. 
Discovery of diamond 
mines in BrsKiJ. 

1729. The Carolinas separated. 

1732. Birth of Washington. 

1733. Savannah founded. 

America^ at Boston. 

1740. Tennessee first explored. 

1742. Invasion of Florida by 
Indians and Spaniards— re- 


1719. UoRuccessful attempt to 
invade Scotland by the Span- 

"The South Sea Scheme." 

1720. "*• Burbling o( the South 
Sea bubble." 

1721. Sir Robert Walpole'a 
ministry continties. 

1726. Lea^i e of Herrenhausec^ 

1727. George I. dies at Osna- 

— George II -9 • 

1728. Pe«ce of Pardo wito 

1729. Treaty of Seville, be 

1731. Treaty of Vienna with 
Holland and the Empire. 

irjy. War with bpaln. 

1740 Purto Bello taken by Ad- 
miral Vernon —Anson's 'roy> 
age round the world, and 
capture of the Manilla gal 

Digitized by 




m^lSlo.— Death of Charles XII. to BattU of Waterloo. 



The k&4? 

(ho rovenuneiit. 
Pute de Bourbon, 


1724 Conprea of Cam- 

I bray 

'between Fngland, 
Praac9, Prussia, 
aod HoU&nd. 

• Uinioinr of G&nli- 
Dal Floury. 


1728 CoD^reoi of 8om> 
aoiM diflpolyed, 
wiihoot eflecting 
any thing. 

tween Eneland, 
France, and Hol- 

733 War of the Polish 
France, Spain, 
, and Sardi ua. 

t731 CoiKiuest of Lor- 
! nine. 

1740 War of the Aus- 
trian succession 
~llar»hah Belle 
isle and Broglio : 



ad by the 
at Deltln- 






Alliance of Vienna, Spain, 

1734. :— 
quest of 
|y by 


1739. :— 
land, for 
tions of 
the Asi- 

And Austria. 

\T2R. War of the Po- 
li9h Duccemion; 
Austria. Russia, 
and Denmark. 

1735. Preliminaries 
of Vienna*noi con- 
cluded till 173S 

1740. Warof the Aus- 
trian succession. 
Ma ria The- 
resa succeeds to 
the hereditary 

1741. The French, 
Saxona, and Sara- 
n«L'Vs, overrun Aus- 
tria, take Prague, 
and crown Charles 

VI. emperor. f9 
Treaty of Brea- 
lau with Austria. 
1743. The French 
driven across the 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1719. Italy :— Sicily inraded by the 

\TjS. Peace of Stockholm.— Tranquillity 

restored in the n.rth. 

Sweden :— The qiicen abdicates in 

favor of her husband. 
1721. Italy :— Innocent XIIl., pope. 

Frederic. ^^^ 

Peace of Nysiadi wiih Russia. 
Russia :—Pei«r assumes the title 
"Emperor of all the Russias." 
1721. Turkey :— Mahommed Eflendi, am- 

basaador to Paris. 
1723. China :—Chri.«5tiaM8 expelled. 
1723. Italy:— John Gaston, (de Medici), 

ffrand duke of Tuscany. 
1?23. Turkey :— The Turks and Russians 

attempt to dismember Persia. 
^724. Iialy:— Benedict Xlll., pope. 

1725. Russia :— Catharine I., widow of 


l?i5. Turkey :— Partition treaty for seiz- 
ing the north and west provinces of 

1726. Russia :— Alliance wiih Austria. 

1726. Turkey :— First printing press 
brought from Paris to Turkey. 

1727. Russia :— Treaty with China. 

Peter II. W 

l?27. Turkey :— Peace cif Bagdad. 
17-28. Denmark :— Fire at Copenhagen, 
destroys ihe public library. 

—colony of Danes in Greenland. 

I7:». Denmark :— Christian VI. ^9 

1730. Italy — Clement XII., pope. 

Russia :— Anne.® 

1733. Poland :— Frederic Augustus II.® 
The diet elect Stanislaus, but are 

compelled by the Russian army to elec*. 

1734. Stanislaus besieged in Dantzic, es- 
capes to Koningsberg. 

1734. Turkey -.—Turks driven from Per- 
sia by Nadir Shah. 

1736. —war with Russia and Austria. 

1737. Italy .-—Francis, of Lorraine, grand 
duke of Tuscany. 

1739. India :— Invaded by Nadir Shah, 
who takes and plunders Delhi. 

1739. Turkey .-—Turks defeated near 

1740. Italy :— Benedict XIV., pope 
Turkey :— The Turks invade Penia 

—are repulsed by Ashraf. 
-peace of Belgrade. 

Digitized by 



THE world's PROOPwEbfe. 

[Period X. — 97 ytarj.— 






Frederic ihe Great makes 
greai iiTi[>rovemeni8 in mili- 
tary /oc/iM— introduces^y- 
iixg horse artiUery. 

Durante and i>o. celebraied 

Handel^ and Seb. Bach, musi- 
cal ctuni>oser.'». 

Indigo tint produced in Caro- 

Moaheimj ecclesiasiical lusio- 

Dr. Franklin' 8 discoveries in 

En?lanil introduces the "New 

Style " Calendar. 
British Museum founded. 

British. I 
A Jan Ram- \ Helvetius, Fr. 



Racine, Fr. 
GeUert, Get. 
mann, Ger. 

John Rvsbraeh, sculptor. 
Hogarth, Wilson, ^ Joshua 

Jieyiwlds, painters. 
Potatoes first planted in 

France, by Turgoi. 
Niebuhr's travels in Arabia. 

Wesley 4* Whitejield preach. 
Philadelphia Medfcal School, 

first in America. 
Wallis and Carteret's voyage 

of discovery in the South 

1745. Louisburg and Cape 
Breton taken from France 
by the English. 

1747. David Brainerd and 
Benjamin Coleman^ died. 

Great Dritaim. 

1744. Naval victory over the 
French and Spanish fleets in 
the bay of Iliercs. 

1745. Scotch rebellion— Char- 
les Edward lands in Scot- 

1746. ho is defeated at Cul- 
1747. Victories over the French 
ofT lielle-iale and Cape 

1749. English settlement in 
Nova ScoLia. 

1752. Hostilities between Eng 
1754. Washington's mi.Hdion to 

the FrtMicli.'' 
irrw. DelVai of Hraddoc.k. 
l7o(i. O.iwego iind Ft. Granby 

taken by the French. 

1757. Fort Wm. Henry cap- 

1758. Repulse of Abercrombic 
at Ticomleroga. 

Fort I)u UuR?ne taken. 
175y. Invasion of Canada- 
death of Wolfe — Quebec 

Capture of Niagara, 
Crown Point, and Ticonde- 

17G3. End of the « Old French 

1765. " American Stamp Act " 

resi.<fied in Massachusetts 

and Virginia. 
Firiit Colonial Congress at 


1748. Peace of Aiz la 
mutual restitution of coo 

1752. The new style intro- 
duced ; the year hereafter 
comtnences Jan. 1. 

land and France on the boun 

1756 "Seven Years' 
Subsidiary alliance with 

Ministry of W i 1 1 i a m 
Pitt, (he elder. 
1757. Victory of Plassey, in 

1759. Naval victories over the 
Lagros, and ofl' lirest. 

Surat, in India, taken 
from the Dutch. 

ireo.-Georgo III-W- 
1701. Earl of Bute, premier. 
17G2. War with Spain. 

Conquest of Havana, 
Trinidad, and Manilla. 
1763. Peace of Paris 

1765. Bengal ceded to the East 
India Company by the 
treaty of Allahabad. 

Digitized by 








War declared 

against England 

and Auttiria. 
Battle of FoDlenoy, 

allies defeated. 
The French ricio- 1746. :— 

rioua by laiid,'Ferdi 

but unsucceasful nandVI. 

by sea. 
War with Holland 





Chapell e - 

, tia. 
1753 Influence of Ma- 
dame de Pompa- 
I dour. 
Capture of Minor- 
ca from the Eng- 

InrasioQ of Hano- 

Defeat at Crefeldt. 
on the Rhine. 



French off Cape 

Aueropi to invade 

Lo98 of all Canada. 

The Bourbdn Fa- 
mily Compact. 

8irse and capture 
o( BelleiRle, by 
the English. 

between Franca, 
Spain and Eng- 
1764 Sxpulaion of the 


1746. Charles dies at 

House of 

—Francis I flR 
husband of .Mana 

the on 

1759: — 

Peace of Aix la Cha- 
Spain, and Prussia 
ly gainers by the 

1756. Seven Years' 
War of Austria 
and Prussia. 

Invasion anti 
conquest of Saxo- 
ny, by Frederic II. 

Alliance with 

1757. PrusBJana vic- 
loridui ai Prague, 
RdM^barh, Lesi«a, 
and Breslau. 

The French take 
Verdun and Bre- 
1736. French defeated 
at Crefeldt, 

1759. and at Minden 
Victory at Max- 
en over the PruK- 
eians.— Dresden re- 

1760. Great victory 
at Torgan, by Fre- 

1762. Prussians victo- 
rious ui Freiburg. 

1763. Pence ol Hu- 

1765. Joseph II. 

Thb VVoblx), elsewhere. 

1740. Prussia :— F rbdbrio II .flff 
(the Great.) Prussia increases in IV 
poriance.— War with Austria. 

Russia :— Ivan V. 

1741. Sweden :— War with Russia. 
Swedes driven out of Finland. 

Russia :— Elizabeth. ^5 

1743. —Peace of Abo wiili Sweden. 

1743. Turkey :— War with Persia. 
—Defeat near Erivan. 

1744. India:— Hostilities between FrencW 
and English. 

1744. luily :— Savoy occupied by Frenck 
and Spaniard.", who take 

1745. —Parma, Milan, and Placentia. 
—Genoa bombarded by the English. 

1746. —French and Spaniards driven froi» 

1746. Denmark:— Frederic V.^ 

1747. Netherlands :— William 
Pen-ia:— Revolution: Nadir. 
Shah murdered. 

1751. Holland :— William V. ptadihnlder. 

Denmark :— Ministry of Count Bem- 

Sweden :— House of Holstein Got- 
torp :- 

Adolphus Frederic.^ 

1754. Italy :— The (;orsican», under Paoli, 
revolt against Genoa. 

1754. Turkey :— Othman 111. 

1705. First Prussian emba.ssy to Ctmstan- 

1756. India: -Calcutta taken by the Na- 
bob of Bengal. 

17r.7. Turkey :— Musiapha III. 

1757. Prussia :— Russian invasion. 
I75H. -victory of Londorf 

1755. luly :— Clement XML, pope. 

175y. Pnir-'.ia :— The king defeated ai 

1760. —Battle of Licsnit/..— Berlin taken. 
India:— Shah Alim II. 
Sif'sre and capture of Pondicherry, 
by the English. 

Kingdom of Mysore founded by 
H y d e r All. 

1762. Russia: Peter 


C atharine II .^ 

1764. Poland:— Stanislaus Poniatowskl 

1765. India ,— Treaty of Allahabad. 

— Establishment of a Biiiieh empire 

1765. Italy :— Peter Leopold, grand duka 
of Tuscanv. ^L 

1766. Denmark:— Christian VIL W • 

1766. Power of the Mameluke* inEgy|M 

revived under Rodvan and Ali Bej. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

IPetiod X.^^ years,-^ 




Pimi ijnnmng machine in England. 


Cook's fint voyage of discovery. 

Bruce discovers the source of the Nile. 

Royal Academy of Arts in En 
Reynolds, first president. 

gland ; Joshua 


Letters of Junitu. 


Whit«fleld dies at NcwhuryporL 


Captain Cook dlBCorera New California. 


The SpiNiSiNO-jBNNT, invented by Robert 



Tlie Improved Stbam ENOimi, by Watt] 

and BoUon. 

In England, i France, 



Ger. Mosh- 

















La Harpe, 








Adam Smuh, 


Home Tooke, 

<Vu7. Linnaeus, 


It. Meiasiaaio. 


Riu. Kheras- 













Kaimefl, # 


Unitbo Statbs. 

G1UIA.T Britain. 

1766. American Stamp 
Act repealed. — New 
minisiry under th« 
Earl of Chatham. 

1767. First war with 
Hyder AU in M«- 

1768. Boston occupied 
by the British troops. 

1769. Daniel Boone ex- 
plores Kentucky. 

1772. Hancock, S. 
Adams, and Pa- 
trick Henry, 
promote the revolu- 

1773. Tea destroyed at 

1774. Continental Con- 
gress at Philadelphia. 


April 19, Skirmish at 

June 17,~BaiUo of Bun- 
ker'd Ilili 

Prescoit, Put- 
nam , d: W a r r e n . 
Monireal, and falls at 

1776. The British troops 
evacuate Boston. 

Moultrie de 
Sullivan's Island. 

July 4. 

Americans (Sul li- 
V a n) defeated at 
Flaibush, Aug. 

Baitle or White 

Battle of Trenton, 
Dec. 26-7. 
1777. Arrival of Lafay- 
Capture of Tlcon 

1770. Lord N »rtfa, 
prime minister. 

17/1. The Falkland 
Inlands ceded by 
S{)ain to Great Bri- 

1774. The Boston Port 

Bill passed. 
1774. warren Hastings, 

Governor general ol 
idia. *' 


1775b Lord North's 
** conciliatory mea- 
sures " rejected bj 
the colouied. 

takes St. Johns and 


1776. The city of Lon- 
don remonmrHtes 
against 'he American 

feats the English at 

The British anny 
takes possession o/ 

Hessians hired for 
service in America. 

deroga by the Biitid^ 
July 6. 

Digitized by 












Genoa cedei Corsica to France. 

Ministry of Due d'Aiquillon. 

aiarriage of the dauphin with 
%larie Aiitoinetie. 

Madame du Barri nilea the 

■Louie XV 1. 9 

Marie Antointtte^ qu««n:— 
Maurepae, prim? mmisier. 

N e c k e r f compirollergene- 

Franklin in Paria. 


1772. Joseph 
II. with the 
Emperors of 
Russia and 
Prusciia, dis- 
member Po- 
land, divid- 
ing i( be- 
tween them- 

The World, elsewhere. 

Discipline o( the Ottoman troops (m- 
proved by Baron de Toit. 

1767. Spain .-—Jesuits expelled. 

India:— Ilyder Ali resists the Eng- 

17G8. War between Russia and the Otiomaj 

1769. Pope Clen^eni XIV. 

The Russian army occupies Wa.Iachia 
and Moldavia. 

1771. Sweden :—Gustavus III.® 

1772. First Partition of Poland. 

1773. Ottoman Empire :— The Russians cross- 
ing the Danube, are repulsed by Ghazi 

Pope Clement abolishes the order of 

1774. India — Warren Hastings, first British 

Russia :— Revolt of the Cossack Pugat- 
Bcheff, calling himself Czar Peter. 

Ottoman Empire :— Abdul Hamid.f^'' 

1775. Pope Pius VI. 

Spain :— Able ministry of Florida Blan- 

1776. Bassnra surrendered to the Persians. 
East Indies :— Lord Pigoi, govcmor-ga- 
neral, imprisoned by his own council. 

1777. Portugal :— Maria, 

Digitized by 




[Period X. — 97 years.— 







Proorsss of Society, etc. 

HerschePa discorcry of ihe 
Georgium Hidua. 

Prusaie acid obtained in a se- 
parate Slate, by Scheele. 

Air balloon of Montgolfier 

First American vessel in 


for the 

dumb at Paris, by the'Abbii 

tie I'Epce. 
Sundat/ schools esiabliAheii in 

Cn^liitul, by Robert Raikea. 
Ilenchel'fl Telescopes. 

Stenography^ by Taylor. 

Panoramas in London. 
First spinning machine in 

Talma^ the celebrated trage- 

United States. 

Great Dhitaim. 

Datiles of Bennington, 
II, and S illwater. 

Pliila lelphi.i taken by 

ii^. Haiile of German 

ceivea Burgoyne'a 
Anicles ol conlcdoraiiun, 
adopted .Nov. 15. 
1778. Alliance with France. 
Battle of Munmouth, 
Washiu^ton victorious, June 

Arrival of the French 
fleet under D'Estaing. 
Massacre of Wyoming. 
Siviumah taken by the 
i77y. Wayne recovers 
Sioncy Point. 

Paul Jone^j'g Victory off 
17S0. B'litle near Camden: 
D c K a 1 b killni. 
Trea^un of Armld. 
1761. Battle uf Cowpenfl, gain- 
ed by Morgan. 

Surrender of Co 
town, Oct. 17. 

Aug. 16; Orantlywine, SepL 

the Enslish, under Comwai 
town, Oct. 4. — G a I e a r» 
surrender, OcL 17. 

177a Capture of Pondicherrx, 
in India. 


17dJ War with Ilyder Alii 

War with Holland. 

rnwallis at York- 

1781. Victory off* the Dogger- 

1782. Treaty with Holland, by 
J. Adann. Jay, Frank 
1 i n , and Laurens. 



know led ged by Great Bri- 

1781. New- York Chamber r( 
Cimimerce founded. 

17R">. John A d a m 8 , let 

Scato.-* of America to Great 

17s > Siiay's in9urrectlon in 

Mas-each Udells. 
1787. GtMioral Convention at 


F E n R R A L C O N • 
8 T I T D T I O N of the 

UniirMlS:alc.<<. adopted. 

176^ Cotton |)lamed la Geor- 

178.). Gborob Wash- 
ington, first Presi- 
dent : 

Jefferson, Ha- 
m i 1 1 (I n , K n o X , R a n - 
d o I p li , and Jay, form 
I ha cabinet. 

1791. First United Siates Bank. 

1792. Kentucky admitted 
to the Union. 

United Slates Mint eeia- 

1784. Pill, ihe younger, 

Peace with Tippoo Saib. 

anbiNSKador from the United 
1733. rill's Sinking Fund. 

1783. rhck\nj;in!*ane.->Deaia 
of Charles lildward, ttie last 

Trial of Warren Ilaflt- 


1792. Provision for the frwlnc 
abolition of Uie <t\ % t>« V 


Digitized by 






1773 A'Iianc« wiilt America. 

1779, Scheme to invade England 
I from Normandy. 

1731 Rochambeau scni to 
aid the Americans. 

17SI j N«cker resiga*). 

178i I>efeat of De Grane in the 
I West Indies, by Rodney. 



of Versail 

La Perousi't voyage of disco- 

1737 Financial difficulties — New 
taxation : Coloime, Bricune, 
and Neckcr, ministers sue- 


begin i.—Basiilo taken and 
raied, July H.~Lafav- 
e 1 1 e , commander of the 
national guards.— M i fa • 
beau, leading orator. 




177a War of the Bavarian 
succession.— Bavaria seized 
by Germany. 

1779. Congress and Peace of 

1782. Punishment of death 

The Pope visits the em- 
peror, to dissuade him from 
hostilities agaiiisl the church. 

1785 2,000 religious houses 
suppressed by the emperor. 

17^. The emperor attempts 
to control the Universities. 

1790. Leopold II.W— 
Congress of Reichenbach. 

Flight of the king to Varen- 1791. Conference of Pilnitz. 
nies. — Lafayette resigns. JL 

1792. -Francis 1 1 . W- 
War with Germany: — ^The French take Spires, Mentz, 

France declared a 

Oiranduta and Movntainiata. 

and Longwy— Lafayette im- 
prisoneflat Olroutz. 

Tbb World, elsewhere. 

1780. Declaration of the armed 
neutiHliiy — lo proiert neu- 
tral llugH from the right ol 
search claimed by Britain. 

! 782. Italy :— Pontine ma; ihes 
- drained 

India:— Rise of Sindia— 

T i p p o o , Sultan. 
1783. — alliance wiih th^ 


86. Prussia —Frederic WM- 
liam II. 

1787. Russia :— War wiOi the 

1788. Spain:— Charles ?V. 

1789. Ouoman Empire:— Se- 
lim II. 

1790. Tuscany : — Fer-iinand 

1792. Sweden :—Gu8iavKi IV 


Digitized by 




(Period X.—97 vears,- 




Proorkss op SOCIBTT,etC. 

Tom Patne, Aljieri, Italian 
Fiaher Ainea. poeL 

Hannah Morey Oluck^ 
Gaiiisboro\ J/uydn, 

Mur eland. 

Kraaikiy Po- 
lish poeu. 



Peatalozxi, aysiem of elemen- 
tary educatiuti. 

Mango Paik'a traveU in 
AJrica^ published. 

Iron railways In England. 
Polytechnic school in Puria. 

Firat book/air in Neio- York. 

Firal Locomotive Steam En- 
tine iiseii on the Merihyn 
Tydvil road in Wales. 

United Statbs. 

793. Washington reelected. 

Neutrality ia regard to 

Grsat Britaix. 

1791. Commercial treaty xotth England. 
f ! ii in m a n c e III e n t lilili 

793. First coalition agaiast 
F.anco, dirccied by En^- 
larid — all Europe, except 
Sweden, Denmark, and Tur- 

C o in m e n c e in e n 
of the nav y— ti f r i 
gates built. 

1796. Washington resigns. 

1797. John Adams, 2d 

Difficulties with France 
1793 Regular army organized, 
VVdsliiiigion commander- in- 
"99. Death of Washini^ton. 

Tennessee becomes 
a State. 

1300. Seat of government 
iranaliBrred to Washington, 
D C. 

1301. Thomas Je ffe r- 

s o n , 3,1 Presideui 

Exports of Untied States, 

i^U Ohio joins the Union ; 

It has 76,00u inhabitants. 

1303. Purchase of Louisi- 
ana, for 8I0.OOO.O.K). 

U. States frigate Philadel- 
phia, taken by the Tripoli- 

1801. Decatur recaptures 
the Philadelphia. 

Preble bombards Tri- 

Burr kills Hamilton. 

1305. Jefferson re-elected Pre- 
sident : G e o r g e Clin- 
ton, of Neto-York^ Vice- 

Biiiish army defeatad 
near Dunkirk. 

1795. War with HoUaotL 

79S. Second coalition agaioM 
France.— Irish rebellhin. — 
Nelson's victory at 
the Battle of the 

Wilberforcc's motion to 
abolisi) lite slave trade, lose, 
87 to Si. 

1300 Union of Eng- 
land and Ireland. 
—Malta uiken. 

13t)l. Baiile i>f Alexandria.^ 
Pitt resigns, succeeded bgr 

18U2. Peace of Amiena. 

1803. Successful war in bidia. 

1801. Pitt again premier. 

1303 Nelson defeats tbt 
French and Spanish fleeu 
off Trafalgar. 

Digitized by 











1793. Fir«t Coalition 
against France. 

The king and quoeu beheaded. 
Reign of Terror. 

Marat assaMinated by Cbar- 

loiie Cortlay. 
Viciorieti of P i c h e g r u and J o u r d a n —the allies 

every where driven back, i 
ReToIuiion ol the 9th Thermi* 

Robeaplere guillotined. 

PARTE, commander of 
rhe army ; quells an insur- 
rection in Paris. 

War in Italy. 

Baiile of Lttdi. 
Bona parte 

Peace of 

AuBlri an Campaig n— H o c h e 
and M o r e a u ' 8 cele- 
brated passage of the Rhine. 
Caropo Formio. 

179B Bona|)arte'8 expedition to 
Esrypt i< defeated by Nelson 
at Abouirir, Aug. I. 

1790 Tlie French enter Switzerland 
under Bernadotte and 
Jourdan.— Return of Bona- 
parte.— Re vol u tion of 
the 18ih Brumaire 
— B onaparte, first 

bUOBattle of Marengo. 

1798. Second Coalition against 

-M r e a u 

8 Ticlory 
n d e n . 






Peace of Lunevile. 

Bonaparte elected president of 

the Itatfian republic. 
Peace of Amiens. 
Legion of Honor iiistiluied. 

War with Ere'wid. 
Bank of France. 

Duke D'Enghien shot. 

Bonaparte crowned as NA- 
POLEON L, Emperor of 
the French. 

Marshals Soult, Murat, 
Ney, Ac. 

Austrian Campaign, 

Peace of 
Napotooo Protector of tlie 

The World, elnewhere. 

1801. The emperor of Ger- 
many assumes the title of 
emperor of AUSTRIA. 

Batttle of A uster* 


Confederation qf the RkinB. 

1793. Second Partition of Po- 
land by Russia and Prussia. 

II a y 1 1 independent re- 

Eublic, under Tuussaint 

1794. Poland :— Revolt at Cra- 
cow. — K o s c i u s k o , e» 
neial-in-chief.— Russians uo> 
feated at Warsaw. 

— extinction 
of the kingdom. 

Batavian Republic :— Shi- 

1796. Russia :— Paul I. 

1797. Switzerland :— General 
Revolution — The French 
invade Berne — Helvetian 

Prussia :— Frederic Wil 

liam m.\_ 

1796. India : -Marquis Welles- 
ley, ffovernor-gener.-iJ. 

1799. Russians, under S u - 
w a r r o w , defeated near 

1800. Armed neutrality of th« 

Pope Pius VII. 
Ionian Republic founded. 


1801. Russia: Alexander. 

1802. Italian Republic— Bona* 
parte president. 

1803. India .-—Great Mi^nitta 

1804. RusBia :-War wich Tn 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

[I*e? iod X. — 97 years.^^ 








Paooress of Society, etc. 

Plmuit Juno discoveretl. 
Lewis ^ Clark's expedition 
to the Rocky Mountains. 

Fulton's first success- 
ful TRIAL op StBAM- 

General University established 
by Napoleon, to superintend 
national education. 

Lithography inveuied. 

In England : France : 
Flnxman, La Orange^ 
Westrnacott, MangCj 
Chanlrey^ Hauy^ 
sculpion. Biot, 

B. St Pierre^ 
> poet. 

First steamboat built in Eu- 

American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Mis- 
sionsj founded. 

Steam carriages in England. 

Oas uaed tor lighting the 

streets of London. 

Safely lamp invented by Sir 
III ' " 

Humphrey Davy. 

In England: 
//. K. White, 
Reg. Heber, 



Sir W. Scott, 






France : 
Mad. de Stael, 
Mad. dc Gen I is. 

Melendez Val- 
dez, Spanish 


\V. Schlegel, 
F Schlegel, 
Kotzebue : 
Weber and 


cal coinpo 


Russia : 

United States. 

1307. Embargo on all the 
pons uf ihe'United Slates. 

Trial of Aaron Burr fur 

Slave trade abolished. 

18(>9. James Madison, 
4th President. 

Embargo repealed; the 
non-iniercourae act passed. 

181 1. Engagement between 
the 'President' and the 
* Little Bell.' 

Indians on the Wabash, 
defeated by Gov. Harrison. 
Populauon of the Uaiied 
Slates, 7,230,903. 


Great Britain. 

1806. Fourili Coalition againai 

1807. Bill for the abolition of 
the blave iradSi passed. 

1808. The English, under 
W e 1 1 e c 1 c y I enter Spain 
as allies. 

1809. Fifili Coalition. 

Walcheren expediiioa. 

1810. War with Sweden. 

1311 George, Prince of Wales, 
Prince Regeni, (the king b«- 
ing insane). 

Population of Great Bri- 
tain, 12,552,1M. 

War with Great Britain. 

Invasiion of Canada under Gen. Hull. 

Gen. Hull surrender!? Detroit to the British. 
The Constitution captures the Guar* 
r i e re : I 

(Firrtt check of Britinh Lord Liverpool, 

naval supretnacy.) I premier. 

Wool victorious at Queensiown, Oct 12. 
Captain Jones, in the Wasp, captures the Frolic 
Oct. 18. 

The "United States," 

The Constitution, Captain 

Louisiana admitted into 
the Union. 

1813. Perry's victory 
on Lake Erie. 

Battle of the Thames : 
TccumseU killed. 

1814. Ciiy of Washington 
burnt by the BBT'^sh. 

Captain Decatur, captures the 
British frigate .Macedonian. 

Bainbridge, captures the Bri 
tish frigate Java. 

1813. Sixth Coalition against 
France — Prussia, Russia. 
Sweden, Great Britain, ana 

1814. Treaty of Chaumont be- 
tween Auilria, Prussia, Ru»> 
sia, and Great Britain. 

Peace of Ghent, signed Dec. 3. 

1815. Battle of New-Orleans : 
British defeated by General 
Jackson, Jan. 8. 

War against Algiors de> 

1815. Candy and Almora cap- 

Wellington ric- 
torious at Waterloo, Jane IfiL 

Digitized by 







Vicicry of Jena over the PruaeUas. 
Berlin decree . 

War with RuMia. 

Baule ofFriedland.— P e a c e 

of Tilsit. 
InTaeion of Poriu- 

French in Spain defeated at 

Vienna, by Sir Arthur Wel- 








Battle of Wag ram- 

Napoleon marries Maria Lou- 
iM.— (;ontinenial peace ez> 
cepi with Spain. 

Birth ol the emperor's son; 
created kin^ of Rome. 

Souli victorious in Spain— 
uktA Badajos; is defeated 
by the English at Albueea. 

Russian Campaion. 
Battles of Smolensko and Bo> 

Moscow entered by Napoleon's 

army— and bun id by ihe 


Peace of V ienna. 
Metternich, minis- 

Victories of L u t z e n 
Bautzen, and D r e s 
den, over the allies. 

Battle of Leipsic — 

The allies enter Paris. 

Napoleon abdicates, 
and retires to Elba. 

House of Bourbon 

Louis XV III. 

Bonaparte returns from Elba. 

The hundred days. 

Napoleon victorious at Li^y. 


The allies enter Paris. 

Ronaparie banish- 
ed to St Helena. 

1812. Austria in alliance with 
France against Russia. 

1813. War of German inde- 

Austria joins the Coali- 

Bonaparte driven to the 
Rhine, loses his whole army. 

1816. German League. 

Congress of Vien- 

1806. Holland .-Louis Napo- 

leon, king. 
Prussia at war with Franea 

in alliance with Russia. 
l807.Oitoman Empire :— M u» 

taplia IV. 

180& Spain :— Ferdinand VII. 

"■ Joseph Napoleon. 

Naples:- MuraL 

Denmark :— Frederic VI. 

Ouoman Empire :— Mah* 

moud II. 

1809. Sweden :— Charles XIIL 


1810. South America:— VE- 
NEZUELA declared inde- 

1811. NEW GRENADA de- 
clared independent 

1812. iMVAaiON OP RtTBAlA 

a Napoleon.— BURNING 
K u t o s o f f pursues 
the retreating French. 

Poland:— Diet of War- 
saw : the Poles declared a 
nation by Napoleon. 

1813. South America:— Bo 
1 i V a r drives the Spaa 
iards from Caraccaa 

1814. Union of Holland and 
Belgium. — Peace of Kiel 
Sweden, and England. 

Union of Sweden and 
Norway as two kingdoms 
under one monarch. 

1815. NeUierlands :— William 

^■Th7"*»HoIy Al 
Iiance*>~Ruesia, Pn» 
sia, and Aoatria. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 

PERIOD XI.— 40 fears.' 








Proorbss or Socibtt, etc. 

New corn law in England. 

Polytechnic institution at Vi- 

Manul'actories introduced Into 

The family of Rothschilds 
comet into notice at Frank- 

Abolition of the slave trade by 
the congress of Vienna. 

Second United States Bank 
chartered for 20 years, capi- 
tal •36,000,000. 

Public aehooU established 

throughout Rusaici. 
Belzom penetrates the second 

pyramid of Gheza. 

Abolition of predial bondage 
in Barana and Wirtemberg. 

Unxtbd States. 

1816. United States Bank in 

Indiana admitted. 

1817. James Monroe, 
5th President. 

Mississippi ad- 

1818 Illinois admitted. 
War with the Seroinoles. 

PintfMteage of tks Atlantic by ateam^ hj the Savannah- 
New- York to Liverpool. 

1820. Maine admitted. 

Rise of mechanic institutions 1821. Monroe re-elected. 

in England. Missouri admitted, 

....... Slavery compromise. 

Iheroglypktcs deciphered :— 

ChampoUion.—SiT William 

Herschel died. 

Huskisaon's /ree rnide system 

in England. 
First manufactoru in Egypt, 

established by Meheniei All. 

Inland navigation of the 
United States: the great 
Erie Canal opened. 

Mailpoale in Pruana.--^ 

Steam navigation on the 

General financial panic in 

Vast increase of periodical 
literature in England, Prance, 

Germany, America, &c. 

Alexander Volta dies, ditco- 
Tcrerof the Voltaic battery. 

1834. Lafayette's visit. 
Erie canal opened. 
Protective tariff. 

1826. J. Q. Adams, 6th 

Great Baitaut. 

1816. Bombardment of Al^erm, 
—The Dey compell^ la 
make peace and abolish 

IS 1 7. Lord Exmouih's expo> 
diiioo to Algiers. 

1830.. George IV.ff. 

1823. Canning miDistry. 
The Ashaniees in Afika 

1828. Commercial treatj t 

1827. Treaty of Londoo la 
favor of Greece. 

182& WelUngtoD ministry.- 
Disturbances in IrslaiuL 

Digitized by 


THE world's PHOORSSS. 







ConcrecB of Aix la Chapelle. 
—Prance Joina the '* Holy 

Death of Napoleon at St. He- 

larlea X -9- 

427 fleet acnt to AJgien 


1821. CongresK of monarchn 
at Lavbach. — Insurrection 
in Moulavia and Wallachia. 
—Alexander Ypsilanii de- 
featetl and earned priaoner 
to Auatria. 

Tbb World, elsewhere. 


1316. Portugal t-JchnVLl 

in Brati. 

UnioQ of Naples and 
IS 1 7. Republic of the Ionian 

India :— The cholera com* 
mences iis ravazen. 

1818. Sweden :— Charles XIV. 

India:— The Mahraita 
power comnleiely over- 
thn>wn, and the Briiiah sue- 

1819. South America:— Re- 

Bublic of COLOMBIA:— 
Oliver, Presidenu 

18-21 Hayii :— B oyer, cm* 

South America :— PERU 
and GUATEMALA iiide- 
13^^. BRAZIL declared inde. 

Mexico :—Iiurbidef em- 

Oree k Revolu- 

Declaration of Indepen- 

Massacre of Scio. 

1823. linly:- Leo XII, pope, 

1824. Deaih of Lord Byron at 

IS-.^. Russia :— N i e h o 1 a a 

18'?C. —War with Persia. 

Greece : — Miwolonghi 
taken by the Turks. 

1827. Treaty between Ru»si<4 
and the Porte respecting 

Greece:— Battle of 
N a V a r i n o . 

Portugal :— Maria de Glo- 
ria, queen. 9 

— RebeHinir in favor ol 
Don Miguel as regent. 

1828. War between "* 
and the Porte. 

Digitized by 




[Period XL — #0 yeari.-^ 

4.ft. Proorbbs op SOCUTT,etC. 







In E^fOLAHD : 
Jertmy Ben- 

Thorruu Choi 

Thomtis Dick^ 
W. Kirby^ 

Leigh Hunt^ 
Mrs. Hematu, 

Barry Com- 


Russia : 


^. Webeter, 





Francs : 


Talma, trage- 


La Place, 




Gall, * 



Italt : 







Liverpool and Manchester 
Railroad opened. 

The iwo Landen succeed in 
tracinz ihe ^figer trum l^tce 
Tchad lo Ihe ucean. 

The finl newipaptsr in Con- 
stantinople. —The Factory 
Bill in England, limiting the 
hiurs or labor fur children. 

Re/urm Bill in England:— 
J^t tension of Suffrage. 

Trade unions in England, 
France, Germany, Switzer- 
land, &c. 

Girard College, at Philadcl- 

Rhia, and the University of 
lew-York, commenced. 

De Tocqueville^s History qf 
Democracy in America. 

Immisition abolished in 

Slavery abolished in the 
British colonits. 

Boston and Lowell Railroad 

James Smith«on, of London, 
lie^ueaihed jC10J,000 lo the 
United Sia'^s for the esta- 
blishment of on Institution 
^jfortlie increase and diffu- 
sion of knowledge among 

The Luxor obelisk erected at 

Umitbd Statbb. 

1829. General Jack* 
son, 7ih President of the 
United States. 

1830. Treatj between the 
United StaiM and the Porte. 

1331. The king of the Nether 
North Eastern Boundary, be 

1832. War with the Winneba- 
goes and other Indian tribes. 
—Cholera in New-York.— 
Nullification in South Caro- 
lina.— OeneralJsckson's ce- 
lebrated proclamation. 

1833. General Jackson re-elect- 
ed to the Presidency. 

Removal of the Depn- 
sites of the United States 
from the U. S Bank. 
18-34. The President censured 
by the Senate for removing 
the Depositee. 

1835. Great Fire in New- York. 

1836. The national debt of the 
United States bein^ paid^ the 
surplus revenue is divided 
among the States. 

Treaty with Morocco. 
18^i7. The independence of 
Texas acknowledged. 

Martin Van Buren, 

Grbat Britadi. 

827. Treatj of 
faror of Oraec«. 

1828. The Wellington minie> 
try.— Disturbancae in Ire- 

1829. Catholic emaneipRtioa, 
Capsain Roas* voyage to 
discover a North West pas- 
Earl Grey, mintaiar. 
Difficulties with China. 

1831. Lord John Rua- 
sal's Rtfarm Bill intro- 

Cholera fint appears ia 

lands makes his award on tba 
tween the United States and 
the British provinces. 

1832. Reform Bill passwL 

1833. Captain Ross rataroa 
from his voyage of diseo> 

1834. Sir Robert Peel, 
Premier. — Difficnltaoa la 

1837. — VistoriR- 

Digitized by 










A Freneh fleet aenc to Algien. 

Algien taktt. 

Three Days' Rero* 

1 u t i o n , July 27, 28, and 

Lafayette, comraander of the 

NHiional Gaard. 
Charles X ahdicaies. 
— L ouis Philippe I. 

(House of Orleans.)* 


Ministry of Marshal Sou It. 

Death of Lafayette. 

bviurrectinn auempted by 
Luuis Napoleon at Stras- 

Austria, &c. 

1833. The Em- 
peror of Rus- 
sia vl«it0 the 
Emperor of 

— Ferdi- 
nand l.W 

Thb World, elsewhere. 

1629. Italy :— Plus vni.. pope. 
Algiers taken by the Prei 


VENEZUELA faidependent, Q«nBii| 
Paes, Presidenu 

1S30. BELGIUM revolts from Holland, and 
is declared independent in August. 

1830. Polish struggle for nation- 
al i t y , begins November 19. 

Brazil :— Revolution ; Don Pedro ll.^g 

1831. Belgium :—L e o p o 1 d I.^ 
The Poles victorious at Prayo. 
Iialy :~GreMry XVI., pope. 

Poland :— Warsaw capitulates to Rus- 

1832. The kingdom of GREECE founded : 

O t h I .9 

Poland:— The Infiurreciion crushed: 
5000 fsniilies sent to Siberia. 

— Univerqjiy of Warsaw abolished. 

1833. Spain :— Isabella.® 

—Don Carlos claims the throne. 
Portugal :— A constirutlonal monarchy. 
Effvpt :— Mehemet Ali acknowledged by 

the Sulran. 

Mexico :— Santa Aima, President. 
l&H. Quailruple alliance— England, France, 

Spain, and Portugal, against Don Miguel 

and Don Carlos. 
1835. The Plague in Egypt. 

1836. Spain :— The Queen Regent adopts th« 

Texas :— Battle of San Jacinto, Saata 
Anna uken prisoner. 

China:-* A decree to expel all Britiab 
and other barbarian merchants. 

Digitized by 



THE world's PROGRB86. 

[Peti4Hi XL— 40 ya^t.^ 









S. F. B. MoRSB (akea 
out a patent fur his E I e c • 
tro-inai^netic Tele- 
graph, (til rented 18i2 ) 

Su<«pen4i(»n of specie payments 
by the Umka in the United 
States, in May. 

The Daguerreotype 

invented in Paris. 
Iniprovoment of the condition 

of the Jews in Iluasia. 
An Antarctic Otntinent disco 

Orbat Oritaiv. 


wpMtOft system ia Bog- 

Persecution of the Jewi at 

Wfuuttatone'a Electric Tele- 
graph patented in England. 

Tlie Crct :» Aqueduct in New 
York completed. 

Bain'» electro-ntag^eiie Tele- 
graph patented in London. 

''^ Antirentism'^ o.vwched in 
the State of New- York. 

A great defection from tlie Ro- 
mish cliurch, under the 
preaching ol Jiottge, in Ger- 

Lard RoaWe TeUtcope, 

Gutta Percha In um. 

CompleiMn of the Thmnee 
Tunnel. March 25. 

The Planet Nejttune^ pre- 
dicted by Le Verrier, dis- 
covered by Dr. Galle, of 
Berlin, Sept 23. 

1838. The Exploring Expedi 
tion sails. 

1839. Disturbances on the 
" disputed territory," be- 
tween Maine and New- 

vered by the United States 
Exploring Expedition. 

1811. W. II. Harrison, 
9ih Presi<l«nt. 

He dic4 April 4, just one 
month avter iiis inaugura- 

John Tyler, sue 
ceed:< him, as lOih Prexideni. 

Congi'eKs meets in extra 
sest-ion, May 31. 

Sub-Trea)iury Act re- 
pealed, Aug. 9. 

Bankrupt Act passed, 
August la 

1812. The Di>rr Insurrection 
in Rhode bland. 

Treaty between the Uni 

1839. The Britlsli lake 
sion of Ghuxne. 

1810. The ubiform Petma 
Pottage system e8ta;iMhad 

Marriage . f Queoa Vio> 
toria to Prince Albert of 
Saxe Cobourg. 

War with Chit a, to en- 
force the opium trade. 

War in Syria:— Great 
Britain ukins; part with 
Au'ttria and Turkey. Lord 
Paimersion's foreign 
ptAicy excites the ill-will of 
1841. The war with China 
ended : 86,000,000 leceivcd 
as a raosum fur Oantua 

1814. Texas annexed to 
the United States. 

Anti-rent riots in NeW' 
I81(>. Treaty with China. 

James K. Polk, 
11th President. 

181C. War with Mexi 

Hostilities commence on 
the Rio Grande, April :M. 

Battle of Palo Alto, 
May 8. 

Battle of ResBca de la 
Palma, May 9. 

ted States and England, aeuling 
the north-eastern bountlary. 

Treaty of peace wiili 

1813. Great "Repeal" 
agitation in Ireland. 

The Briiish gain posses- 
sion of Scintle. 

1814. Daniel O'Connell's trial 
and in prinonmem— the »en< 
tence reversed by the House 
of Lonlii. 

1813. Sir John Franklin eaila 
ill search of the north wen 

Digitized by 







TalleTTand dies. 
DtfficultjT with Mexico: cap- 
uiro ol San Juan d'Ulloa. 

Prince Louia Napoleoa at- 
tempts a hoMile deacent on 
the coaat of FraDce. near 
Bo«lo$De-.ta taicen priaoner, 
and impriaoned at Ham. 

Oaizot, minlater for fo- 
reisQ affaira. 

The remaim of Napoleon 
removed from Su Helena, 
and deposited with great 
honors at the InraJidM, in 



The duke of Orleans, heir to 
the throne, killed by a (all 
from his carnage. 

The Duke da Nemours ap- 
poiniei 1 Regent, in the erent 
of the king's death. 

Louis Napoleon escapoa fx3m 
Uam, Aaj 26l 


Id38. New 
Treaty of 
with Eng- 
land, Julj 3. 

crowned at 
Milan, Sep- 
tember 6. 

Thb Wghli), elsewhere. 

1838. Mexico:— The Castle of San Juaa 
d'UIlua taken by the French. 

1839. Peace between France and Mexico. 
China :— The Opium trade forbiddea. 
Turkey at war with Eg^uL 

India :— Ghuzne taken by tLe Britialu 

IdlO. China :— Canton blockaded by the Eng- 
lish, to compel the renewal of the opium 

Holland :~William L abdicatei : 

^William H.W 

Syria :--St. Jean d'Acre taken by tte 
English, Austrians, and Turks 

1841. China :— Canton capitulates, 1(^000,000 
;, as a ransom for tne dty. 

paid in one week, i 

Mexico :— Santa Anna enters the capi- 
tal, and places himself at the head of Um 

1812. India:— Insurrection in Afl^haniatan. 

1813 Temporary surrender of the Ssndwich 
l!<lan<ls to Great Britain, compelled by Lord 
Geo. Paulet. 

Greece:— King Otho compelled to ac* 
cept a constitution, Sept. 15. 

The Society Islands seized by a French 
squadron— r?«tored by the government. 

India:— Scinde annexed to the British 
1846. Poland :— A powerful, but unsuccessful 
insurrection at Cracow, Feb. 23. 

Rome :— Pius IX., pope ; elected Jime 1& 

Poland :— Cracow deprived of its ind9> 
^ Nor. 16. 

Digitized by 




[Period -X/.--40 yeart.— 

4.0. Pro«]ib*i up SOCUTT,e(C 

Umitbo States. 

1846. The Oregon Trea 
Uiog ihe Norib- Western Bo 

Commodore Sloat takes 
possessioQ of Califomia, 
July 6. 

New Tariir bill passed, 
establishing ad valorem du- 

Battle of Monterey, Sep- 
tember 23. 

Tampico occupied, No- 
▼ember 14. 
Idl7. Battle of Buena Vista, 
Feb. ^l 

Battle of Sacramento, 
Feb. '26. 

Vera Cruz surrenders, 
March 29. 

Battle of Cerro Oordo, 
April 18. 

Battle of Contreras, Au- 
gust 20. 

Armistice, Aug. 24. 
Iloatiliiies renewed, Sep- 
tember 7. 

Battle of MoUno del Rev, 
Sept. 8. 

Battle of Chepuliepec, 
Sep. 12. 

Mexico surren- 
ders, Sept. 14. 
1818. Treaty of Peace with 
Mexico, signed at Guada- 
loupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2i, 

The cultiratioi of the 7Va plant in the United States, 
commenced by J. Smith, near Greenfield, South Caro- 

Postal conyention betw 


Su^perution Bridge at Nia- 
gara Palls, fipened July 29. 

t y witli Great Britain, sst* 
undary, signed at LoodoBi 
June 18. 

1847. Severe famine in Ire- 
land. Large supplii« of 
f«Ktd sent from the United 

The Bogue forts in China 
taken and destroyed, April 

First deposit of Califor- 
nia gold in the mint, Dec. & 

Emigration from Europe to America during ifais year, 


I84a Civil war in Ireland. 

John Mitchell, tried and 
condemned to transpona> 
tion. May 26. 

een the United States and 
Great Britain. 

Habeas Corptis Act i 
pended in Ireland, Julv S 

Smith O'Brien arresiad 
and condemned, Aug. & 

Return of Ross's asp* 
dition. Nov. 

Digitized by 






Refonn Banqaen in 8(ns> 
barg, ChartxMi Ac 

Hichelei's Ler.tures interrupt- 
ed by th« mioiiKen, Dec 

Abil-el-Kader captured, Dec 

Debate on the Refonr Bill, 

Feb a 
Propowd Banquet v Paris, 

abandonetl, Feb *^l. 
Rbvolction cox* 

M B 2« c ■ D , Feo. 22. 
Barricades erected, Feb. 23. 
Louie Philippe abdicates and 

flies, Feb. 'M. 
ProvMional guveramenl esta- 
L a in a r t i n e , Provisional 

P^e»i■lell^ Feb. 24. 
French Republic proclaimed, 

Feb. 26. 
Meeiinr of the National As- 

seoiblT, May 4. 
Bloody insurrection in Paris, 

Caraignac, military dictator, 

June 21 
Paris in a state of tiege. 
Neir Cunstiiution adopted, 

Nov. 4. 

Louis Napoleon Bo- 
naparte, elected Pre- 
sid■n^I>ec. 10. 

AUSTBIA, d:c. 

1847. Austria 
takes posses- 
sion of Cra- 

Tub World, elsewhere. 

1^7. Prussia :— Frederic William grania ■ 
constitution, Feb. 6. 

Hay tl :--8oulouque, President, March 2. 

Algiers — Abd-el-Kadei made a prisoner 
to France, Dec. 22. 

1848. Sardinia :— Charles Albert protests 
against the encroachment of Austria, and calls out an 
army of 26,000 men, Jan 10. 

Naples :— Rebellion at Palermo, Jan. 12, 
Sardinia .'—Charles Albert proclaims a 
consiiitution, Feb. 8. 

Bavaria :— Disturbances on account of 
Lola Monies—the king abdicates in favor of 
his son, 

-Maximilian II. 


• March 22. 

Charles Albert 

Tlie Dan Jella 
chich sp- 
pulnied gov- 
ernor or 
Oct. 3. 

Incurred ion at 
Vienna, OcL 

l&ia The Em- 
peror leaves 
the city. The 
army advan- 
ces within 6 
miles of Vi- 
enna, Oct 11, 

gratx ap- 
pointed com* 
mander of 

enters Milan, March 23. 

Denmark :— Revolt of Schleswlg-Hol- 
stein, March 26. 

Sicily declared independent, April 3. 

Holland receives a constitution, April 17. 

Poland :— Unsuccessful revolt at Cra- 
cow. April 25. 

Sicily:— The Duke of Genoa elected 
king, July 10. 

India :— Insurrection in Ceylon, Aug. 16. 

Armistice siened between Denmark, 
Prussia and Sweden, Aug. 2G. 

India:— The British make an unsuc- 
cessful attempt on Moultan. 

Sicily :— Messina bombarded and taken. 
Sept 2. 

Hungary :— K o s s u t h appointed Pre 
sident of the Defence Committee, an I Dicta 
tor, Oct. 

Digitized by 




I Period XL—AO^/ears - 


Proombbs or SooiATy,etr. 

Unitbd States. 

A new planet discuverej by 1-^19. Z a c h a r y Taylor, 
OasjKtrigj al Naples. I'^ih Pre>«>ulciil. 

Magneilc Telegraph linea in u« in the United States in 
18^19, 10,0(K) miles. 


Tubular Bridge in Anglesea. 

Magnetic Clocks invented by 
Dr. LockCy at Cincinnati. 

Rail Raai]«6,(V)0 '* 

Grbat Bkitaim. 

1349. MoulUQ. in India. taksA 
Jan. 3. 

EmigFaiion froin Europe lo America, during this year, at 
the rate ul' lOLK) a day. 

Great a<;iiaiiiin on the Slavery 
Question in the United 
SiHtei Ui»n2re-!.s. 

The Pekin Monitor^ n new 
p^ipift, fM'inttfd in China 

The Snitan ol Turkey, goints 
|)ermi«ion tu the Jewn to 
huild a temple nn Mount 

A llniveriiity founded at Syd< 
ney, New South Wales. 

Deal fu in 1850: 

V 8. A. BUROPB. 

A. Judaon, Wordoworth, 
.y. M Fuller^ Jetrrey, 
M L. Datit. Neander, 

I8o0. John C. Calhoun died at 

Attempted invasion of 
Cub.i :—6U0 adventurers un- 
der Lopez, repulsed at Car- 
denas, May. 

Death of Gen. Taylor, 
July 9. 

Millard Fillmore, 
I3ih President. 

California ad- 
mitted, 31st State. 

Texas boundary settled, 
by the pay mem of 10,000,000 
dollar* to Texas. 

New Mexico and Utah 
admitted as Territories. 

Bill for the arrest of 
fughive slaves passed by Con- 
Stave trade in the Distriaof 
Columbia abolished. 

1850. The war n lAhort tat 
iDhed. and th > Punjaub a» 
nezed to the Bniiah 

A British fleet blockadM 
the ports of Greece, to eo* 
force the alleged dainas of 
British subjects. 

Sir Robert Peel dies 
July 2. 

Haynaa, " the Austrian 
butcher," coaaiised by th« 
dnymen in London, flapt 


Digitized by 



THE world's PR0ORBS8. 




The Imp«rial- 
i&ui take po8- 
WMIOQ ol Vi- 
enna, Nor. 

Louto PhUipiM cbM in En0- 

AUBTaiA, 4fcc 

Th8 Wobu>« elaewheie. 

The Emperor 

issues a pro* 


asainK the 

KosBUih wiih-draws bis army from Yienna, Oct. 27. 


dicatea, Dae. 
— Francis 

Joseph fH 

1819. A new 
March 4. 

Bre»ci« talren 
by Ifaynau, 
Haich M. 

Rome :— M a s x 1 n 1 ' • proclamation, 

Pruaikia:— The kin; prorogues the A*> 
■embly, Nov. 9. 

—The Burgher GuanI of Dr-limrefuseM 
glre up their arms. The city in a state of 
siege, Nov. 12. 

Rome :— Count Rowi. the Pope's prim» 
minittier, asrawinaieii, Nov. 16. 

India :— Great battle near Raronugguiv 
Nov. 22. 

Rome :--The Pope escapes in disguise, 
Nov. •^4. 

Hungary declared independent, Dec. 
1849. India :->Moutian taken by the British, 
Jan. .T 

Italy:— The Grand Duke of TuscanT 
fVieti. Provisional Government proclaimed, 
Feb. 9. 

Rome :— Republic proclaimed, Feb. 9. 

Sicily:— A new Constitution conceded 
by NapIeK,March6. 

Sanlinin :— Charlee Albert defeated by 
Radetxky, Msirch 21— sgain totally defeated 
at Niivarra, March 23, he abdicates the 
throne in favor of his son, ^ 

Victor Errnnuel. 9 

Intlia:— The Puniaub annexed to ma 
British Empire, March 29. 

Italy :— Insurrection in Genoa, April 1. 

Russia comes to the aid of Austria against Hungary, April 

Rome :— The French armjr arrives un- 
der tlie walls of Rome, Afiril 29. 

Ilaynau ukes' command of the Austrian array in Hungary, 

Rome surrenders to the French, July 2. 
Garibaldi leaves the city, July 3. 

Rome :— Ttiegovemmeui placed in the 
hands of the Pope"s commissioners, Aug. 3. 

OSrgey trailor-ously mrrenders to the Rusi>ian^ Aug. U. 
Kos»nih escapes into Turkey. 
Venice capitulates toRadethky, Aug. 22. 
1860. Rome:— The Pope returns, April. 

Greece dii^putes the claims of Great 
Britain for lomea of British subjects: ia 
fbrcct to fuhmiL 

China:— The Emperor Tau-Kwang, 


f aucceeda. 

Digitized by 



TRS world's PROGBSSS. [Period Xl^^iO yean 

Peooebbs or Booictt, «to. 

1860iOa th«8oh)eetAfth« Mobbing 
of Manbal HarDftO during 
E risit to ft London brewerr, 
notes jMss between Aastrift 
End OreEt BritEin, terml* 
BEtlng in E threEt of relEliE- 
tion on the pErt of the lEtter, 

A VemorlEl for the EonexE- 
tion of GftnedE to the U. 8. 
rMelved in five hoart the 
signEtnreR of 800 merohEnta, 
lEiidownere, Eod profee- 
fionEl men, in MoutreEl, 
Oct. 10. 

Wbmaii'9 RighU Con- 
Ymtion, held Et Woroeeter, 

Jforifi' Wut Paung6 diseov- 
er4d by Gent MoGlnre (Br. 
Ketj) in tae laveetlgetor, 

The BriUnh Consul Et ChErles- 
ton cElls the Ettentton of 
the OoTemor of South Ce- 
rolinE to E Iew of thEt State, 
under which British se*- 
men (colored) ere impris- 
oDed when thoj enter her 
ports for tnde or in dls- 

D«aih$ in 1850: 

/ a Oalhoun^ BenEtor, U. 8. 
Sam, MilUr, D.D. 
Z. Tbytor, President, U.S. A. 

Urrbd Statm. 

1850. GAuroBHiA admitted as 
E StEte, Sept. 

ruffUiM suMiw BUI 

passed, Sept 

Dl9UfiitmMe€Unif% held et 
Kstohei (niEnv present op- 
posed to disunion); st Yexoo 
City (resolutions proposed 
voted down). Oct T; Et 
NashTlIIo (this convention 
pessed resolutions reoom- 
mending e congress of 
slEvoholding States), Not. 

Union Meetings held st 
Mobile, Dayton, end New 
Torit, in Oct.; at Philadel- 
phia, and Manchester, N. 
H., in Nov.; End Et Bsth, 
Me., in Dec 

The Advance and Beseue, 
American veaeela iu aearch 
of Sir J. Franklin, com- 
]>letoly fastened in the ice. 
Sept 18. In their northerly 
drift x«ach lat 75« tS', Oct 1. 

Oonventions held to 
amend the Constitutions of 
the StEtea of Indiana (Oct 7), 
YlrglnU (Oct 14), Maryland 
(Nov. 4), New HampehlM 
(Nov. 0). 

Lopez and others tried at 
New Orleans for engaging 
In an expedition againat 
Cuba, Dec. 17. 

Webater replies to Hulse- 
mann on the righte of neu- 
tral natlona, Dec St. 

Qbbat BsrTAIK. 

1850. Great excitement and 
agitation In EngUnd respect 
ing a dispute on doctrine be 
tween tlio Bishop of Exeter 
and the Rev. Dr. Gorhsm, 
one of his clercy. The Privy 
Conncirs decision in favor 
of the lEtter afterwards rati- 
Qpd by the Courts. 

Searches for Sir J. Frank- 
lin—the North Star returns 
to Spithead unsuccessful, 
SeptSS. The Prince Albert 
arrives at Aberdeen with the 
IntelUgonce that traces of 
his par^ had been found at 
Gape BeiUy and Beecby 
Island, Et the enlrsnce to 
Wellington ChEnnel, Oct 1. 

Appointment by the 
Pope of seversl BomEU Ca- 
tholic bishops End sreh- 
bishops in England, eauaea 
sreat excitement and an 
indignant letter from Lord 
J. Snasell, the premier, 

English Jbroos defeated 
by the Caft«s in South 
AiHoE, with conslderabls 
]o«^ and obliged to retreal 
to their ibrt, Dec M. 

Digitized by 



TBS world's PR0GRBS8. 




Pteddent creates his nncle 
Jerorae a SCazahal of France, 
Jan. 1. 

SOO Soldiers drowned at An- 
giers by &11 of a bridge, 
Apr. 15. 

French Ambassador recalled 
from London, in oonse- 
qaence c f a dlfBcaltr oon- 
nected with an Enslish 
claim on Greece, May 19. 

New Electoral Law, restrict- 
ing the right of soAago, 
passed. Hay 81. 

Arrancement witir England 
on the Qreek dispnte, Jane 

Dotation Bill, giring the Pre- 
sident 2,ll0,U00 francs 
(1400.000) per annum, 
paased, Jane 2i. 

AvBTBiA, eta 

18S0. Prussia:— The King takes 
the oath required by the Con- 
stitution, Feb. 9, Attempt to 
aassasinate him. May 28. 

Treaty signed at Munich 
between Austria, Bavaria, SaX' 
ony, and Wurtemburg, to main- 
tain the German Union. Feb. 27. 

Wurtemburg denounces the 
Insidious ambition of the King 
of Prussia, and announces a 
league between Wurtemburg, 
Bavaria, and Saxony, under the 
sanction of Austria, March 15. 

Ueese-Darmstadt withdraws 
ft-om the Prussian league, June 
Treaty of Peace between Prussia and Denmark, July 2. 

A Congress of Deputies fh>ni 
the States included in the Prus- 
sian Zollverein opened at Cas- 
sel, July 12. 

Tnc WoBU>, elsewhere. 

Prussia refuses to join the 
restricted Diet of Frankfort, 
Aug. 25. 

Difficulties occurring lin 
Heese>Cas8el, between the Elec- 
tor and his people, in rosard to 
the mode of taxation, Austria 
and Prussia respectively send 
armies to the Electorate, to take 
opiMsite parts in the struggle, 
Sept.— Nov. 

Austrian ultimatum dellT- 
ered at Berlin, directing that 
Prussia evacuate Hesse in eight 
days, dissolve the ErfnrtLeague, 
and recognize the Diet, eta, re- 
plied to by the Prussian Kinff*s 
signing the order calline out tue 
whole military force of the mo- 
narchy, Not. 6. 

The Russian Ambassador at 
Vienna announces that the Cxar 
** would consider the eontinu 
ance of the Prussian policy in 
the Electorate as a costM &etfi," 
Nov. tl. 

Treaty of Amnesty i 
nounoed at Berlin, Dea 8. 

France protests, and Great 
Britain remonstrates, at Vienna, 
acalnst the proposea extension 
or the Germanic Confederation 
beyond the Alps, Dec. 

1860. Denmark: Bloody 
but indecisive battle of 
Idstedt, between the 
Danes and Bchleswlg- 
Holsteinera, July 23. 

Tncatan:— Battle, 
near dose of theyear, 
between the Wnitea 
and Indians; latter vie- 
torious; 800 Whltea 

Digitized by 




[Period XZ— 40 yeam.-^ 


JaSb RIehftrdaon, tb« AfHcui 
tnreller, di«8 at the viUage 
of (JnqnrU, six dajs disUnt 
from Koalu^ the capital of 
Borneo, March 4. 

A ComjMmj of Oipclea from 
England arrire in Oocll 
coiinty, Maryland, U. 8., 
brlngine with them all their 
wandering habits and pw 
UariUes, March. 

PaooftHB or Sooinr, etc 

According tothecridenoe 
of Mr. Baince before a Com- 
mittee of the Iloaseof Com- 
mons, there were in Great 
Britain 18,196 places of wor- 
ship diiuentlng from the 
tenets of the Established 
Church, to which may be 
added Roman Catholic Cha- 
pels, 697, minor sects and 
Jews. S.'M): total noncon- 
formist chnrohes, 14,840. 

BxhibiUon of the Works 
of Indu9tru of all ITaHotu 
inaugnrated by Queaa Vic- 
toria, liiay 1. 

Wyld's monster globe 
erected In JU>ndon; em- 

Soyed 800 men nearlr 80 
kys in fitting up the uite- 

Dagnerre, the disoorerer of 
the Dagutrrean or PhotO' 

Sraphio Art, dies, aged 01, 

The Oath of Abjaration (Jew) 
Bill passes the British 
House of Commons, with 
only verbal protests from 
the objecting minority, July 
8; but is refused a second 
reading in the House of 
Lords, Joly 17. 

XJirrrKD Btatsb. 

1851. General Quitman of 
Misaisfllppl arretted Ibr al- 
leged TMatloB of the neu- 
trality law of 1818, by set- 
ting on Ibot a military ez- 
pediUon against Cuba. Ue 
resigns his office of Qorer- 
nor. Feb. 8. 

Erie Canal Enlargement 
Bill defeated in the N. Y. 
Senate by the withdrawal or 
resignation of 13 democratic 
membersi Apr. 10; but 
afterwards passed by a new 

Mihot*s Ledge Light- 
house, Boeton Harbor, car- 
ried away. It was last seen 
standing about 8 o^docL, 
r,M^ April 19. 

Arrest of a notorions 
band of desperadoes In Mi- 
chisan, Apr. 21. 

Initial point of the Bonn* 
dary between the United 
States and Mexico eeubll<ili- 
ed on the riffht bank of the 
Rio Grande del Norte, in 82 
22 ntirth latitude, and 219.4 
meters from the center of 
the bed of the river, by the 
American and Mexican 
Commissioners, and a mon- 
ument erected recording 
the same, April SI 

President issues a procla- 
mation, warning all persons 
within the Jurisdiction of 
the United Sutes not to aid 
or eiignge In anyex]>edltion 
against the Ishmd of Cuba, 
Apr. 25. 

Convention of Delegates 
from the Southern Rights 
Asaoeiatlons of South Caro- 
lina meets at Charleston, 
May 5; and adjourns alter 
resolving that, **with or 
without cooperation, they 
are fur a dissolution of the 
Union," May a 

Erie railroad opened 
fh>m New York city to 
Dunkirk, 400 miles, by 
President Fillmore, Daniel 
Webster, etc, May 16. 

Riot, with loss of life, 
at Hoboken, N. J., between 
Germans and "short-bey" 
rowdies from New York, 
May 20. 

Serious conflagrations in 
California. San Francisco 
alone suffers by them in 
May and June to the amooat 
of $12,000,000. 

Gebat Bkitaxx. 

1851. A strong force of Caifres 
atUcks Fort White, Ca|ie of 
Good Hope^repulsed, loss 
20 killed. The Caffre chief, 
Hermaaoa, with a body of 
Caffres and Hottentots, at- 
tacks Fort Beaufort, but is 
repulsed* he and his son 
killed, bis band eompletelv 
routed. 8,000 Caffres attack 
the Colonists and their allies 
near Fort Hare; driven 
back with the loss of 100 
killed, Jan. . Col. Somer- 
set captures and bums Fort 
Armstrong, 93 Caffres killed, 
280 Uken prisoners, Feb. 
2H. The Hottentots of the 
Theopolis Mission Station 
in Lower Albany, join la 
the insurrection. May 8i. 
They are defeated in actions 
witii the English troops on 
the 8d and 5th of June. 

The Russell Ministry re- 
sign, Feb. 22; but after- 
wards resume office, the 
Earl of Derby not having 
succeeded in forming a 

The Prohibited Affinity 
Marriage Bill lost in the 
House of Lords, Feb. 85; 
Lord Campbell and the £o- 
clesiasticai Bench voting 
against It 

Digitized by 






Mlnlstnr resign, Jan. 8. 

Pn«idenclal Dotation BilL 
proposins an addUional 
grant of 1,800,000 franca, 
rriected in tbe Aaeembljr, 

Tb« 8aV<;!ommttt6e of the 
AflMinbly appointed by tlie 
Committee of Bevtolon to 
anthenticirte petitionee re- 
ports, that np to Jnly 1, the 
Etions had been signed 
1,128,165 persons, thus 
lifled : for revision. 
lAljail; for revision and 
prokingatlon of powers^ 
87Q,&1i ; ibr prolongation of 
powers, 1S,1U8— Jnly 5. 

Tbe question of rerislon of 
the Constitation again ta- 
ken In the Aesemb^, when 
a minority was declared 97 
less than the three-fourths 
required br tbe GonstUo- 

1861. Denmark : — The Government eif 
Sehleswig-Uolstein yields to the Gbm- 
missioners of tbe Germanic Confedera- 
tion. Jan. 10. 

Tbe Anstrians complete their mill- 
tsnr posaession of Hamburg. Jan. 81 ; 
and the new goremment issues its pro- 
clamation, declaring its resumption of 
the seignorial rale of the King of Den- 
mark, Feb. 2. 

Dsnish mining operations in Green- 
land produce large onantlties of copper 
ore, yielding sbont 90 per cent. 
The Anstrian Government and the Ottoman Porte come to 
tbe following settlement respecting the Uangarian Befa- 
gees: Foil and entire amnesty conditioned on their not 
attempting to enter Hungary. Eiffht excepted, among 
them koasuth and Bathyany, Feb. 17. 

Charles L. 
Brace, an Am- 
erican, arrested 
in Hungary, on 
a charge of 
*' being a mem- 
ber of tbe de- 
mocratic com- 
mittee, an 
agent of UJ- 
and of travel- 
ing with revo- 
lutionary writ- 
ings, to spread 
May 28. 

of Bancb's co- 
lossal statue of 
Frederick tbe 
Great at Ber 
lin, May 81. 

The Ger- 
manic Diet, in 
answer to Lord 
protest sgalnst 
annexing the 
provinces of 
Austria to the 
Germanic Fe- 
deration, says, 
**Tbat no fo- 
reign interfe- 
rence should be 
allowed in a 
purely German 

Australia:— Discovery of large gold 
fields near Bathnrst, Feb. 

East Indies :— Fort of the celebrated 

g irate Sultan of Soloo destroyed by the 
Danish Government of ManiIh^ Feb. 

Hawaii:— The difficulties between 
the Hawaiian and French Governments 
are arranged according to the terms of a 
** mutual decUtration, pubHslie^l at Ho- 
nolulu, signed by the minister of foreign 
relations and M. Perrin, the French 
commissioner, March 25. 

New Granada:— Congress adjourns. 
It passed a law abolishing slavery in 
the lepublio, to take effect Janosrr 1, 
1808. May 29. 

luly :— An earthquake destroys Mel- 
fl, a city of 10,000 inhabitants, about 100 
miles 8. E. of Naples, and other towns 
in its vicinity. Seven shocks occurred 
within 24 hours. Melfl was sepsrated 
by a ravine lh>m Mount Yolture, upon 
which are many exUnct craters. Nut 
less than 8,000 persons are said to have 
perished. July 14. 

Eeuador :— Gen. Diego Novoa, Presi- 
dent of tbe Republic, seized and put 
on board a government vessel by Gen. 
ITrbina, who assumes tbe administra- 
tion of the Government July 17. 

Digitized by 



THB world's PROOREB8. [PmW X/.— 40 yrart.-- 

Ukztbd Statbs. 

Oksat Britain. 


Th« lord majror of London, 
with several of the alder- 
men and common council 
men, the royal commission- 
ers of the Exposition of In- 
dustry, eto^ and tlio execu- 
tive committue of the royal 
oommiiMioners, leave Eng- 
land fur Franco, by invita- 
tion of the prefect of the 
Seine. They are entertained 
with dinners, balls, sham 
fights, and reviews of troops 
—Aug. 1. 

The inangaratlon of the rail- 
way between St Peters- 
burg and Moscow, in Bus- 
■ill takes plaoe Sept 1. 

lS5t. " Yigilance committee *' 
at San Francisco hang a 
man for stealing, Juno 10, 
and another, July 11. 

Gov. McDongal of Cali- 
fornia issues his proclama- 
tion, warning the citizens of 
the State against *' vigi- 
lance committees," and 
calls upon all persons to aid 
in sustaining the law, July 

Nicaragua route, be- 
tween New York and San 
Francisco, opened, Aug. 12. 

The people of Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, cele- 
brate the 200tb anniversary 
of its settlement, Aug. 18 
and 14 

Great riot In New Or- 
leans, growing out of the 
Cuban expedition. Houses 
of Spanish residents at- 
tacked. The Spanish con- 
sul is obliged to ask protec- 
tion, and is placed In the 
city prison for safety, Aug. 

Riot, with loss of life, at 
Christiana, Pa., upon an at- 
tempt to arrest a fugitive 
slave, Sept. 11. 

U. 8. briff Dolphin sails 
on an expedition to run a 
line of soundings for tele- 
graphic purposes across the 
AUanUc, Oct. 

Cotton-planters* conven- 
tion (800 members) meets 
at Macon, Ga. Its object 
being to prevent fluctua- 
tions in the price of cotton. 
Little harmony of views or 
concord of action manifest- 
ed. Oct 

n. S. steam frigate Mis- 
sissippi sent to Turkey for 
Kossuth, receives him on 
board in the Dardanelles. 
The French government re- 
fuses to allow Kossuth to 
pass through France. The 
Mississippi proceeds on her 
voyage with Kossuth's com- 
panions, reaching New 
York Nor. 10. 

Kossuth arrives at Now 
York in December. Ova^ 
tions are offered him In the 
principal cities of the Union. 
He has an interview with 
the President, Sept to Deo. 

1851. ** The creat aggregate 
meeUng^ of Roman Gatbo- 
lics, from all |»arts of the 
United Kingdom, for the 
inauffuratlon of the Catho- 
lic defense association, is 
held at DubUn, Aug. 10. 

The American yacht 
" America,** at the regatta 
at Cowes, wins *" The cup of 
all nations,*^ Aug. S2l 

Kossuth arrives by Eng^ 
lish steamer from Gibraltar, 
at Southampton, Eng. Ora- 
tions arc offered liim in va- 
rious parts of the country. 
He leaves for the UnUed 
States, Nov. 

The submarine tele- 
eraph between Dover and 
Calais completed, Oct 17. 
C^ned for public use Nov, 

A fourth presidener 
oontempUted fur British 
India, and a proposal mads 
to remove tne seat of go- 
vernment fh>m Calcutta 
to Lahore, Nov. 

Digitized by 






BxTOLVTioin Ifc N. Bonaparte 
by s e<mp d*4la< seises the 
reins of government; dis- 
aoWes the national assem- 
bij; declares a state of 
sieee ; arrests the principal 
red-republicans and social- 
ists; constitutes an entire 
new ministry. The Presi- 
dent orders an Instant 
reetoratlon ofaniversal suf- 
frage; an immediate elec- 
tion by people and army of 
a President to hold office 
for ten years, to be sup- 
ported bys Council of State 
•nd two honses of Leglsla- 
tnre. The revolution cre- 
ates an intense excitement 
The vote of the army shows 
a large minority for L. N. 
Bonaparte. Resistance to 
the nsarpation is shown In 
various parts of France, bnt 
the overwhelming power of 
the army, and a ^'^state of 
Biege^ in 88 departments, 
emshee all opposition. The 
election, nnder varions con- 
trolling inflnenoee, results 
In the eonilrmatlon of L. N. 
Bonaparte as President for 
ten years, by a vote of aboat 
seven oat <a eight milllona. 

1851. Marshal Bar 
detzky, by pro- 
clamation from 
Monga declares 
the Lombardo- 
Yenetian king- 
dom to be in a 
state of siege, 
July 19. 

By cabinet 
Ietter8,the Em- 
peror of Anstria 
declares that 
his ministers 
"are responsi- 
ble to no other 
political an- 
thorlty than 
the throne," 
that "the 
be considered 
as the council 
of the throne,' 
and the minis- 
ter president is 
to take " into 
ripe and seri- 
ous considera- 
tion the possi- 
bility of carry- 
ing out the 
of March 4, 
1849.'' Aug. SO. 

Louis Kos- 
suth and 85 of 
his country- 
men sentenced 
to death in 
at Pestli, for 
not appearing 
aiter citation, 

The ques- 
tion of the ad- 
mission of 
Jews to judi- 
cial office In 
brought to a 
partial termi- 
nation by their 
permission to 
study law. Oct 

1S51. Russia:— Her troops repeatedly de- 
feated by the Cirfisiwisns June. 

Klcaragna:— Gen. Mnnos, ex-minis- 
ter of war. deposes President Pineda, 
and sends nim and most of his cabinet 
prisoners to Tlgre Islands and elects 
Albaunaz President llie Senate araem- 
bles at Orena<1a, and elects Montenegro 
President Aug. 4 

West Indies :— Yoleanio eruptions 
from eight craters in the mountains of 
Martinique, Aug. 5. 

Cuba :— Expedition against Cuba un- 
der Qeneral Lomz, 500 strong, sails from 
New Orleans Aug. 8, and Key West 
10th ; effects a landing at Cubanos, llth ; 
is routed on the iOth. Lopez is taken, 
fiOtb, and publicly garaUd^ Sep. 1. His 
ftiUowers shot or condemnea to ten 
years' labor in Spain. The funeral obse- 
guies of the Spaniards and Cubans who 
fell in the contest with Lopez, are cele- 
brated with great pomp at the Cathedral 
in Havana. $70,000 are subscribed by 
the Inhabitants of Havana, fur the bene* 
fit of their widows and children, Sept. 9 

Mexico : — General Mariana Arista 
inaugurated President, Jan. 15 ; Canales, 
Carvajal, and others, issue pron/unda- 
menUA against the general govern- 
ment Some fighting follows, with 
varied success, Sept— Oct.— Nov. 

Greece:— Lord Palmerston's note to 
the Greek government produces a great 
sensation at Athena. Nov. 

Chili :— Earthquake et Valparaiso— 
the most violent since that of 1822, few 
lives lost bnt great destruction of pro* 
perty, April 2. insurrection at SantiagOi 
suppressed after two hours' street-fight* 
ing, April SO. Rebels under Crux de- 
feated by Bulnes at Longomilla, Dee. & 

f)igitized by Google 



[Period JTl-AO year* 



Pboobbss of SooiBTr, ote. 

The town of Lagos, on the 
coast of Africa, destroyed 
by an English forcOi with a 
loss of tliirty killed, and 69 
wounded, because tlio na- 
tive chief refused to sign a 
treaty for tlio effectual sup- 

firossion of the slave trade 
n his dominions. The chief 
is deposed, and another sub- 
Btltnted In bto plaoo, Dec 


J. Pre Smith, 










Immtgrfttlon into Gftlifomia, 
U. B., from Asia U so large 
as Ut require spoeial I^egis- 
ktto&— April. 

•/I J", Awiu» 

J. F, Oo^pm'y 
T, H, Oallau- 

3. G. Morion, 

Extensive fires in the Antilles, 
March 2; California, U. S., 
June 17 and Nov. 2 (nearly 
destroying two cities ;) 
Ganadai(at Montreal) July 

UxrrBD %TkTm. 

1851. Principal room of the 
library of Congre.^ destroy- 
ed by fire, together witli 
paintings, statuary, models, 
and about 85,000 volumes 
of books, Dec. 24. 

By Joint resolution, the 
Governor of Georgia is 
authorised and requested to 
withdraw the block of mar- 
ble contributed to theWash 
ingtoQ monument by the 
reeulution of the General 
Assembly of Fobr'y, 1850, 
with the inscription, *'The 
Constitution as it Is; the 
tTnion as It was,'* and to 
cause another to be pre- 
pared of Georgia marble, 
with the State arms thereon, 
and to be sent to the monu- 
moat, Dea 8L 

Immigration, Jons 1, 
1860, to Dee. 81, 1851, 

1862. Depntatlons firom the 
various States, in behalf of 
the Irish exiles, vait upon 
President Filmore—Jan. 28. 
The Ohio State House 
entirely oonsumed by fire. 
Some of the papers saved, 
but a largo mass of doou- 
menta destroyed— Feb. 1. 

Sefior Laborde, the 
Spanish Consul at New 
Orleans at the time of the 
Cuban riots, and who fled 
the city fK>m fear of vio- 
lence, arrives at New Or- 
lean^ Is saluted, and re- 
sumes his duties as oonsal — 
Feb. 9. 

Gold Medal presented, 
to Henry Clay by citizens of 
New York. Feb. 10. 

Memorial presented to 
House of Representatives 
of California, from 1,218 cit- 
izens of South Carolina and 
Florida, asking permission 
'*to ooionlse a rural district 
with a population of not 
less than 2,000 slaves.*' Feb. 


HomoBopathio College 
at Cleveland, Ohio, mobbed 
and Interior destroyed, in 
oonsequencei,of remains of 
subjects, taken from the 
bnrlal-ffronnd, being dls- 
ooverod near the College. 

Qbbat BsrrAiic. 

1852. Lord Granville, by his 
note to the American mi- 
nister. In relation to the 
firing Into the A;a5rlcan 
steamer Prometheus by tlie 
British man-of-war fix- 
press, states to Mr. Law- 
rence, for the information 
of his government, that 
her majesty*s government 
entirely disavow the act, 
and has no hesitation In 
otfering ample apology for 
that which they oonslder 
to have been an Infraetion 
of treaty engagements. Jan. 

Dr. Rae returns nnano- 
oessful from his searcli for 
Sir John Franklin, down 
the McKenzie river, and 
from Its mouth eastwarrl, 
600 miles. He was sent out 
(n the spring of 1851 by tho 
Hndsons Bay Company. 

Digitized by 



TBI world's progress. 




Prwident fi«ii«]>art« orders 
tb« oonflsemtion of the Or- 
leam propertj, Jan. S9. 


Tbb Wobld, elsewhere. 

IMS. The Enpe- 
ror of SoBsIa 
vtattithe Bin- 
peror of Aue- 
Ma at Ylenoa, 

1851. China :— Imperial conrt serloaitly 
alarmed at the progress of the disturb- 
ance in the 8outliern provincee. Jane. 
A large portion of the Cliinesci part of 
Hong Kong dostro/ed br Are : from 470 
to 500 hoasM destroyed, inclndins all 
the printing offices and the finest' edl- 
flers and public baildlngs. Many livoe 
lost 0ee.2«-S8. 

1852. Argentine ConCsderation :— Oeneral 
Urqulza, Commander of the liberating 
army, oompletea the passage of the 
Parana with 28,0011 men, 50,000 hor9^ 
and 50 pieces of artillery, and prepnros 
to approach Boenos Ayrea, Jan. 8. Bat- 
tie of Santos Lugarea, (10 miles from 
Bnenoa Ayrea,) between Urquiaa with 
80^000 men and 50 cannon, ana the troops 
of Roaaa, 26,000 men and 90 cannon ; re- 
sults In the total defeat of Rosas ami Ms 
flight to England. During the night, the 
city Is saved from pillage by detach- 
ments from the various shins of war of 
all nations in the harbor, Fob. 8. Tlie 
allied army enters Buenos AyreeFeb. 18. 

— Urqutsa, Director of the Argentine 
Confederation, deposed, ^ept 10. 

—The Chamber of Representatives 
of Bnenoa Ay res declares the river 
Parana (men to the navigaUon of all na- 
Uons, Cot. la. 

Belgium '.^Formation of a new mi- 
nistry at Brussels, of the moderate party 
under M. de Bronckdre, Nt»v. 1. The 
law i^inst the liberty of the press Is 
adopted in the Chamber of Representa- 
tives!, Dec 1. 

Cnba:— The police of Havana disco- 
Ter and capture the press of the paper, 
•* The Voice of the People,** with the 
materials and forms for tne fourth num- 
ber. The proprietors and employes are 
arrested, Aug. 28. The barque Cornelia, 
having cleared at Havana, is brought to 
and boarde^l at the mouth of the harbor, 
and the mail-bsgs rifled. Sept 28. A few 
davs after, the United States mall steam- 
ship Crescent City ts refused permission 
to land her passengers and mntls at Ha^ 
Tana, and orrlered to quit the port— 
Captain-<}eneral Canedoobjeoting to the 
parser of the Teasel, Mr. Smith, allege<l 
to be the reporter of false news to the 
New York paper*. On Oct 14, the Cres- 
cent City again enters HaTana harlmr, 
with Mr. Smith as parser. Got. r4iRcdo 
refrisea to allow pamenoers or mails to be 
landed, and forbids all intereomwe be- 
tween the ship and there. The Captain 
protests to the Amerloan Consal, and 
HATea the harbor. 

Digitized by 



THB world's PB0QRK8S. [Period J^L— 40 yeoTM,-^ 

Pboorrbs or Soomr, eta 

UicrrsD Status. 

Gbxat BaiTAnr. 


Gfeftt floods In the XJnlted 
States, Marob, April, Sept, 
and Dec ; In England, Not. 
and Pec.; on the conti- 
nent of Europe, Sept 

TOegrtipAi acrois tbe Eng- 
lish Channel 

Earthquakes in Cuba Angnst 
Sand No7.2«; in Manilla 
and adjacent parts, Sept 1^ 
Oct 18; at Acapulco, Deo. 
4; in the Eastern Archioe- 
1a^ Nov. 87 and Dea 2r. 

AtSU^ord Uoo8e,ln London, 
some English ladies, headed 
by the Duchess of Suther- 
land, adopt an address to 
the women of America on 
the subject of negro slavery. 
It subsequently receives 
578,000 signatures. Nov. 

Punithmsnt of Death re- 
stored in Tuscany. 

Fan in England of tbe protec- 
tionist ministry of Lord 
Derby and Mr. DlsrMli, 
after an existence of nine 
months— Dec 80. 

I>saih» in 1858. 


J7. Claif, 

df. Stuari, 
D. Drake^ 
J, 11. Pains, 
Amo9 Law- 
J. Vanderlyn^ 
D, Wsbeter, 
JX, JRnfftUyt 

Thos. Moore, 

Dr. Mantell, 

1S53. Southern Bights conven- 
tion at Montgomery, Ala., 
passes resolutions against 
making resistanoo to the 
compromise measures 
issue of their party, and 
against intervention, March 

Blot during election at 
St Louis, April 5. 

First national agricultu- 
ral convention assembles at 
Washington, D. C consist- 
ing of 151 members, repre- 
senting 28 8tate^ and tbe 
District of Oolnnibia, orga- 
niied by the choice of 
Marshal P. Wilder. ofMass., 
president. June 84 

Convention for revising 
the Constitution of Louisi- 
ana, July 5. 

Kossuth continues to be 
feted in different deles, and 
finally quits the country 
under the name of Alezan< 
der Smith, July 16. 

Henry Clay dies, June 
89. Obsequies celebrated 
at New York with great 

mp and magniflcenco, 
uly 20. 

Great Britain insists upon the convention of 1818, re- 
specting North American fisheries, being carried out by 
the United States and semis anned vessels to the onast 
of New Brunswick, etc Tho United States government 
dispatches the war steamer Mississippi, with Coromodoro 
Perry on board, to the disputed fishing grounds; some 
sixty fishing vessels are b<mrde<1, and furnished with In- 
formation and advice. July— Aug. 

Commodore McCsnIoy. 
commander of the United 
Stutes naval forces in the 
Pacific, by proclamation, 
withdraws his pmtection 
ft-om American vessels pro- 
ceeding to the Lobos Is- 
lands for guano, Oct 18. 
This diificulty with Peru 
settled by the withdrawal 
of American pretensions, 
Nov. 15. 

1858. Submarine telegraph 
wires coated with gutu 
percha, laid across St 
George's Channel from Ho- 
lyhead, a distance of eighty 
miles, completing the com- 
munication between Lon- 
don and Dublin. June 1. 

Queen Ylctoria Issues 
her proclamation against 
** Roman Catholic ecclesias- 
tics' wearing tlie habit of 
their order, exercising tho 
rites and ceremonies of the 
Roman Catholic religion In 
highways and places of 
public resort" June 15. 


Daniel Webster dies, 
Oct 84 Funeral solemni- 
ties celebrated at Boston 
with much state, Nov. 15. 

The United States de- 
clines the tri-partite con 
vention respecting Cuba 
proposed by England and 
France, Dec 1. 

Immigntlon, 875,00a 

Duke of Wellington dlea^ 
Sept 14 His funeral obse- 
quies take pUce in London 
with great pomp, Nov. ISL 

Fall of the ProtecUonist 
mlnistnr of Lord Derby and 
Mr. D*fsraeli, after an exist- 
ence of nine months, Dec 

By a d<)cree of the Oo> 
Temor General of Britlsb 
India, tbe province of Pe 
ffu la aonT(9d to the British 
dominloa^ Dec 80. 

Digitized by 






16B8 President Bonapftrte com- 
mences hfii tour through 
SontUem France, Sept. 16. 
VMts the Chateau D'Am- 
buistf. and releases Abd-el- 
Kader, who had been a 
prisoner for Ave years, Oct. 
10. Keturns to Paris, ma- 
king a potnjioas entry into 
the dty, Oct. 10. 

A decree of the President 
convokes the Senate for 
Voy. 4, for the purpose of 
deliberating on the restora- 
tion of the empire. Ootll 

The Senate decrees the re- 
establishment of the em- 
pire, snblect to the ratifica- 
tion of ihe people, Nov. 7. 
The vote Is taken throuph- 
ont France and Algeria. 
Nov. 21 and 22; result^ 
7,^4.189 in favor of reestab- 
lishing the empire, against 
2fi8,145 negaUve, and 68^6 
void ballots. 

The Senate goes in a body to 
St Clond, to announce offi- 
cially the result of the elec- 
tion to Louis Napoleon, and 
ball him Emperor, Dec. 1. 

At the Hotel de Yille, in Paris, 
Louis Napoleon is publicly 
proclaimed Emprrob or 
THK FBmon, under the 
name of Napolboit III, 

AusTBu, etc 

The Wobu), elaotrhere. 

1853. Greece :~91gnlng of a convention In 
London by the five powers, England, 
France, Prussia, Bavaria and Greece, in 
reference to the affairs nf Greece. None 
but a prince of the Greek religlMU is 
hereafter to ascend the throne of Greece. 
Nov. 18. 

Uawall :— Eruption of Mauna Loo; 
lasts several weeks. Feb. 

India:— The 'Burmese evacuate and 
bum Prome, Sept 10. The British un- 
der Godwin take it with a loss of 88 men, 
Nov. 21. 

Italy :— The Grand Duke of Tuscsny, 
refiises to give audience to an Enslish 
Protestant deputation in favor of Kosa 
and Francisco Madial, Oct 25. 

—The pnnlshment of death is rees- 
tablished In Tuscany, for treason, crimes 
against religion, munler, and robbery 
with violence, Nov. 10. 

^The I'ope addresses a letter to the 
King of Siinllnla, strongly adverse to 
the bill under consideration in the Pied* 
montese parliament permitting mar- 
riages without religions ceremonies; it 
is consequently wfthdrawn by the mi- 
nistry, Dec. 20. 

—At Komo, Bishop Ives, of North 
Carolina, U. 9., formerly an Enlscopa- 
lian, Is received Into the Catholic 
Church by the Pone, Dec. 26. 

Liberia :— President Roberts attacks 
and gains possession of tlie native chief 
Beyer's principal town, Jan 15. 
A treaty of peace between the courts of Vienna and 
some is ratified, stipulating that the former shall main- 
tain in the territories of the Pope, 12^000 Infantry and 
1,400 cavalry, fur whom $13,000 monthly are to be paid 
by the Papsi government Nov. 10. 

Mexico :—CarvaJal attacks Camargo 
and is defeated, Feb. 21. 

The French Count Boulban de Ea- 
ousset ^ho led an enterprise upon So- 
nera, is defeated at HermosUlo, and hie 
expedition completely overthrown, Nov. 

1802. The Empe- 
ror of Austria 
visits the King 
of Prussia at 
Berlin, Dec 17. 

The bill for bi- 
ennial parlia- 
ments becomes 
a law, Dec 88. 

Spain:— A priest, aged 68, attacks 
with a daf^r, and wounds the Queen 
of Spain, on her return ttom celebrating 
at the cathedral a T« Deum for the 
birth of her child, Feb. 2. Ho is tried, 
convicted, degraded ttttm his priestly 
office, and suffers death ttom the garote, 

—Ninety-five Americans belonging 
to the Lopez expedition, who had been 
sent to Spain, arrive at New York, 
March 18, having been liberated by the 

—The Cortes dissolved by royal de- 
er«e, for having elected De la Rosa, th« 
aatl-minlsterid candidate, their preal* 

Digitized by 



TH« world's PROORKSS. [/"moJ X/:— 40 ywiri.— 


Ftraums ftfcoord^d to all snV 
Jects of the Porto (not Mus- 
aalmans) oonfironing their 
rellgiouA rights, June 88. 

The flnt NorvegiM railway 
opened Jalj 4. 

The American expedition nn- 
der Com. Perry arrives at 
Japan, July 8. On the 14th 
he lands and delivers to the 
Imperial oommissioners the 
letter from the American 
President; a few days after 
leaves the tohutd, to return 
In the sprlni^ 

185& Calorie ship Ericsson 
makes her trial trip to the 
Potoma<b Jan. 11. 

Adverse decision of Na- 
poleon, arhitor between the 
tTnlted States and Portugal, 
In case of the General Arm- 
strong, read at Washiagton, 
Jan. 17. 

Franklin Pierce and 
William B. King dedared 
duly elected President and 
Vice-President for four 
years flnom 4tb March next, 

W. B. King sworn In as 
Vice-President, at Cambre. 
Island of Cuba, Consal 
Sharkey administering the 
oath, March 84. 

Second American Arctic 
expedition leaves New 
York, May 81. 

Important amendments 
to the city charter of Now 
York, restraining the power 
of municipal officers in 
money matters, adopted by 
a Toto of 86,678 in fkvor, 
8,851 against, June 7. 

Over 60,000 pilgrims enter 
Aix-la-ObapeUe, to visit the 
exhibition of the lelios. Ja- 

Crystal Palace at New 
York opened In presence of 
the President of the Unitod 
Statesi etc., July 14. 

1658. Mr. Ingersol, Amerieaa 
envoy^ feted at Liverpool 
and Maaoheater, Jan. 4-7. 

Sandini and other Caffrs 
chiefb send in their snbmia- 
Bion to Qoneral Cathcart, 
therebr closing the war, 
Feb. 10. Peace oondaded, 
March 9. 

I>oncaster chitreh, bnllt 
in 1070, destroyed by Are, 

Wariike stores, supposed 
to be fbr Kossnth, aeized, 
April 14. 

Mrs. H. B. Btowe, an- 
thoress of "Uncle TomVi 
Cabin,*" received at StalTurd 
House by many of the no- 
bility and statesmen of 
England, Mi^7. 

Dublin Industrial Exbi- 
Utton opened, May IS. 

The "strike** at Stock- 
port ceases, and 80,000 men 
resume Utbor, having ac- 
complished their ob^ct, an 
advance of ton per cent in 
their wages, August 8. Si- 
milar strikes occur at Leeds, 
Kidderminster, and other 

Digitized by 



THS W<mU> 8 PBOGBlSa. 




Tmc WoxLD, elMwbere. 


The Pantheon at Paris re- 
opened as tbo Charcb of 
Bl Geoevieve, Jan. 8. 

Snssla, Austria, and PrasBia. 
at last acknowledge Napo- 
leon III. JSmperor of the 
French, Jan. 11. 

lianlafe of the Smperor and 
Eagenio de Montfjo, Connt- 
ess de Teba« celebrated at 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, 
Paris. Amnesty granted 
to 4,812 poHtieai priaoners 
and exiles, Jan. 80. 

General 8t Priest, and many 
other legftlmlsts, secretly 
arrested In Paris, on the 
ehanre of political oemmii- 
nicatton with the Count of 
Chambord, and some of 
having sent false Intelli- 
gence to foreign Journals, 

Applleatloii Is made by the 
French government to the 
Enjriish for Napoleon's 
will, Feb. 17. Sabaeqaont- 

Funeral of Hme. Baspall at 
Paris, the occasion of a 
formidable socialist demon- 
atration. 401,000 persons 
march In procession to Pire 
U Chaise, March 18. 

Fleet sent to Turkish waters, 

A peace addreee, aigaed by 
4,000 English merchants, 
bttnkers and traders, is pre- 
sented to Napoleon Ul. at 
the Tailleriea, by English- 
men, March 88. 

A bin restoring capltel pun- 
ishment for attempt* on the 
life of the Emperor, or to 
aabvert the Imperial go- 
■ paesed, ^y 

1858. Austria of- 
fers herself as 
a mediator be- 
tween the 
Turks and 
Feb. 1. 

Attempt on 
the life of Em- 
peror of Aus- 
tria at the ram- 
parts of Vien- 
na, Feb. 18. 

B a d e n :-> 
Prot Oervlnns 
tried for high 
treason,ln puo- 
lishing his ^* In- 
troduction to 
the History of 
19th century.*^ 
Sentence, ten 
months* im- 
and book to be 
March 5. 

Prussia: — 
conspiracy dls- 
Un, March M. 

Austria re- 
cals her mints- 
tor from Berne, 
May 20. 


18Ml Switzeriand :— The Canton ofTlcino 
suppresses the order of Capuchin monies^ 
and expels all of that order under 65 
years of age, Nov. 25. 

Turkey :— War breaks out between 
the Turks and Montenegrins, Dec. 15. 

1858. Belgium:— A maritime congress as- 
sembles at Brussels, Aug. 28. 

—Marriage of the Duke of Brabant, 
heir-apparent of the tlirone, and the 
Arch-Duchess Maria, Aug. 28. 

Canada and New Brunswick:— Oa- 
vaczl lectures at Quebec and Montreal ; 
riots ensue; military called out; June 

—The first sod of the European and 
North American Bailroad turned at St. 
Johns, by Lady Head, assisted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor, in presence of 
25^000 persons, Sept. 14. 

China :— Nankin taken by the rebels ; 
Tartar garrison (20,000) massacred; 
March 19. Amoy captured. May 19. 

Denmark:— Parliament prorogued, 
and a ** fundamental*' law issued, bv 
which the Kovemment becomes hereaf- 
ter an absolute one, July 19. 

Hawaii :—8malI-iK>x rages, having 
carried off since May 1,805 out of a po- 
pulation of 00,000 persona, Ang. 81. 

Holland :— The first chamber mlopts 
the maoh-dispnted law oa religious li- 
berty, Sept. & 

India :— Battle of Donabew, in Bur- 
mah: Sir J. Cheape defeats Mea Toon, 
March 19. 

Italy :— An Insurrection breaks out 
at Milan, bat is vigorously suppressed 
by Badetsky, Feb. «. Tiie projwrty of 
the Lombardo- Venetian rcf ngoos seques- 
tered till they can prove they we not 
implicated in this outbreak, and 10,000 
Tlclnese expelled flrom Austrian Italy, 
Feb. 2(1 Protracted diplomatic eontro- 
versies between Austria and b(»th Sar- 
dinia and Switzerland, foUow-^Sardlnia 
solemnly Broteatinir. April Ifli 

•—The Pope prohibits the drcniatlon 
of '* Uncle Tom '8 Cabin" in bis dominl- 
ona, May 10. 

Guerazzi tried at Florence for high 
treason, and found guilty, June 11. 

—Conspiracy in Borne, 146 arreata, 
Ang. 15. 

—Order signed for Immediate release 
of Miss Cunningham at Lucca, Oct. 9. 

—New ehnrch, built for the Wal- 
densies, opened and consecrated at Turin, 

Mexico:— New revolution; Arista 
reaigns the presidency, Jan. 5. 

—Santa Anna having been elected 
Pfesldent, is received In Mexloo with 
gmat enthnsiaam, April 17. 

Digitized by 


168* THE world's PBOOBS6B. {Period XL'^¥i year9.^ 

'■ " ■ _ 
PBOAsns or Sooiitt, otc 

1866 A great national hone^how 
at 8prin|fleld, Maas^ U. B., 

The first PresbTterian Chinese 
eh arch organized at San 
Francisco, u. S., N07. 6. 

Dnel between SonM and 
De Turgot, American and 
French ministers to Spain, 

Obolera prsTails in Europe. 

SeTeral new asteroids discov- 
ered, raising the number to 
27, between the planets 
Mars and Jupiter. 




C. B. Adama^ 
W, R. King, 
Sim. Oredn- 

Yon Bach, 
Mrs. Opie, 


1858. Great heat tbroughoat 
the country— therroouieter 
every where 100* Pah, 
Deaths Arom it in New 
York city in four days, 400, 
Aug. 11-14. 

Remaining portion of 
" Tablo Bock," at the Palls 
of Niagara, breaks ofi; Sept 

"Great Bepublio," ves- 
sel of 4,000 tuns, laitpest 
merchantman in the world, 
launched at East Boaton, 
Mass., Oct 4. 

Captain Gunnison and 
party massacred by the 
Indians in Utah, Oct. 28. 

Inauguration of the 
Washington aqueduct 
President Pierce turns the 
first turf, Nov. 2. 

A mob of men and wo- 
men demolish the railroad 
track near Erie, Penn., Dec 
9, and repeat the outrage, 
Dec. 27. 

Yellow fever epidemic 
in the States bordering on 
Gulf of Mexico, carries off 
fh>m 12,000 to 15,000 per- 

Bedinl, the Papal Nun< 
k\q^ trios to influence the 
Soman Catholic lalty to give 
up their church property to 
the Bishops, but does not 
succeed. He quits the 
country ignominlously. 

Immigratloa, 888,000. 

1858. Naval Boview at Spit* 
head, in presence of tlM 
Queen, Aug. IL 

Queen Victoria visits 
Ireland, Aug. 29. 

Deputation from the 
Protesunt Alliance, headed 
by the Earl of Sbafteabury, 
waits upon Lord Clarendon, 
to state the case of Miss 
Cunninsham, arrested at 
Lucca for distributing Ita- 
lian Bibles, etc, and to 
urge the government to 

Srocure her immediate li- 
eration, Sept 28w A depu- 
tation of dereymen and 
others, headed by Sir Cul- 
linsr Eardlev, wait upon 
Lord Clarendon and thank 
him and the government 
for the exertions which had 
been made, Oct 27. 

Bronxe statue of Sir Ro- 
bert Peel erected in frtnit 
of the Boyal Infirmary at 
Manchester, Oct 8. 

Captain Inglefield, of th« 
Phoenix, arrives from the 
Arctic regions, with the 
news of tiie discovery of 
the North-west Passage, on 
Oct 26, 1850, by Captain 
McOIure of the Investiga- 
tor, Oct 7. 

The first stone of a Ro- 
man Cathollo cathedral 
laid at Shrewsbury, by 
Bishop Brown— the young 
Earl of Shrewsbury giving 
£15,000 towards Its erection 
—Dec. 12. 

The Dublin ExhibitloB 
building Is formally opened 
as a winter garden, by the 
Lord Lieutenant and the 
Countess St 
Deft IS. 

Digitized by 






Plot to Measslnata the Empe- 
ror, wblle on his way to the 
Opera Comiqne, diacoTered 
at Paria, July 7. 

A Boman drcna of great alae 
dlMoreittd at Toots, Aug. 

AuOTBiA, etc 

The Dake d« Nemours, ^n 
behalf of the entire Orleans 
House, effects a reconcilia- 
tion with the Count de 
Chambord, "Nw. IL 

18BS, An Austrian 
war vessel in 
the port of 
Smyrna, seises 
«nd attempts 
to carry off 
Martin Koszta, 
a Hungarian 
refugee, travel- 
ing under an 
American pass- 
pOTt, who 
claims protec- 
tion of Ameri- 
can flag. An 
American M< 
gate places the 
Austrian on- 
dor her guns, 
and Koszta's 
release is imps 
ratlvely de- 
manded, June 

Austrian gO' 
vemment pro 
tests against 
prooeeolngs of 
Cflptain Ingra- 
hara at Smyr- 
na, in A elrctt 
hur addressed 
to the Kurope- 
an courts, Aug. 
1, and through 
its envoy ad- 
dresses a note 
to tl>e Atneri- 
can govern- 
ment on the 
same subject, 
Aug. 29. 

EASTSur ArpAiBS.; 

Inangnratlon of the statue of 
Marshal Ney, on the spot 
where bo wss shot, and the 
aaaiversary of his execu- 

1858. Persia:— Earthquakes destroy Shi- 
re*, 02.000 Uves lost,) May ; and Tehe- 
ran, July 11. 

Tii» WoBLD, elsewhere. 

Peru:— Diffleulty at Ciiincha Islands 
between Peruvian commandant and 
American Bh^)masterB, Aug. 17. 

Portugal :— Maria <Que«i) die^ Not. 


Spain: — New and stringent law 
against liberty of the press published, 
Jan. 2. Queen Isabella, in commemo- 
ration of her birth-day, orders three 
screw-frigates to be constructed, to be 
called alter the three queens from wliom 
she derives the crowns of Castile, Arra- 
gon, and Navarre, Oct. la 

flwitierland :— Insurrection in 
" the Jesu" ^ 
April 22. 

burg by the Jesuit party speedily sup- 
pressed, /-" ~* 

Venezuela :— Earthquake at Cumana ; 
«00 persons Mllad, July 1&. 

JSAffTBiw AryAiiM.— Wau bktwben Tcbkkt aj«d 
EussTA.— Prince Menachikoff sent by the Emperor of Kus- 
ala with demands which are rejected by the Vorte, May 21. 
June 16. The Russians cross the Prnth, 120,000 strong, 
June 21-28.— The Porte addresses a protest to the EusslAn 
cabinet against the occupation of the Prlncipalitlea, July 
U. The Conference of Vienna draw up the celebrated 
*' Vienna note," for the Joint acceptance of Russia and 
Turkey, July 28. Eussla at once accepts; Tnrk«'y re- 
qntres raodlflcatlona. Aug. 20; which Enwia will not ac- 

cede to. Sept. 14. Military congress at Olmutz. Sept. 20 
The note Vs dropped. Sept 80. ^-^— ''-i— — 

jiiu w. Turkey declares wnr 
aninsrEuwla! €5ctr~8. Hostilities commenced on the 
Danube, Oct 30. Turks capture Fort St Nicholas in the 
Black Sea, Oct 81. Turks defeat Rnsslnns at Oltenltza. 
Nov. 4. Rnssla declares war against Turkey, Nov 11. 
The Anglo-French fleet enters the Dardanelles, Oct 4, 
and the Bosphorns, Nov. 15. Turks beaten and masBa- 
ored at Sinopo by Eu»slan^ Nov. 80. The Vienna Con- 
ference continues lU efforts to effect an arrangement be- 
tween the belligerents Dec. Decided *n*n»ff ^t»«" f 
the people of Constantinople in f»voT of war, Dec. 21. 
EuasEns uniformly victorious In Asia. The religious Csna- 
tkrism of both parties is aroused. 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. [Period XI. — iO years. 

1854 Depatation of " Friends'' pre- 
Bento to the Enii>eror of 
Roasla a peace memorial, 
Feb. 10. 

Complete equality before the 
law eecnred to all subjecta 
of the Porte, without dfs- 
ttnction of oreed, by treaty, 
March 12. 

Commercial treaty concluded 
between the United States 
and Japan, March 28. 

In Turkey, the poseeasions of 
the Moines to be declared 
the property of the State 
ttom March 27. 

The first railtocw 1b opened 
In Brazil^ the Emperor and 
Empress being present at 
the ioauguratioD, April 80. 

The changes Introduced In the 
Ottoman Empire by the in- 
Ituencc of the Allied Pow- 
ers, amount to a revolution 
in its social comlitlon. 

Marked increase in the num- 
bers and prosperity of 
Christians in Turkey ; Mo- 
hammedan population, ex- 
empt in Boenia, rapidly dy- 
ing oat 

Cross raised In a Catholic 
bnrylnff ground belonging 
to tLe Freneh, in Turkey. 

185i. The steamer San Fran 
cImo founders at sea; 240 
V. S. trooiie washed over- 
board : the rest of TOO res- 
cued by the Three fiolls, 
Kllby, and Antarctic, Jan. 

Astor Library opened 
for use of the public, in New 
York city, Jan. 9*. 

Outrages on the railroad 
near Erie, Pai^ renewe<l by 
mobs of women, Jan. 17, 81. 

Skirmishes between U. 
S. troops and Apache and 
Utah Indians, March 5, 80. 

Certain sections of the 
"Maine Liquor Law" d^i' 
ded to be unconstitutional 
iu Massaohusetta, March 18. 

Miss Dix*8 bill for ame- 
liorating the condition of 
the indigent insane, vetoed, 
April 20. 

Great flood in the C6n- 
nccticut river, hundreds 
driven ttom their dwel- 
lings, May 1. 

Mass meetings at Bos- 
ton. Feb. 28: New Market, 
N.XFeb.27; New York, 
May 18, a^inst the Ne- 
braska bill, which, how- 
ever, becomes a law, May 

Blots in Michigan, April 
17; at Boston, ^attempt to 
rescue a fugitive slave,) 
May 26 ; at New York and 
Brooklyn, (papist interfe- 
rence with street-preach- 
ing,) May 28, June i, 11. 

San Juan, Nicaragua, 
bombarded and burnt by 
the U. 8. sloop-of-war, Cy< 
ano, July 18. 

1854. Parliament opened by 
Queen, who expresses a de- 
sire that exertions for an 
amicable settlement of tlie 
Eastern dlfflenliies should 
be persevered in, Jan. 81. 

The Queen reviews the 
fleet on its departure for 
the Baltic, March n. 

A day ef hnmillatioii 
and prayer observed, April 

Launch of the " Royal 
Alberf the Queen ehrla- 
tening the vessel, May 18. 

Crystal Palace at Br- 
dcnha'm opened by toe 
Queen, June lOi 

Digitized by 






1854. Alliance, 
offensive and 
defensive, be- 
tween Anstria 
and Prussia, 
signed April 

16M The Emperor and Empress 
attend the first i^caltaral 
exhibition ever held in Pa- 
ris, Jane ft. 

The Emperor reviews a dl- 
Tldon of troope ahont to 
orooeed to the Baltle, Jnly 


Tbk Wobld, elsewhere. 

1851. Brazil :— San Salvador destroyed hj 
an earthquake, cautiing a lod^, In less 
tlian one minute^ of 200 lives, and 
$4,000,000 of property, April 16. 

Canada:— Parliament House at Que- 
bec burnt. Including government library 
and philosophical apparatus, Feb. 1. 

India:— The Ganges Canal, a work 
of vast magnitude oiM.>ncd, April 8. 

■—Day of humiliation and prayer for 
success of the British anna, observed at 
Bombay and all over India, by the na- 
tives, as well as the Europeans, July 16. 

Italy :— Shocks of earthquake in the 
country between Florence and Rome, 

— Ballway from Lnsa to Turin Inau- 
gnratcd in presence of King and Queen 
of Sardinia, etc, May 22. 

Mexico :— Battle of Guyama.^ be 
tween some Frenchmen under Count 
Raousset de Boulbon and the Mcxi«*ana, 
July 18. The Count is defeated, taken 
prisoner, and, Aug. 12, shot. 

Russia :— An Imperial ukase calls out 
nine men in 1,000 souls in eastern por- 
tion of the Empire, May 9. 

Spain :->Earthquako at Fiana, crnm- 
bline down the greatest part of the Al- 
cazana, an ancient castle of the Moors, 
and causing large chasms In nearly all 
the streets, Jan. 18w 

—Strike at Barcelona; 15,000 arti- 
sans demand of the mnnlclpal authorities 
that the price of provisions be reduced, 
and wages increased, March 81. 

— The Insurrection of the people 
at Madrid (July 17) triumphs, and the 
Rivas ministrv resign, July 19. Espar- 
tero enters the city, and is received 
with ereal enthusiasm, July 29. 8,000 
defenders of the barricades defile before 
the Queen's palace, her Majesty present- 
ing herself on the balcony, July 31. 

— Dofia Maria Christina, the Queen 
Mother, leaves Madrid for Portugal, un- 
der escort of troops, but against the will 
of the people. She was indebted to the 
SUte 71,000,000 reals, Aug. 2S. 

Turkey:— Fire at Constantinople; 
400 houses destroyed, Jan. 1. 

—Fire at Salonica, destroys 600 build- 
ings, April 8. 

—Banquet given by the Sultan to 
Prince Napoleon, May 8. 

—Fire at Varna, destroys 180 housea 
and vast quantities of military atoreflt 
Aug. 10. 

Digitized by 



THE WORLD^S PROGRESS. [Period XL — 40 yMft.— 


PEOOREsa or Socibtt, etc 

UxrrcD Statu. 



Tbo Sultan Issues a Arinan for 

1854. Orisi and Mario, the two 

the construction ofa church 

most renowned lyric ar- 

at Scutari, Sept. 

tists of the old world, arrive 
at New York, Aug. 19. 

DeaOn in 1854. 

XT. 8. 


y. B. BlurU, 


Jacob Bur- 


Extensive drought pre- 

John Davia, 


vails several weeks. 

Com. J>ofen4t, 


J. UarHng- 


ton^ last sur- 


vivor of bat- 


Ue of Lex- 


Jfra. E. Jud- 


Cholera prevails, Jane- 



Nov. ; yellow fever prevails, 


Mme. Sontaff , 




Immigration, about 500,000. 

1856. Visit of the Emperor 
and Empress of Francs, 
April 10. 

I>eath of Lord Radan, 
Commander-in-chief at Se- 

bastopol, June 28. 

Digitized by 






AuvrsiA, etc. 

Thx Woxld, elMwb«re. 

1854. Venesaels:— SlATes 
April 86. 


1864. Saxony :— 
The King 
thrown from 
his carriage at 
Innsprackf and 
killed, Aug. 10. 

Eastrn ArrAixs.— The Anslo-French fleet enters 
the Black Sea, Jan. 4. Tarks defeat Ensalans at Cttate, 
Jan. 6. Negotiations for peace continue through the Vi- 
enna Conference, Jan. Russian ambassadors quit Lon- 
don, Feb. 6, Paris, Feb. 7. English and French ambassa- 
dors dismissed St Petersburg, Feb. 16. England and 
France reeolre to summon Russia to evacuate the Prin- 
cipalities bv the 80th April, Feb. 88. Russians cross the 
Danube, March. Treaty of alliance concluded between 
England, France, and the Porte, March 18. Anglo-French 
ultimatum forwarded to St. Petersburg. Russia refiises 
a reply. England and France declare war against Russia, 
March 88. Counter declaration of war by Russia against 
England and France, April 18. Convention between 
England and France, April 18. Odessa Ixtmbanled, April 
88. Anglo-French fleet scours the Baltic, May. June. 
Austro-Turklsh Convention, June 4. Russians raise the 
siege of SUistria, June 88. and re-cross the Danube, July 
7. Russians defeated by Turks at Rntschuk. July 18 and 
18. Are compelled to evacuate the Principalities and re- 
cross the Prnth, Aug. 16. Bomarsund capitulates to the 
Allied fleet and French armv, Aug. 16. Austrian armies 
enter the Principalities, Aug. 20. Allies land In the Cri- 
mea, Sept 14. Defeat the Russians at the Alma, Sept 
80. Commence the siege of Si'bnstopol, Sopt 28. Fire 
opened, Oct 17. Battle of Balaklava, Russians repulsed, 
Oct 86. Battle of Inkemiann, Russians again repulsed, 
Nov. 6. Siege of Scbastopol progresses, Dec. 81. 

1856. Russia:— Death of the Emperor Nicholas I., March 8. 

—The allies take possession of Ecrtch and the Sea of 
Azoph, May 84. 

—The allies repulsed In an assault on the ontpotto cf 
Sebaatopol, June 18. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




ABBEYS AND MONASTERIES, were first fonnded in the third century, near 
the close of which the sister of St. Anthony is said to have retired to one. 
An abbey was founded by St. Anthony at Phaim, in Upper Egypt, a. d. 806. 
The first founded in France was at Poitiers, in 360. The first iri Ireland was 
in the fifth century : see Clogher, JBlpkin, Doton. The first in Scotland was 
in the sixth century: see Isles. And the first in Britain was in 660: see 
Bangor. The abbey of Mount Cassino, near Naples, founded by St. Benet 
in 529, was esteemed the richest in the world, and furnished many thousands 
of saints to the church. 110 monasteries and priories were suppressed in 
England by order in council, 2 Henry V. 1414. — Salmon. The revenues of 
193 abbeys which were dissolved at the Reformation amounted to X2,653.000 
These foundations were totally suppressed throughout the realm, 81 Henry 
Vm. 1539. See MonasUries. 

ABDICATION op KINGS. They are numerous in ancient history. Those in 
later times of most remarkable character and greatest political importance, 
and to which reference may more frequently be made, are the following :— 

He again abdicates in favor of the Bo- 
naparte family. See Spain. May 1, 1808 
Of Joseph Bonaparte of Naples, to 

lalce the crown of Spam, . June 1, 1808 
Of the same (by flying before the British 

from Madrid), July 29, 1808 

Of Louis of Holland. . July ], 1810 

Of Jerome of Westphalia, . Oct. 20, 1813 
Of Napoleon of France, . . April 6, 1814 
Of Emanuel of Sardinia, . March 13, 1821 
Of Pedro of Ponusal, . May 2, laaS 

Of Ctiarios X. of Fmnce, . Aug. 2, 1830 
Of Pedro of Brazil, . Apnl 7, 1831 

Of Don Miguel of Portugal (by leaving 

the kingdom), . May 26, 183t 

OfWilliam I. of Holland, . Oct 8, 1810 
Of Christina of Spain, queen dowager 

and queen regent, . Oct. 12, 1840 

Of Louis Phillipne of France, Feb. 24, 1848 
Of Louis, king or Bavaria, . March 22, 1848 
Of Ferdinand L emperor of Austria, 

Dec. 2, 1&18 
Of Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, 
son, .... March 19, IHUH Aug. 1849 

ABELAUD AND HELOISE. Their amour, so celebrated for its passion and 
misfortunes, commenced at Paris, a. c. 1118, when HeloLse (a canon's daugh- 
ter) was under 17 years of age. Abelard. after suffering an ignominious in- 
jury, became a monk of the abbey of St. Denis, and died at St. Marcel, of 
grief which never led his heart, in 1142. Helolse begged his body, and bad 


Of Henry IV. of Germany, 

Of Stephen IL of Hungary, surnamed 


OfAlbert of Saxony, .... 

OfLestusV. of Poland, . . . . 

OfUladislaus 111. of Poland, . 

Of Baliol of Scotland, .... 

Of Oiho of Hungary, .... 

OfEric IX. of Denmark . , 

OfEricXUI. of Sweden, . 

Of Charles V. Emperor, . . . 

Of Christina of Sweden, . 

Of John Casimir of Poland, . . . 

OfJames II. of England, . 

Of Frederick Augustus II. of Poland, . 

OfPhilipV. of Spain, . . . . 

Of Victor of Sardmia, . 

Of Charles of Naplos, . . . . 

Of Stanislaus of Poland, 





Of Victor of Sardinia, '. . June 4, 1802 
Of Francis IL of Germany, who becomes 

emperor of Austria only, . Aug. 11, 1801 
Of Charles IV. of Spain, m favor of his 

March 19, 1808 

Digitized by 


iAty THE world's progress. [aca 

it buried in the Paraclete, of whicli she was abbess, with the view of reposing 
in death by his side. Slie was famous for her Latin letters, as well as love, 
and died in 11G3. The aslies of both were carried to the Museum of French 
Monuments in 1800 ; and the museum having been subsequently broken np. 
they were finally removed to the burying-ground of Pfere La Chaise, in 1817. 

ABORIGINES, the original inhabitants of Italy; or, as others have it, the nation 
conducted by Saturn into Latium, founded by Janus, 1460 b. c. — Univ. His- 
ionj. Their posterity was called Laliui, from Latinus, one of their kin^s; 
and Rome was built in their country. They were called Aborigines, benig 
tU/StfM arigine, the primitive planters here after the flood. — SLJirome. Tlie 
word signifies without origin, or whose origin is not kiuncn, and is generally 
applied to any original inhabitants. 

dBOUKIR, the ancient Canopus, the i)oint of debarkation of the British expe- 
dition to Egypt under general Abercromby. Aboukir surrendered to tho 
British, after an obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, March 18, 
1801. The bay is famous for the defeat of the French fleet by Nelson, Au- 
gust 1, 1798. See NiU. 

IBRAHAM, Era op. Used by Eusebius ; it began October 1, 2016 b. c. To 
reduce this era to the Christian, subtract 2015 yenrs and three months. 

jUaSTINENCE. St. Anthony lived to the age of 105, on twelve ounces of bread, 
and water. James the Hermit lived in the same manner to the age of 104. 
St. Epiphanius lived thus to 115. Simeon, the Stylite, to 112 ; and Kenti- 
gern, commonly called St. Mungo. lived by similar means to 186 years of 
age. — Spoltisicood. A man may live seven, or even eleven, days without 
meat or drink. — Pliny Hist. Nat. lib. ii. Dcmocritus subsisted for forty days 
by smelling honey an^i hot bread, 323 b. c. — Dwg. Laert. A woman of Nor- 
mandy lived for 18 years without food. — Pctrus de Albano. Gilbert Jackson, 
of Carse-grange, Scotland, lived three years without sustenance of any kind, 
1719. A religious fanatic, who determined upon fasting forty days, died on 
the sixteenth. I'tSO.—PhiUips. A country girl, of Osnabruck, abstained four 
years from all food and drink, 1799. — Hufeland'i Practical Journal. Ann 
Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, supposed to have been 
an impostor, was said to have lived twenty months without food, Nov. 1806. 
At Newry, in Ireland, a man named Cavanagh was reported to have lived 
two years without meat or drink; Aug. 1840; his imposture was afterwards 
discovered in England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat. Nov. 1841. See 
instances in Haller^s Elcmenta Physiohgia: ; Comoro; Pricker's Surgical 
Library, &c. ; and in this volume, see Fasting. 

ABSTINENTS. The abstinents were a sect that wholly abstained ftova wine, 
flesh, and marriage; and were a community of harmless and mild ascetics. 
They appeared in France and Spain in the third century ; and some autho- 
rities mention audi a sect as having been numerous elsewhere in a. d. 170.— 

A BYSSINIAN ERA. This era is reckoned from the period of the Creation, 
which they place in the 6493d year before our era, on the 29th August, old 
style ; and their dates con.sequently exceed ours by 6491 years and 125 daj's. 
To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subtract 6492 years and 
125 days. 

ACADEMIES, or societies of learned men to promote literature, sciences, and 
the arts, are of early date. Aca<ffTOia was a shady grove without the walls 
of Athens (bequeathed to Hecademus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato 
first taught philosophy, and his followers took the title of Academics 378 
B. c. — Sianhy. Ptolemy Sotcr is said to have founded an academy at Alex- 
andria about 314 B. c. Theodosius the Younger and j^harlemagne are also 

Digitized by 





Dtmed as founders. Italy has been celebrated for its academies ; and Jarckius 
mentions 550, of which 25 were in the city of Milan. Tiie fii-st philosophical 
academy in France was established by Pfere Mersenne, in 1136. Academies 
were introduced into England by Boyle and Hobbes ; and the Royal Society 
of London was formed in 16C0. The following are among the principal 
academies : — 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, ' Marseilles, BeUes-Lcttrfs^ 17C6. 
1780. I Milan, Architeciure. IJiHi); Sciences, 1719. 

American Philoeophical Society, 1769. 

Ancona, ofihe Ca^linoti, 1G34. 

Beriin, Royal Society, 1700; of Prineet^ 
1703; Architecture, 1799. 

Boloena, Ecclesiasiical, 1637; MathematieSy 
lG9b; Sciences and Arts, 1712. 

Brescia, of ihc Erranti, 1626. 

Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682. 

Bruarels, Beliea-Lettrea, 1773. 

Caen, Betiea Lettrea, 1760. 

Copenhagen, Polite Artn, 1742. 

Conona, Amiquiues, 17i6. 

Dublin, Arts, 1719; Science and Literature, 
1786; Painting, Sculpture, &c., 1823. 

Errurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754. 

Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612. 

Florence, Belles- Leltrfs. 1272; DeUaCrua- 
ea^ 15^ : Antiquities, 1807. 

Geneva, Medical, 1713. 

Genoa, Painting, Ac, 1751 : Sciences, 1783. 

Germany, Medical, 1617 ; Natural Ilistorv, 
1652; Military, 1752. 

Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760. 

Lisbon, History, 17t20; Sciencen^ 1779. 

London : its various Academics arc de- 
scribed throusrh the volume. 

Lyons, Sciences, 1700; had Physic and Ma- 
thematics added, 1 753. 

Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713 ; History, 
1730; Painting and the Arts, 1753. 

Manheim, Sculpture, 1775. 

Mantua, the Vigilantij Sciences, 17&L 


Mmiich, Arts and Science'', 1759. 

Naulc!*, Koasana, l.MO ; Mathematics, 1560; 
Sciences, 1695; Jlercu. ajimm, 1755. 

New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1811.* 

Ni?mes, Koyal Academy, 1G82. 

Padua, for PoetiT, 1610; Sciences, 1792. 

Palermo, Medical, 1C45. 

Pari.% Sorlxmne, i2C6; Painting, 1391 ; Mu- 
sic, 1543; French, 1635; Metlab, 1663; 
Architecture, 1671 : Surgery. 1731 ; Mili- 
tary, 1751 ; Natural Philosophy, 1796. 

Parma, the Innominaii^ 1C50. 

Perousa, Jnsevaali, 1C61 ; J'^'lirjpti. 1574. 

Petersbunjli, Sciences, 1725; Military, 1732; 
the School of Arts, 1764. 

Portpmouih, Naval, 17^12; enlarged, 1806. 

Rome, Umoriati, 1611; Funtascici.lCQS} 
Jit/ccondi, 1653; Painting, 1665; Arcadi^ 
1090; iOngliph. 1752. 

Spain, Royal, 1713; Military, 1751. 

Stockholm, of Science, 1741 ; BeUea-LettreMj 
1753; Asrriciiliure, 1781. 

Toulon, Military, 1082. 

Turin, Sciences, 1759: Fine Arts, 1778. 

Turkey, Military School, 1775. 

Dpsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1T20. 

Venice, Medical, Ac, 1701. 

Verona, Music, 1543 ; Sciences, 1780. 

Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705 ; Sar- 
gery, 1783; Oriental, 1810. 

Warsaw, Languages and History, 1753. 

Woolwich, Military, 1741. 

The most ancient manuscripts are written without accents, and 
without any separation of words ; nor was it until after the ninth century 
that the copyists began to leave spaces between the words. Michaelis, after 
Wetstein, ascribes tiie insertion of accents to Euthalius, bishop of Sulca, in 
Effvpt, A.r>. 458; but his invention was followed up and improved upon by 
other grammarians in the various languages. 
ACHAIA. This country was governed by a race of kings, but even their names 
are all forgotten. The capital. Acliaia, was founded by Achaius. the son of 
Xuthus, 1080 B. c. The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the 
i¥!tolians until about 284 b. c. The Achaei were descendants of Acliaius, 
and originally inhabited the neighborhood of Argos ; but when the Hera- 
clidaj drove them thence, they retired among the lonians. expelled the na- 
tives and seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pelcni, JEgha,. i^>o'eum, Bura. Tri- 
twa. Leontium, Rhypae, Ceraunia. Olenos, Helice. Patrrc. DymaB, and Pharaj. 

The Achean league, .b. c. 281| Alliance with the Romans, . b. c2Cl 

Fortress or Athenaeum builL, . .228 

Defeat of the Achsana by the Spartans, 
and Lysiades killed, . . S?6 

Battle of Saliacia. . . .222 

The Social war begun, 2l0 

The Peloponnesus ravaged by the .£to- 
lians, . .^ 219 

Aratus poisoned at .^?ium, . 215 

Battle of Maniinea ; Philopcemen defeats 
the Spanan tyrant Mechanidas, . 206 

Philopcemen defeated by Nabis. in a na- 
val battle, . '. . . 191 
Sparta joined to the league, . ISl 
The Achoeans overrun Mcpsenld with 

file and swoni, . . 1R2 

The Roinnn*: enrer Achaia, 166 

Meiellus enters Gicrrf, . . 147 

The Arhajan Icjieue ilirpolvcd, . 146 

Greece pnhjrricJ to Rome, and named 
the provinro of Achaia, . . 14B 

Now extinct. 

Digitized by 


148 THE world's progress. [ADA 

The constitution of the United States of America bears some analogy to that 
of the Achsean league ; and the Swiss cantons also had a great resemblance 
to it in their confederacy. 
ACOUSTICS. The doctrine of the different sounds of vibrating strings, and 
the communication of sounds to the ear by the vibration of the atmosphere, 
was probably first explained by Pythagoras, about 500 b. c. Mentioned by 
Aristotle, 330 b. c. The speaking-trumpet is said to have been used by 
Alexander the Great, 335 b, c. The discoveries of Galileo were made abont 
A. D. 1600. The velocity of sound was investigated by Newton before 1700. 
Galileo's theorem of the harmonic curve was demonstrated by Dr. Brook 
Taylor, in 1714 ; and further perfected by D'Alembert, Eiiler, Bernoulli, and 
La Grange, at various periods of the eighteenth century. See Sound. 

VCRE, St. Jean d'. Taken by Richard I. and other crusaders in 1192, after a 
siege of two years, with the loss of 6 arclibishoj)s, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 
barons, and 300 000 soldiers. Retaken by the Saracens, when 60,000 'Chris- 
tians perished. 1291. This capture was rendered memorable by the iLurder 
of the nuns, who had mangled their faces to repress tlic lust of the Intidek. 
Acre was attacked by Bonaparte in July 1798 ; and was relieved by Sir Syd- 
ney Smith, who gallantly resisted twelve attempts during the memorable 
siege by the French, between March 6 and May 27, 1799, when; baffled by 
the British squadron on the water and the Turks on shore, Bonaparte relin- 
quished his object and retreated. St. Jean d'Acre is a pachalic subject to 
the Porte ; seized upon by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted, July 2, 1832. 
It became a point of the Syrian war in 1840. Stormed by the British fleet 
under Sir Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a few hours, 
the Egyptians losing upwards of 2,000 in killed and wounded, and 8,000 
prisoners, while the British had but 12 killed and 42 wounded, Nov. 3, 1840. 
See Syria and Tiirkeif. 

ACROPOLIS or ATHENS. The citadel of Athens was built on a rock, and 
accessible only on one side: Minerva had a temple at the bottom.— Pam^. in 
' AUic. The roof of this vast pile, which had stood 2 000 years, was destroyed 
in the Venetian siege, a. d. 1687. — Aspin. The Acropolis oif Mycenae was 
marked by terraces and defended by ponderous walls, on which were high 
towers, each ao vhe distance of fifty feet. — Euripides. 

ACTIUM, Battle or, between the fleets of Octavianus Cjesar on the one side, 
and of Marc Antony and Cleopatra on the other, and which decided the fate 
of Antony. 300 of his galleys goin^ over to Caisar; fought Sept. 2, 31 b. c. 
This battle made Augustus (the title afterwards conferred by the senate 
upon Caesar) master of the world, and the commencement of the Roman 
empire is commonly dated ft-om this year. In honor of his victory, the con« 
queror built the city of Nicopolis, and instituted the Actian games. — Blcir. 

ACTRESSES. Women in the drama appear to have been imknown to the an- 
cients ; men or eunuchs performing the female parts. Charles II. is said to 
have first encouraged the [mblic appearance of women on the stage in Eng- 
land, in 1662; but the queen of James I. had previously performed in a the- 
atre at court. — Thcat. Bi/>g. 

ATS OP PARLIAMENT. The first promulgated, 16 John, 1216. See Par- 
Uament. For a great period of years the number of acts passed has been 
annually large, although varving considerably in every session. Between 
the 4tli and 10th of George iV. 1126 acts were wholly repealed, and 448 
repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the consolidation of the laws by Mr. 
Peel (afterwards Sir Robert) : of these acts, 1344 related to the kingdom at 
large and 225 to Ireland .<;olely. 

ADAMITES a sect that imitated Adam's nakedness before the ikll, arose a. d. 

Digitized by 


iDM ] 



180. They assembled quite naked in their places of worship, asserting that 
if Adam had not sinned, there would have been no marriages. Tlieir chief 
was named Prodicus; tiiey deiGed the eh^menta, rejected prayer, and said it 
was not necessary to confess Christ. — Eusrbms. Tiiis sect, with an addition 
of many blasphemies, and teaching from the text " increase and multiply,'* 
was renewed at Antwerp in the thirteenth century, under a chief named 
Tandemc, who, being followed by 3,000 soldiers, violat<id females of every 
age, calling their crimes by spiritual names. A Flandrian, named Picard, 
again revived this sect in Bohemia, in the fifteenth century, whence they 
spread into Poland and existed some time. — Bayle ; Pardon. 
ADMINISTRATIONS. Successive administrations of the United States, since 
the formation of the government : — 

First Administration ;— 1^89 to 1797;— € years. 

George Washington, 


April 30, 1789 


John Adams, 


do. 1789 

Vice President. 

Thomas Jeflferson. 


Sepif 26,1789; 


Edmuiul Ramlolph, 
Timothy Pickering, 
Alexamler Hamilton, 


Jan. 2, 17M \ 

Secretaries of Slate. 

New York, 

Dec. 10,1795^ 
Sept 11, 1789 1 
Feb. 3, 17ft5 ( 

Secretaries of the 

Oliver Wolcoit, 



Henry Knox, 
Timothy Pickering, 


Sept. 12,1789; 


Jan. 2, 1795 

» Secretaries of War. 

James M'Henry, 
Samuel Offooii, 


Jan. 27, 1796 < 



Sept. 26,1789) 


Timoihy Pickering, 
loFeph Habersham, 


Nov. 7, 1791 

Post Masters Gen. 


Feb. 25, 1795 > 


Edmund Randolph, 


SepU 26,1789 


William Bradford, 


Jan. 27, 17M 

> Attorneys General 

Charles Lee, 


Dec. 10,1795 


Speakers of the House of Repreaentatives. 
Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania, 1st Consreas, 1789. 

Jonathan Trumbull, Connecticut, 2d do. 1791. 

Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Pennsrlvania, 3d do. 1793. 

Jonathan Dayton, New Jersey, 4lh do. 1795. 

Second Adhinistsation;— 1797 to 1801 ;— 4 years. 

John Adams, Massachusetts, March 4, 1797 President. 

Thomas Jefiereon, Virginia, 1797 Vice President. 


Timothy Pickering, Pennsylvania, ^continued in office.) 

John Marshall, Virginia, May 13, 1800 

Oliver Wolcott, Connecticut, (continued in office.) 

Samuel Dexter, Mai^achusetts, Dec. 31, 1800 

James M*Henry, Maryland, {continued in office.) j 

Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts, May 13, 1800 V Secretaries of War. 

Roger Griswold, Connecticut, Feb. 3, 1801 \ 

Georsje Cabot,' Massachusetts, May 3, 1798 / Secretaries of the 

Benjamin Stoddart, Maryland, May 21, 1798 \ Navy. 

Joseph Habersham, Georgia, (continued in office.) Post Master Gen. 

Charles Lee, Virgmia, (continued in office.) Attorney General. 

Secretaries of Static 

Secretaries of the 

Jonathan Dayton, 
Theodore Sedgwick, 

Speakers of the House of Representatives. 

New Jersey, 5ih Congress, 

Massachusetts, 6ih do. 

Third Administration ;— 1801 to 1809;— 8 yeara. 


Thomas .Teflerson, 
Aaron Burr, 
George Clinton, 

James MadL-on, 
Samuel Dexter, 
Albert Gallatin, 

New York, 
New York, 

March 4, 1801 President. 


i > Vice Presidsais. 


do. 1805 ^ 

Virginia, March 5, 1801 Secretary of State. 

Mass. (continued in office.) ) Secietaries of ihe 

Pennsylvania, Jan. 26, 1802 \ Treasury. 

* Mr. Catiot declined the appointment. The Navy Department was established ir. 1796. 

Digitized by 



THE world's PaOQRESB. 


Henry Dearborn, 

Iletijainin Studdart, 
Rjihcii Smiih,* 
JoFcph iliibciTham, 
Giiluiin Granger, 
Levi Linr.'.'ln, 
John Urcckenridge, 
Ca:sar A. Ilodney, 

MBRtachueetto, March 6,1801 Secretary of War. 

Mil. {roniinued in office.) ( Secretaries of the 

Marj'laml, Jnn. 26, 1S32 \ Navy. 

Georjria. (eontimied in office.) i Peel Mastera Cc- 

Ctmiteciicut Jiin. 26, 1S92 s neraL 

MiisHacliuseits, March 5, l-«)l i 

Kentucky, Due. 23, Id. C)\ Attorney! GeoenL 

Delawai-e, Jan. 2U, 18117 S 

qf the Route of RepretentcUives. 

North Carolina, 7th Congren, ISOL 

Masmchusetts, 8th do. 1803. 

NonhCaroUna, 9ih do. 1805. 

Moasachiiselta, lOih da 1807. 

ADMimsTHiiTiov ;— 1809 to 1817 ;— 8 ye^n. 

Virginia, March 4, 1809 PreaidenL 

Maryland, March 6, 1800 ) 

Virginia, Nov. 25, 1811 > Secretaries of Statu 

Virginia, Feb. 25, ISlo ^ 

Pennsylvania, {continued in office.) 

( Secretaries of the 

Nathaniel Macon, 
Joseph B. Vamum, 
Naihaniel Macon, 
Joseph B. Vamum, 


.Tames Madison, 
Geoi^e Clinton, 
Elbmlge Gerry, 

Robert Smith, 
James Monroe, 
Jainc? Monroe,t 
Albert Galiuun, 
Ge<Hgc W. Campbell, 
Alexander J. Dallas, 
William Euinis, 
John Armstrong, 
James Monroe, 
William H. Crawford, 
Paul Hamilton, 
William Jones, 
Benj. W. Crowninshield, 
Gideon Granser, 
Return J. Meigs, 
Cffij»ar A. Rotlney, 
William Pinkney, 
Richard Rush, 

S^peakera qf the House qf Bepretentaiivea. 
Joseph B. Vamum, Massachusetts, 11 ih Conffreas, 1809. 

Hcniy Clay, Kentucky, 12ih do. 1811. 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, ; ,«,. . \ 1812. 

Langdon Cheves, South Carolina, \ ""* "**• } 1814. 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, 14th do. 1815. 

Fifth Administration ;— 1817 to 1825 ; -8 years. 
James Monroe, Virginia, 

Danic D. Tompkins, New York, 

TennejiKce, ' Feb. " 9, 1814 \ 

Pennsylvania, Oct. G, 1814^ 

Mas.-^achusetis, March 7, 181)9 j 

New York, Jan. 13, 1813 f 

Virginia, SepL 27, 1814 1 

Georgia, March 2, ISlo ] 

South Carolina, March 7, lSi)9 ) 

Penn.«vlvania, Jan. 12, 1813 } 

Massa'chuseiis, Dec. 19, 1814 ) 

Connecticut, {continued in office.) f ] 

Ohio, March 17, 1814 \ 

Delaware, {continued in office.) i 

Maryland, Dec U, 1811 > Attorneys GenexaL 

~ • • " iS 

> Secretaries of WaL 

r Secretaries of the 

I Post MasteiB Gd- 


Feb. 10, 1814 N 

Vice PresideaL 

John Q. Adams, 
William 11. Crawford, 
Isaac Shelby,! 
John C. Cal'houn, 
Benj. W. Crowninshield, 
Smith Thorn p.«on, 
Samuel L. Southard, 
Return J. Meigs, 
John Mclean, 
Richard Rush, 
William Wir^ 

March 4, 1817 

do. 1817 

March 6, 1817 Secretary of State. 
March 5, 1817 Secretary of Treaa 

l'w\6!!8!7 {secretaries of Wa, 

Dec. 16, 1817 < ' 

South Carolina, 

Massachusetts, {continued in office.) 
New York, Nov. 30, 1818 

New Jersey; Dec 9, 1823 

Ohio, {continued in office.) ) Poet Masters €!•• 

do. Dec. 9, 1823 ( neral. 

Pennsylvania, {continued in office.) i . „„^.^ r»-«-., 
Virginia, Dec "^Ki, 1817 { A"**™*^" ^"*«* 

f Secretaries of the 
t Navy. 

• Robert Smith was appointed Attorney General, and Jacob CVotminsAiV.'d, of Massachusetts. 
ILv.reiary of ihc Navy, on ihc 2d of March, 1805, but they both declined ihe.^^e apiointmcnis; and 
Ur. Smith continued in the office of Secretary of the Navy, till the end ol Mr. Jcflbrsoa's admi* 

t James Monroe was recommissioned, having for some time acted as Secretary cf War. 

1 1nae Shelby declined the appointmenL 

Digitized by 





ADMINISrRATIONS (United States) amt^vued. 

Speakers of the JTotue of Repretentativea. 

Henry Clay, 
Hcniy Clay, 
John W. Taylor, 
Philip P. Barboor, 
Henry Clay, 

John Q. Adams, 
JohnC Calhoun, 

Henry Clay, 
Richard Rush, 
James Barbour, 
Peter B. Porter, 
Samuel L. Southard, 
John Mcl.ean, 
William Wirt, 

Kentucky. ? 
New Yorlc, \ 

15th Oongrcffi, 1817. 





S IS! 9. 


Sixth Admixmtration ;— 1S25 to 1329 ^-A years. 

Massachusetts, March 4, 1823 President. 

South Carolina, do. 1825 Vice President. 

Kentucky, Marcli 8, 1825 Secretary of S'ata. 

Pennsylvania, March 7,1825 Sec'yofiheTieaa'y 

Virginia, do. 1S25 ? C|.p_p.-rie- of war 

New York, May 26,1828^^'^"^"'*®'^"* 

New Jersey, (continued in office.) Sec'y of the Navy. 

Ohio, (continued in office.) Post Master Gen 

Virginia, {continued in office.) Attorney General. 

Speakers of the House of Representatives. 
John W. Taylor, New York, 19ih Congress, 1827. 

Andrew Stephenson, Virginia, 20ih do. 1328. 

Andrew Jackson, 
John C. Calhoun, 
Martin Van Buren, 

Martin Van Buren, 
Edward IJvingston, 
Louis Mcl^ne, 
John Forsyth, 
Samuel D. Ingham, 
Louis Mcl^ne, 
William J. Duane,. 
Ro^er lE^Taney, 
Levi W^rodbury, 
John n. Eaton, 
Lewis CassL 
John Brancfi, 
Levi Woodbury, 
Mahlon Dickerson, 
William T. Barry, 
Amos Kendall, 
John McP. Berrien, 
Roger B. Taney, 
Benjamin F. Butler, 

Sbvbntb Asmtnistration ;— 1829 to 1837 ;— 8 years. 

South Carolina, 
New York, 

New Y'ork, 








New Hampshire, 



North Carolina, 

New Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 





New York, 

Vice PresidenU. 

March 4, 1829 
do. 1829 

March 6, 1829 



March 6, 1829' 




March 9, 1829 

March 9,1829 


March 9, 1829; Post Masters Ge- 

1835 S noraU 

March 9, 1829 i 

1831 > Attorneys General. 

1834 S 


Secretaries of the 

Secretaries of War. 

Secretaries of the 

Speakers of the House of Representatives, 
Andrew Stevenson, Virginia, 2l8t Congress, 

Andrew Stevenson, Virginia, 22d do. 

John Bell, Pennsylvania, 

Eighth Administratiow ;— 1837 to 1841 —4 yeare. 


Htrtin Van Buren, 
Richard M. Johnson, 

John Forsyth, 
I^vi Woodbury, 
Joel R. 1 oinsett, 
Mahlon Dickerson, 
Jam<w K. Paulding, 
Amos Kendall, 
John M. Nilcs, 
Benjamin P Butler, 
Henry D. Gilpin, 

James K. Polk, 
Robert M. T. Hunter, 

New York, 1837 President. 

Kentucky, 1837 Vice President 

GeofRia, (continued in office.) Serretary of State. 

New Hampshire, (continued in office.) Sec'y of Treasury. 
South Carolina, 1837 i 

Now Jersey, (continued in office.) > Secretaries of Wax 
New York, 1838 > 

Kentucky, (continued in office.) ) Post Masters Ce- 

Connecticut, 1840 s iieral. 

New York, (continued in office.) ) 

Pennsylvania, > Attorneys General 

Pennsylvania, 1839 ) 

Speakers of the House of Representatives. 


Digitized by 



THE world's PROORESt 


ADMINISTRATIONS (United Statisb) cotUiwued. 

Ninth AsmNiSTBATioH ;— 1841 to 1815;- 
William IT. Harrisoiif Ohio, 

Died one moaih after inauguralicm, and 

I yean. 


John Tyler, 

Samnel L. Southard, 
Willie P. Mangum, 


New Jersey, 
North Carolina, 

loii S ^ice President, 
1841 J^ • ^- 

Daniel Webster, 
Abel P. Upshur, 
Thomas Ewing, 
Walter Forward, 
John C. Spencer, 
John Bell, 
John C. Spencer, 
George E. Badger, 
Abel P. Upshur, 
DaWd Henshaw, 
Francis Gransrer, 
Charles A. Wickliffb, 
John J. Crittenden, 
Hugh S. Legare, 
John Nelson, 

John White, 
John W. Jones, 


Virginia, 1841 

Ohio, 1841 

Pennsylrania, 1841 

New York, 1841 

Tennessee, 1841 

New York, 1&41 

North Carolina, 1841 1 

Virginia, 1841 } 

Massachusetts, 1841] 

New York, 1841 ) 

Kentucky, 1841 \ 

Kentucky, 184 H 

South Carolina 1841 } 

Maryland, 1841 J 

Speakcra of the House of JUepretenttUivea. 



'°** } became acting Pre* 
184 W Acting V. Pres.and 
1841 \ Piea. Senata 

^^^ i Secretaries of Stata. 

Secretaries of the 

Secretaries of War. 

Secretaries of the 

Post Masters Gefr 

Attorneys General 


James K. Polk. 
Georg^. Dallas, 

Tenth Admikistration ;~1846 to 1849;- 


James Buchanan, Pennsylvania, 

Robert J. Walker, Mississippi, 

William L. Marry, New York, 

George Bancroft, Massachusetts, 

John Y. Mason, Vii^inia, 

Cave Johnson, Tennessee, 

John Y. Mason, Virginia^ 

Isaac Tourey, Connecticut, 

Speakers of the House of Representatives, 
John W. Davis, Indiana, 

Vice President. 

Secretary or State. 
Secretary ofTreaa. 

Robert C. Winihrop, 


1845 Secretary of War. 
'1S45 ? Secreianes of the 
1847 \ 9 Navy. 
1845 Post Master Gen. 

1847 s ^**®™®y' GeneraL 


E1.BVBNTB ADMiNisTUATioif ;~1849 to 1663 ;-A yeara 

Zachary Taylor, Louisiana, 1849 President. 

Millard Fillmore, New York, 1849 Vice President 


1849 Secretary of Slate. 

1849 Soc'y or Treasury. 

1849 Sec'y of the Navy. 

John M. Clayton, 
William E Meredith, 
William R Presion, 
George W, Crawford, 
Thomas Ewing, 
JacDb Collairer, 
Reverdy Johnson, 

Ilowell Cobb, 

New York, 








r of the House 

1819 Secretary of War. 
1849 Sec'y of Imerior." 
1819 Post Master Gen. 
1849 Attorney GeneraL 
of Representatives. 


accession of Henry VIII. The following were the prime ministers, or flivor- 
ites, or chiefs of administrations, in the respective reigns, viz. : — 

I Sir Thomas More and Cranmcr . 1321 
Lord Audley, chancellor; archbishop 
Cranmer .... 153! 


Dishop Fisher and Earl of Surrey 
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 

' A new department, created by act of Congress, 1849. 
Note, The dates of the appointments of the principal executive officera, in the several adminiS' 
tntions, above exhibited, are the times when the several nominations, made by the Presidents, 
were confirmed by the Senate, as stated in the " Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the SsDats 
of the United Statee." Am. Alutanac, Ac 

Digitized by 





Aim? .OTd Cron.wcll (carl of Eawx) . 1534 
Duice of Norfolk, carl of Surrey, and 

bishop GanliDer . . . 1540 

Lord Wrioihesley, earl of Hertford .1544 


The earl of Hertford, coniinwd 

John; duke of Northumberland . 1562 


Biahop Gardiner . . 1563 


Sir Nicholas Bacon . . 1566 

Sir William Cecil, afterwards lord 
Burleieh; chief minister during aN 
most the whole of ihis long reign 
Earl of I^iceater, a favorite . . 1564 

Earl of Essex .... 1538 
Lord Burkhurst . . . 1601 


Lord Burkhurst (earl of Dorset) 

Earls of Salisbury, Suffolk, and North- 
ampton. .... 1608 

Sir K, Carr, created viscount Roches- 
ter, a^'eneards carl of Somerset . 1612 

Sir George Villicrs, created earl, mar- 
ouesfl, and duke of Buckingham . 1615 


Duke of Buckingham continued 

Earl of Portland, archbishop Laud . 1G28 

ArchbtFhop Laud, earl oi Strafford, 

lord Coitingion . . . 1640 

Earl of Essex .... IMO 
Lord I is. Falkland, lord Digby . 1641 

[The civil war commenced, and all 

went into confusion.] 


Edward, earl of Clarendon . .1660 

Dukes of Buckingham and Lauderdale 1667 
Lord Ashley. Lord Arlington, Sir T. 

Clifford, afterwards lorcl Clifford . 1667 
Lord Arlington, lord Ashley, created 
carl Shaftesbury, and Sir Thomas 
O?bome .... 1673 

Sir Thomas Osborne . 1674 

Earl of Essex, duke of Ormond, earl 
qftervpards marquess of Halifax, sir 
William Temple . . 1677 

Duke of York, and his friends . 168!^ 


Earls of Sunderland ^nd Tyrconnel, 
sir George a/tertcards lord JeflVics 1685 

Lord Jeffnea, earl of Tyrconnel, lord 
Bellasis, lord Arundel, carl of Mid- 
dieion, viact. Preston . . 1G87 


Sir John,.q/irert0ards lord Somers, lord 
Godolphin, earl of Danby, after- 
teords duke of Leeds, dec. . . 1688 

The earl of Sunderland, dec. . . 1695 

Charles Montagu, afterwards carl of 
Halifax, earl of Pembroke, viscount 
Lonsdale, earl of Oxford, dec. . 1697 

fttTEiN ANNB. 

Lord Godolphin, R. Ilarley, esq., lord 
Pembroke, duke of Buckingham 


Duke of Marlborough, &c. . . I7l<t' 

Lord Godolphin, lord Cowper, dukus 

of Marlborough and Newcastle . 170'/ 

R. Harley, aflerttards earl of Oxford 171" 

Earl of Rochester, lord Dartmouth, 

and Henry St. John, esq. afterwards ' 

viscl. Bolmgbroke ; lord Harcourt . 17ll 

Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, Ac. . 171* 


Lord Cowper. duke of Shrewsbury, 
marquess or Whanon, earl of Or- 
ford, duke of Marlborough, visct. 
Town«hond, &c. . . . 171* 

Robert Wal pole, esq. . . . 171£ 

James, afterwards earl Stanhope . 171i 
Charles, earl of Sunderland, Ac. . 171fc 
Robert Walpole, esq. afterwards sir 
Robert and earl of Or ford . . 17?1 


Lord Carteret, lord Wilmingu.i, lord 
Bath, Mr. Sandys, &c. . . 1741^ 

Hon. Henry Pelham, lord Carteret, earl 
of Harnngton, duke of Newcastle . 1745S 

Mr. Pelham. earl of Chesterfield, duke 
of Bedford, &c. . . . 174t5 

Duke of Newcastle, Sir Thomas Rob- 
inson, Henry Fox, &c.. lord Anson 1754 

Duke of Devonshire, Mr. William Pitt, 
earl Temple, Hon. H, U- Leggc . 1756 

[Dismissed m April, 1757. Restored in 
June, same year.] 

William Piit, Mr. Legs:e, earl Temple, 
duke of Newcastle, dec. . . 1757 


Earl of Bute, carl of Egremont, duke 
of Bedford . . .1701 

Earl of Bute, hon. George Grenville. 
sir Francis Dashwood, dec. . '. 1762 

Right hon. George Grenville, earl of 
Halifax, earl of Sandwich, duke of 
Bedford, dec 1763 

Marquess of Rockingham, duke of 
Grafton, earl of SheTbume,dtc. July 1765 

Duke of Grafton, hon. Chas. Towns- 
hend, earl of < Chatham. &r. Aug. 1760 

Duke of Grafton, right hon. Frederick, 
lord North, die. . Dec. 1767 

Lord North, lord Halifax, Ac. . . 1770 

Lord Nonh, lonl Dartmouth, lord Slor- 
mont, lonl Hillsborough, lord St. 
Germain, Ac. . . . 17"/J 

Manjuess of Rockingham,righi hon'ble 
Charles James Fox, Ac. Mar. 30. 1782 

Eari of Shelbume, William Pin, lonl 
Grantham, Ac. . Julv 10, 1782 

Duke of Portland, lord North, Mr. Vox, 
Ac. (The Coalition Ministry. See 
'^Coalition."-) . April 5, 1733 

Rt. hon. William Pitt, lord Gower, 
lords Sidney, Carmarthen, and Thiir- 
low, right hon. W. W. Grenville, 
Henry Dundas, lord Mulgrave, duke 
of Richmond, Ac. . Dec. 27^ l7Sc 

Mr. Piit, lord Camden, marq. of Staf- 
fonl, lord Hawke?burv, Ac. . . 178» 

Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, 'duke of Leeds, 
lonl Camden. Ac. . . 179«' 

Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, earl of Chat- 
ham, lonl l/oughborough, Ac . 179SJ 

Digitized by 





Mr. Put. iuke of Portland, lord Gren- 
ville, Mr. DumloA, dec. . . 1796 

Mr. Pill, earl of VVcaimorlonil, earl 
of Cha;liain, lortl (Jrfnville, A:c. . 1798 

Ri?hi hoii. Henry AiJ>linzu>n. duke of 
Ponlaiul, lord Hawke3bury,loi\mo- 
ban. lord KIdon, &c. . Mar. 17, 1801 

Mr. Pill, lonl .Melville, rt, hon. George 
Cajiiiliiz, lord llarrowby, lord West- 
morlarul, duke of Portland, Mr. Dun- 
das, &c. May 12, 1801 

I>ord Grenville, lord llennr Peiiy, earl 
8|icnccr, rt. hon, William \Vind- 
ham, .Mr. Fox, lord Krskine, n. hon. 
Charles Grey, lord Sidmouih, Sec. 
(See "i4«//.c Talfms.") Feb. 5. 1806 

Duke of Portland, Mr. Canning, lord 
Ifawkerburv, earl Camden, ri^ht 
hon. Si)en>'.e'r Perceval. &c. Mar 25. 1807 

Duke of P«)rtland, earl tiaihnrst, lord 
vicount Castlercagh, lord Granville 
Gower, &c 1808 

Mr. Perceval, earl of Livcnwol, mar- 
quess Welleslcv, viscount Palmcr»- 
too, Mr. Ryder,' Ac. . . Oct. 1809 


Mr. Perceval, the earl of Liverpool, 

dec. continued. 
Earl of Liverpool, Earl Bathurst, visct. 

Sidrauuih, viscouni Cartlereaah, Mr. 

Kvder,earl of Harrowby, righi hon. 

Nich. Vaiwiiiari, &c. June 8, 1812 


Earl of Liverpool, vi«couni Sidmouth, 
Mr, Vansiiian, d:r. continued. 

Rt. hon. Georee Cjniiiii?. lonl viscount 
Goilerich, li»rd Lyndhurst, Mr, Siur- 
gi'H Houme, A:r. . April 10, 1827 

Viscouni (i'odcrich, duke of Portland, 
riirlii hon, William Huskivon, Mr. 
Ilerries, dec. . August 11, 1827 

Duke of Wellington, right hon. Robert 
Peel, earl of Dudley, viscouni Mel- 
Tille, earl of Aberdeen, Mr. Goul- 
bum, Mr. Henies, Mr. Grant, dec. 

January 25, 18i28 

Duke of WellmKtoQ, earl of Aberdeen, 
8ir George Murray, lord Lowiber, sir 

Henry Rardinge, Ac.. (Mr. Huski*-'c Palmerston. Mr. Gram, earl 

of Dudley, dec. retiring) May 30, 1899 


Duke of Wellington and hit cabincf, 

Earl Gn*y, viscounts Althorpe, Mel- 
bo unie, Goderich, and Palmer^itm, 
man|uess of I^ajisdowne, lord Hol- 
land, lord Auckland, sir Jame» Gra- 
ham, dec. Nov. 22, 1 530 

[Earl Grev reMzns May 9, but resumes 
office May IS, 1832] 

Viscouni Melbourne, viscount Alihorp, 
lord John Ru.<»iel, vjscis. Palniention 
and Duncannon, sir J. C. flobhouHe, 
lord Howick. Mr. S. Rice, Mr. Pou- 
Icu Thom»)ii, dec. . July 14, 1831 

Viscouni MelboumtN adminisi ration 
••' .:lC. ::ie duke of Wclliuaton 
...nea the helm of stale provisionally, 
waiiin? the return of sir Roben Peel 
from h'aly Nov. M. 1834 

Sir Robert Peel, duke of Weliii.ffion, 
lord Lyndhurst, carl of Abenlecn, 
loi-d Ellcnborough, lord R»»sslyn, 
lord Whamclilfe, nr George M urray, 
Mr. A. Oaring, Mr. Ilerries. Mr. 
Goulbum, dec. . Dec. 15, 1831 

Viscouni Melbuume and his colleagues 
return to office . April 18, 1833 


Viiict. Melbourne and the same cabi- 
net, continued. 

Viscouni Melbourne re5igns May 7, 1839 

Sir Robert Peel receives the queen's 
commands lo form a new atlmmis- 
tration. May 8. 

This rommand is withdrawn, and lord 
Melbourne and his friends are rein- 
staicd . May 10. 1839 

Sir Robert Peel, duke of Wellington, 
carl of Abenlecn, earl of Had>!ing. 
ton, earl of Ripon, lord Stanley. Mr. 
Goulbum, &c. Aug. 7, 1841 

Lord John RuseelPa administration 

July 6, 1S16 

ADMIRAL. The first so called in England was Richard de Lucy, appointed 
by Henry IIL 1223. Alfred. Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kinsra had 
been pi-eviously the commanders of their own fleets. The first was appointed 
in France, in 1284. The rank of admiral of the English seas was one of 
great distinction, and was first given to William de Ley bourne by Edward I. 
in 1297. — Siielman; Rymcr. 

ADMIRAL LORD HIGH, op ENGLAND. The first officer of this rank wat 
created by Richard II. in December 1385 ; there had b^'en previously high 
admirals of dislricis — the north, west, and south. See Navy. 

ADMIRALTY, Court op, erected by Edward III. in 1-357. This is a civil court 
for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs. 

ADRIANOPLE Battle op, which got Constantine the empire, was fought July 
8, A.D. 323. Adrianople was taken by the Ottomans from the Greeks in 1360; 
and it continued to be the seat of the Turkish empire till the capture of 
Constantinople in 1453. Mahomet II., one of the most distinguished of the 
sultana, and the one who took Con8tantino)»le. was bom here In 1480.— 

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Priestley. Adrianople was taken by the Russians, Aug. 20, 1829 ; but was 
restored to the sultan at the close of the war, Sept. 14, same year. Sec Turkey. 

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of tho doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic Sea 
was instituted in a.d. 1178. Annually, upon Ascension-day, the doge married 
the AdrialicuM Mare, by dropping a rin^ into it from his buccntaur, or state 
barge, and was attended on these occasions by all the nobility of the state, 
and foreign ambassadors, in gondolas. This ceremony was intermitted, for 
the first time for centuries, in 1797. 

ADULTERY, ancient laws against it. Punished by the law of Moses with 

♦ the death of both the guilty man and woman. — Leviticus xx. 10. This law 
was repealed, first, because the crime had become common ; and secondly, 
because God's name should not be liable to be too often erased by the ordeal 
of the waters of bitterness. Leo, of Modena, says that the husband was obliged 
to dismiss his wife for ever, whether he willed it or not. — Calmet. Lycurgus 
punished the offender as he did a parricide, and the Locrians and Spartans 
tore out the offenders' eyes. The Romans had no formal law against adultery ; 
the emperor Augustus was the first to introduce a positive law to punish it, 
and he had the misfortune to see it executed in the persons of his own chil- 
dren. — Lenglet. Socrates relates that women who were guilty of adultery 
were punbhcd by the horrible sentence of public constupratlon. In England 
the legal redress against the male offender has been refined into a civil 
action for a money compensation. — Liord Mansfield. 

ADULTERY, English Laws against it. The early Saxons burnt the adulteress, 
and erected a gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer. — 
Pardon. King Edmund punished the crime as homicide. It was punished 
by cutting off the hair, stripping the female offender naked, and whipping 
her through the streets, if tho husband so demanded it to be done, without 
distinction of rank, during the Saxon Heptarchy, a.d. 457 to 828, — SUrwe, 
The ears and nose were cut off under Canute, 1031 . Ordained to be punished 
capitally, together with incest, under Cromwell, May 14, 1650; but there is 
no record of this law taking effect. In New England a law was ordained 
whereby adultery was made capital to both parties, even though the man 
were unmarried, and several suffered under it, 1662. — Hardie. At ])re8cnt 
this offence is more favorably viewed ; to divorce and strip the adulteress 
of her dower, is all her punishment among us ; but in Romish countries they 
usually shut up the adulteress in a nunnery. — Ashe. 

ADVENT. In the calendar it signifies, properly, the approach of the feast of 
the Nativity; it includes four Sundays, the first of which is always the nearest 
Sunday to Saint Andrew (the 30th November), before or after. Advent was 
instituted by the council of Tours, in the sixth century. 

ADVENTURERS, MERCHANT, a celebrated and enterjjnsing company of 
merchants, was originally formed for the discovery of territories, extension 
of commerce and promotion of trade, by John duke of Brabant, in 1296. 
This ancient company was afterwards translated into England, in the reign 
of Edward HI., and queen Elizabeth formed it into an English corporation 
in 1564. — Andersen. 

ADVERTISEMENTS in NEWSPAPERS. In England, as now published they 
• were not general until the beginning of the eighteenth centurj'. A penalty ' 
of 50^. was infiicted on persons advertising a reward with " No questions to 
be asked" for the return of things stolen, and on the printer, 25 Geo. 11. 1764. 
— Statutes. The advertisement duty was formerly charffed according to tho 
number of lines ; it was afterwards fixed, in England at Ss. Qd., and in Ireland 
at 24. 6</. each advertisement. The duty was further reduced, in England 
to Is. 64., and in Ireland to Is. each, by statute 8 and 4 WiU. IV. 1883. 

Digitized by 


156 THE world's progress. r AFF 

iEDILES, mafi^iBirates of Rome, first created 492 b.c. There were three degrees 
of these officers, and the functions of the principal were similar to our justices 
of the peace. The plebeian sediles presided over the more minute a]9kirs of 
the state, ^ood order, and the reparation of the streets. They procured all 
the provisions of the city, and executed the decrees of the people. — Varro. 

ENIGMA. The origin of the senigma is doubttVil : Gale thinks that the Jews 
borrowed their lenigmatical forms of speech fVom the Eeyptians. The 
philosophy of the Druids was altogether {enigmatical. In Nero's time the 
Romans were often obliged to have recourse to this method of concealing 
truth under obscure lan^age. The following epitaph on Fair Rosamond is 
an elegant specimen of the senigma : — 

IIlc jacet in tombft, Roaa mundi, non Rosa munda ; 
Non redolet, Md olet, quas redolere soleu 

^OLIAN HARP. The invention of this instrument is ascribed to Kircher 1658; 
but Richardson proves it to have been known at an earlier period than his 
timo. — Dissertalion on the Customs of the East. There is a Rabbinical story 
of the aerial harmony of the harp of David, which, when hung up at night, 
was played upon by the north wind. — Baruch. 

AERONAUTICS. To lord Bacon, the prophet of art, as Walpolc calls him, has 
been attributed the first sug|:e8tion of the true theory of balloons. The 
ancient speculations about artificial wings, whereby a man might fly as well 
as a bird, refuted by Borelli, 1670. Mr. Henry Cavendish ascertained that 
hydrygen air is at least twelve times lighter than common air, 1777. The 
true doctrine of aeronautics announced in France by the two brothers Mont- 
golfier, 1782.— See Balloon. 

fiSOP'S FABLES. Written by the celebrated fiibulist, the supposed inventor 
of this species of entertainment and instruction, about 565 b.c. .£sop*8 
Fables are, no doubt, a compilation of all the fables and apologues of wits 
both before and after his own time, ooiyointly with his own. — Plutarch. 

JEHOIAK. This country was named after .£tolus of Elis, who, having acci- 
dentally killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Areps. left the Peloponnesus, 
and settled here. Tlie inhabitants were very Kttle known to the rest of 
Greece, till after the ruin of Athens and Sparta, when they assumed a con- 
sequence in the country as the opposers and rivals of the Achseans, to whom 
they made themselves formidable as the allies of Rome, and as its enemies. 
They were conquered by the Romans under Fulvius. 

The iEtolianji begin to ravage the Pelo- 
ponneBua . b.o. 2B2 

They dispute the panafe of the Mace- 
donians at Therraop^ln . . 223 

Acamania ceded to Philip aa the price 
of peace .... 218 

Battle of Lamia; the ^toliana, com- 
manded by PyrrhuB, are defeated by 
Philip of Ma redon .214 

With the amistance of allies, they seize 
Oreum, Opus, Tribon, and Dryne . 212 

They put to the sword the people of 

Therma, Xenia, Cyphara, and other 
cities, and destroy with fire all the 
country ihey invade b.c. 'JXA 

They next invite the kin^ of Macedon, 
Syria and Sparta, to coalesce with 
them against the Romans . 1% 

They seize Calchis, Sparia, and Deme- 

tnaii in Thessaly .194 

Their defeat near Thermopyl» . .199 

They lose Lamia and Amphisaa . 192 

Maoe a province of Rome . 146 

AFFINITY, Degrees op. Marriage within certain de^es of kindred was 
prohibited by the laws of almost all nations, and m almost every a^. 
Several degrees were prohibited in scriptural law, as may be seen in Leviti- 
cus^ chap, xviii. In England, a table restricting marriaj^c within certain 
near degrees was set forth by authority, a.d. 1563. Prohibited marriages 
were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the ninety-ninth Canon, in 
1603. AH marriages celebrated within the forbidden degrees of kindred are 
declared to be absolutely void by statute 5 and 6 Will. IV. 1836. 

Digitized by 


%okJ dictionary of dates. 157 

AFFIRMATION op the QUAKERS. This was first legally accepted as an oath 
in England a.d. 1696. The affirmation was altered in 1702, and again altered 
and modified December 1721. 

AFGHANISTAN. Insurrection of the Afghans against the British power in 
India, January 5, 1842. — See India. 

AFRICA, called Li^ija by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient 
world, and the greatest peninsula of the universe, first peopled by Ham. It 
was conquered by Belisarins in a.d. 553 et seq. In the seventh century, about 
637, ilie Mahometan Arabs subdued the north of Africa ; and their descend- 
ants, under the name of Moors, constitute a great port of the present popu- 
lation. See the several countries of Africa through the volume. Among 
the late distinguished travellers in this quarter of the world, may be men- 
tioned Bruce, who commenced his travels in 1768; Mungo Park, who made 
his first voyage to Africa, May 22, 1795 ; and his second voyage. January JO, 
1804, but from which he never returned. See Park. Richard lender died 
of shot-wounds (which he had received wheu ascending the river Nunn) at 
Fernando Po, Jan. 31. 1834. The African expedition, for which parliament 
TOted 61,000i., consisting of the Albert, Wdberforct^ and Soudan steam-ships, 
sailed in the summer of 1841. The vessels commenced the ascent of the 
Niger, Aug. 20; but when they reached Iddah, fever broke out among the 
crews, and they were successively obliged to return, the Albert having 
ascended the river to Egga, 320 miles firom the sea, Sept. 28. The expedi- 
tion was, in the end, wholly relinquished owing to disease, heat, and hard- 
ships, Oct. 17. 

AFRICAN COMPANY, a society of merchants trading to Africa. An associ- 
ation in Exeter, which was formed in 1588, gave rise to this company. A 
charter was granted to a joint stock company in 1618 : a third company was 
created in 1631 ; a fourth corporation in 1662 ; and another formed by let- 
ters patent in 1672, and remodelled in 1695. The rights vested in the pre- 
sent company* 23 Geo. n. 1749. See Slave Trade. 

AGE : GrOLDEN Age, Middle Age, dc^c. Among the ancient poets, an age wap 
the space of thirty years, in which sense age amounts to much the suiiie as 
^neration. The interval since the firat formation of man has been divided 
into four ages, distinguished as the golden, silver, brazen, and iron ages ; but 
a late author, reflecting on the barbarism of the first a^es, will have the 
order assigned by the poets inverted— the first, being a time of iffnorance, 
would be more properly denominated an iron, rather than a golden age. 
Various divisions of the duration of the world have been made by historians : 
by some the space of time commencing from Constantine, and ending with 
the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, in the fifteenth century, is called 
the middle age ; the middle is also styled the barbarous age. The ages of 
the world may be reduced to three grand epochs, viz., the age of the law of 
nature, from Adam to Moses ; the age of the Jewish law, from Moses to 
Christ ; and the age of grace, from Christ to the present year. 

AGINCOURT, Battle op, between the French and English armies, gained by 
Henry V. Of the French, there were 10,000 killed, and 14,000 were taken 
pris4mers, the English losing only 100 men. Among the prisoners were the 
dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlemen, 
and men more numerous than the British themselves. Among the slain 
were the dukes of Alen9on, Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one 
marshal, thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights, Oct. 25, 1416. 
— (idd smith. 

AGRA. Fortress of, termed the key of Hindostan. surrendered, in the war 
with the Mahrattas, to the British forces, Oct. 17, 1803. Tliis was once the 

Digitized by 



most splendid of all the Indian cities, and now exhibits the mast magniffcent 
ruins. In the 17th ccntnry the great mogul frequently resided here ; his 
palaces, and those of the Omrahs, were very numerous ; Agra then con- 
tained above 60 caravansaries, 800 baths, and 700 mosques. See Mau- 

A.GRARIAN LAW, Agraria Lex. This was an equal division among the Ro- 
man people of all tJbe lands which they acquired by conquest, limiting the 
acres which each person should enjoy, first proposed by Sp. Cassius, to gain 
the favor of the citizens, 486 b.c. It was enacted under the tribune libe- 
rius Gracchus, 132 b.c. ; but this law at last proved fatal to the freedom of 
Rome under Julius Ciesar. — Livy ; Vossius. 

M»RICULTURE. The science of agriculture may be traced to the period im- 
mediately succeeding the Deluge. In China and the eastern countries it was, 
perhaps, coeval with their early plantation and government. Of the agri- 
culture of the ancients little is known. The Athenians pretended that it 
was among them the art of sowing corn began ; and the Cretans, Sicilians, 
and Egyptians lay claim, the last with most probability, to the honor. 
Brought mto England by the Romans, as a science, about a.d. 27. 

VGYNNIANS. This sect arose about a.d. 694, and alleged that God forbade 

^the eatine: of flesh, assuming the first chapter of Genesis to be the authority 

upon whrdi the doctrine was founded. A revival of this ancient sect now 

flourishes at Manchester and other towns in England, and has been public 

there since 1814. 

ilR. Anaximenes of Miletus declared air to be a self-existent deity, and the 
first cause of every thing created, 530 b.c. The pressure of air was discov- 
ered by Torricelli, a.d. 1645. It was found to vary with the height by Pas- 
cal, in 1647. Halley, Newton, and others, up to the present time, have 
illustrated the agency and influences of this great power b}' various experi- 
ments, and numerous inventions have followed from them ; among others, 
the air-gun by Guter of Nurcmburg in 165C ; the air-pump, invented by 
Otho Guericke at Magdeburg in 1650, and improved by the illustrious Boyle 
in 1657 ; and the air-pipe, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, 
about 1756. See Balbon. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Peace of. The first treaty of peace signed here wa^ 
between France and Spain, when France yielded Franche-Comt^, but 
retained her conquests in the Netherlands, May 2, 1668. The second, or 
celebrated treaty, was between Great Britain, France, Holland, Hungary, 
Spain, and Genoa. By this memorable peace the treaties of Westphalia in 
1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1679, of Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, 
of Baden in 1714, of the Triple Alliance 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 
1718, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed. Signed on the 

?art of England by John Earl of Sandwich, and Sir Thomas Robinson, Oct. 
, 1748. A congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 
assisted by ministers from England and France, was held at Aix-la-Cha- 
oelle, and' a conventicm signed, October 9. 1818. The sum then due from 
France to the allies was settled at 265,000,000 francs. 

ALABAMA. One of the United States ; most of its territory was included in 
the original patent of Georgia It was made a part of the Mississippi ter- 
ritory in 1817 ; admitted into the Union as a State in 1820. Population ir 
1810 was less than 10 000; in 1816 29 6a3; in 1820, 127,901; in 1830, 
808.997 ; in 1810, 590 756, including 253,532 slaves. Exports of the State in 
1840 amounted to S12 854 694 ; imports, to S574,651 

ALBA. Founded by Ascanius, 1152 b.c. and called Longa, because the citj 
extended along the hill Alhanvs. This kingdom lasted 4iB7 years, and wa' 

Digitized by 



fciverned by a race of kings, the dcBcendants of-fineas. When Amulins 
cthroned his brother, he condemned Ilia, the daughter of Numitor, to a 
life of celibacy, by obliging her to take the vows and office of a vestal, 
thereby to assure his safety in the usurpation. His object was, however, 
fViistrated; violence was offered to Ilia, and she became the mother of 
twins, for which Amulius ordered her to be buried alive, and her offspring to 
be thrown into the Tiber, 770 B.C. But the little bark in which the infants 
were sent adrift stopped near Mount Aventinc, and was brought ashore by 
Faostulus, the king^s chief shepherd, who reared the children as his own, and 
called tbem Romulus and Remus. His wife, Acca-Laurentia, was surnamcd 
Ijupa; whence arose the fable that Romulus and his brother were suckled 
by a she-wolf. At sixteen years of age, Romulus avenged the wrongs of 
Dia and Numitor, 754 b.c, and the next year founded Rome. — Varro. 

4LBAN'S, ST. The name of this town was anciently Verulam ; it was once 
the capital of Britain, and previously to the invasion of Julius Caesar was 
the residence of British princes. It takes its present name from St. Alban, 
who was bom here, and who is said to have been the first person who suf- 
fered martyrdom for Christianity in Britain. He is hence commonly styled 
the proto-martyr of this country, and was decapitated during the perse- 
cution raised by Diocletian, June 23, a.d. 286. A stately mona8tcry was 
erected here to his memory by Offa, king of Mercia. in 793. St. Alban 's 
was incorporated by Edward VI. 1552. 

ALBAN'S. ST., Battles op. The first, betw^een the liouscs of York and Lan- 
caster, in which Richard duke of York obtained a victory over Henry VI., 
of whose army 6000 were slain, while that of the duke of York suffered 
no material loss, fought May 22, 1455. The second, between the Yorkists 
under the earl of Warwick, and the Lancastrians, commanded by queen 
Marearet of Aiyou, who conquered : in this battle 2500 of the defeated army 
perished; fought on Shrove Tuesday, February 2, 14C1. 

ALBANY, city, capital of the State of New- York, founded by the Dutch in 
1623, and by them named Beaverwyck ; capitulated to the English in 1664, 
and then received its present name in honor of the Duke of York and 
Albany, its proprietor. Incorporated in 1686. Population in 1810, 9,356; 
in laSO, 24 238; in 1840, 33.721. 

ALBIGENSES. This sect had its origin about a.d. 1160. at Albigeois, in Lan- 
guedoc, and at Toulouse; they opposed the disciples of the Church of 
Rome, and professed a hatred of all the corruptions of that religion. Simon 
de Montfort commanded against them, and at Bezi^res he and the pope's 
legate put friends and foes to the sword. At Minerba, he burnt 160 of the 
Albigenses alive ; and at La Vaur, he hanged the governor, and beheaded 
the chief people, drowning the governor's wife, and murdering other 
women. Tney next defeated the count of Toulouse, with the loss of 17,000 
men. Simon de Montfort afterwards came to England. See Waldenses. 

ALBION. The island of Great Britain is said to have been first so called by 
Julius Caesar, on account of the chalky cliffs upon its coast, on his invasion 
of the country, 54 b.c. The Romans conquered it, and held possession about 
400 years. On their quitting it, it was successively invaded by the Scots, 
Picts, and Saxons, who drove the original inhabitants from the plain coun- 
try, to seek refuge in the steeps and wilds of Cornwall and Wales ; the 
Danes and Normans also settled at various times in England : and fVom a 
mixture of these nations the present race of Englishmen is derived. See 
Britain. — New Albion, district of California, was taken possession of by sir 
Francis Drake, and so named by him, in 1578 ; explored by Vancouver in 

A.LBUERA, Battle op, between the French, commanded by marshal Soult, 

Digitized by 


160 THE world's PROGRESft. [ ALE 

and the British and An^lo-Spanish army, commanded by marshal, now lord 
Bercsford, May 16, 1811. After an obstinate and sanguinary engagement, 
the allies obtained the victory, justly esteemed one of the most brilliant 
achievements of the Peninsular war. The French loss exceeded 9000 men 
previously to their retreat. 
ALCHEMY". This was a pretended branch of chemistry, which effected th« 
transmutation of metals into gold, an alkahest, or universal menstruum, a 
universal ferment, and other things equally ridiculous. If regard may b« 
had to legend and tradition, alchemy must be as old as the Flood : yet 
few philosophers, poets, or physicians, from Homer till 400 years after 
Christ, mention any such thing. Pliny says the emperor Caligula was the 
first who prepared natural arsenic, in order to make gold of it, but left it 
off because the charge exceeded the profit. Others say the Egyptians had 
this mystery ; which if true, how could it have been lost 1 The Arabians 
are said to have invented this mysterous art, wherein they were followed by 
Ramond Lullius, Paracelsus, and others, who never found any thing els6 
but ashes in their ftirnaces. Another author on the subject is Zosimus, 
about A. D. 410. — Fai. Bid. Gras. A license for practising alchemy with all 
kinds of metals and minerals granted to one Richard Carter, 1476. — Rtjmer's 
Peed. Doctor Price, of Guildford, published an account of his experiments 
in this way, and pretended to succes-s: he brought his specimens of gold to 
the king, affirming that they wen* made by means of a red and white pow- 
der; but being a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was required, upon pain 
of expulsion, to repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and Woulfe ; 
but after some equivocation, he took poison and died, August 1783. 

ALCORAN. The book which contains the revelation and credenda of Mahomet : 
it is confessedly the standard of the Arabic tongue, and as the Mahometans 
believe, inimitable by any human pen ; hence they assume its divine origin. 
It is the common opinion of writers, that Mahomet was assisted by Batiras. 
a Jacobin, Scrgius, a Ne.storian monk, and by a learned Jew, in composing 
this book, most of whose principles are the same with those of Arius, Nes- 
torius, Sabellius, and other heresiarchs. The Mahometans say, that God 
sent it to their prophet by the Angel Gabriel : it was written about a. d. 610. 
— See Karan, Makormitism^ Mrrra, &e. 

ALDERMEN. The word is derived from the Saxon Ealdorman, a senior, and 
among the Saxons the rank was conferred upon elderly and sage, as well as 
distinguished persons on account of the experience their age had given 
them. At the time of the Heptarchy, aldermen were the governors of pro- 
vinces or districts, and are so mentioned up to a. d. 882. After the Danes 
were .settled in England, the title was changed to that of earl, and the Nor- 
mans introduced that of c(»i7it, which though different in its original signifi- 
cation, yet meant the same thing. Henry III. may be said to have given 
its basis to this city distinction. In modern British polity, and also in the 
United States, an alderman is a magistrate next in dignity to the mayor. 

ALE AND WINE. They are said to have been invented by Bacchus ; the for- 
mer where the soil, owing to its quality, would not grow grapes.— -TVwite'j 
Pantheon-. Ale was known as a beverage at least 404 b. c. Herodotus as- 
cribes the first di.scovery of the art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the wife 
of Asyris. The Romans and Germans very early learned the process of pre- 
paring a liquor from com by means of fermentation, from the Egyptians. — 
Tacitus. Alehouses are made mention of in the laws of Ina, king of Wes- 
sex. Booths were set up in England a.d. 728, when laws were passed for 
their regulation. Alehouses were licensed 1621 ; and excise duty on ale 
and beer was imposed on a system nearly similar to the present, 18 Charles 
U., 1660. See Beer, Winr. 

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ALEMANNI, or All Men, {i.e. men of all nations,) a body of Suevi, defeated 
bj' Caracalla, a. d. 214. On one occasion 300.000 of this warlike people are 
said to have been vanquished, in a battle near Milan, by Gallicnus, at the 
head of 10,000 Romans. Their battles were numerous with the Romans and 
Gauls. They ultimately submitted to the Franks. — Gibbon. 

ALEXANDER, Era op, dated from the death of Alexander the Great, Novem- 
ber 12, 323 B. c. In the computation of this era, the period of the creation 
was considered to be 6602 years before the birth of Christ, and, in cunsc- 
quence, the year 1 a. d. was equal to 6503. This computation continued to 
the year 284 A. D., which was called 5786. In the next year (285 a.d.), 
which should have been 6787, ten years were discarded, and the date be- 
came 6777. This is still used in the Abyssinian era, which see. The date is 
reduced to the Christian era by subtracting 5502 until the year 6786, and 
ailer that time by subtracting 6492. 

ALEXANDRIA, in Egypt, the walls whereof were six miles in circuit, built by 
Alexander the Great, 332 b. c. ; taken by Caesar, 47 b. c, and the library of 
the Ptolemies, containing 400,000 valuable works in MS., burnt. Conquered 
by the Saracens, whin the second library, consisting of 700,000 volumes was 
totally destroyed by the victors, who heated the water for their baths for 
six months by burning books instead of wood, by command of the caliph 
Omar, a. d. 642. This was formerly a place of great trade, all the treasures 
of the East being deposited here before the discovery of the route by the 
Cape of Good Hope. Taken by the French under Bonaparte, when a mas- 
sacre ensued, July 6, 1798; and from them by the British in the memorable 
battle mentioned in next article, in 1801. Alexandria was again taken by 
the British, under GJeneral Frazer, March 21, 1807 ; but was evacuated by 
them, Sept. 23, same year. For late events, see Syria and Turkey, 

ALEXANDRIA, Battle op, between the French, under Menou, who made the at- 
tack, and the British army, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, amounting; to about 
15 000 men, which had but recently debarked, fought March 21, 1801. The 
British were victorious, but Sir Ralph Abercrombie was mortally wounded. 

ALEXANDRINE VERSE. Verse of twelve feet, or syllables, first written by 
Alexander of Paris, and since called, after him. Alexandrines, about a. d. 
1164. — Nouv. Did, Pope, in his Essay on Criticism, has the following well- 
known couplet, in which an Alexandrine is happily exemplified : — 
** A needless Alexandrine ends the song, 
Tha' like a wound-ed snake, drags its slow length a-long." 

ALGEBRA. Where algebra was first used, and by whom, is not precisely 
known. Diophantus first wrote upon it, probably about a. d. 170 ; he is said 
to be the inventor. Brought into Spain by the Saracens, about 900 ; and 
into Italy by Leonardo of Pisa, in 1202. The first writer who used algebra- 
ical signs was Stifelius of Nuremberg, in 1544. The introduction of sym- 
bols for quantities was by Francis Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into 
general use. — Moreri. The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of tho 
doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1068. 

ALGIERS. The ancient kingdom of Nuraidia, reduced to a Roman province, 
44 B. c. It afterwards became independent, till, dreading the power of the 
Spaniards, the nation invited Barbarossa, the pirate, to assist it, and h« 
seized the government, a. d. 1516; but it afterwards fell to the lot of Tur- 
key. — Priestley. The Algerines for ages braved the resentment of the most 
powerful states in Christendom, and the emperor Charles V. lost a fine fleet 
and army in an unsuccessful expedition against them, in 1541. Algier.s wa» 
reduced by Admiral Blake, in 1653, and terrified into pacific measures 
with England ; but it repulsed the vigorous attacks of other European pow- 
cr», particularly those of France, in 1688, and 1761 ; and of Spain, in 1775 

Digitized by 


162 THE world's PR0ORES& ^ ^^^ 

1783, and 1784. It was bombarded by the British fleet, under lord Exmonth, 
Aug. 27, 1816, when a new treaty followed, and Christian slavery was abol- 
ished. Algiers surrendered to a Fivnch armament, under Bourmont and 
Duperr^, attor some severe confliot.s, July 6, 1830, when the dey was deposed, 
ami the barbarian government wholly overthro>vn. The French ministry 
announced their intention to retain Algiers, permanently. May 2l>, 1834. 
Marshal Clausel defeated the Arabs in two engagements (in one of which 
the duke of Orleans was wounded), and entered Mascara, Dec, 8, 18o6. 
General Damremont attacked Constantina {which see)^ Oct. 13, 1837;" since 
when various other engagements between the French and the natives, have 
taken place. Abd-el-Kader surrendered to General Lamoriciere, Dec. 22, 
1847. Sec Mitrocco. 

ALT, Skct of. Founded by a famous Mahometan chief, the son-in-law of Ma- 
homet, (having married his daughter Fatiraa,) about a. d. 632. AM waa 
called by the Prophet, " the Lion of God, always victorious ;" and the Persians 
follow the interi)retation of the Koran according to AH, while other Maho- 
metans adhere to that of Abuboker and Omar. It is worthy of remark, 
that the first four successors of Mahomet — Abubeker, Omar, Othman, and 
Ali, whom he had employed as his chief agents in establishing his religion, 
and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he styled the ''cut- 
ting sword «» of God," all died violent deaths ; and that this bloody impos- 
tor s fami.y was wholly extirpated within thirty years after his own decease. 
Ali was assassinated in 660. 

ALIENS. In England aliens were grievously coerced up to a. d. 1377. When 
they were to be tried criminally, the juries were to bo half foreigners, if 
they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or 
handicraft by retail, 1483. 

ALL SAINTS. The festival instituted, a.d. 625. All Saints, or All Hallows, 
in the Protestant church, is a day of general commemoration of all those saints 
and martyrs in honor of whom, individually, no particular day is assigned. 
The Church of Rome and the Greek church have saints for every day in the 
year. The reformers of the English church provided offices only for very 
remarkable commemorations, and struck out of their calendar altogether a 
great number of anniversaries, leaving only those which at their time were 
connected with popular feeling or tradition. 

ALLEGORY. Of very ancient composition. The Bible abounds in the finest 
instances, of which Blair gives Psalm Ixxx. ver. 8, 16, as a specimen. Spen- 
ser's Faerie Queene is an allegory throughout; Addison, in his SpectatoTy 
abounds in allegories ; and the P'dsrims Progress of Bunyan, 1663, is per- 
ffect in its way. Milton, among other English poets, is rich in allegory. 
ALLIANCES, Treaties op, between the high European Powers : See Coalitwn, 
Treaties, &c. 

Alliance of Leipsic . . April 9, 1631 i Alliance of Versa illea . May 1, 1766 

Alliance of Vieiina . May 27, 1657 ; Germanic Alliance . July 23, 1785 

Alliance, the Triple , . Jan. 2S, 166.S 

Alliance of Warsaw March 31, 16«3 

Alliance, the Crand . . May 12, IG® 

AllianciJ, the Hague Jan. 4. 1717 

Allancc, the Quadruple Aug. 2, 171R 

Alliance of Vienna March 16, 1731 

Alliance of Paris . . Ma v 16, 179.? 

Alliance of Petersburg . • April R, 18rJ5 

Austrian Aliianro . March M. >8I2 

Alliance of Sweden . March 24 i>12 

Alliance of Topliiz . Sept. 0. 1.-13 

Alliance, the Holy . Sept. 26, ISK' 

ALMANACS, The Egyptians computed time by instruments. Log calen- 
dars were anciently in use. Al-mon-aght, is of Saxon origin. In the Bri- 
tish Museum and universities are curious specimens of early almanacs. 
Michael Nostrotlamus, the celebrated astrologer, wrote an almanac in the 
•tyle of Merlin, IbG^.—Dufresnotf. The most noted early almanacs were : 

Digitized by 


4I>Uj BlcnONART OF DATES. 163 

ALMANACS, continued. 

Jol-n Somer's Calendar, written In Ox- 

lonl • 1380 

Onn in lidinbeth palace, written in . UtK) 
Finn primed one, publiahed at Buda . 1472 
„ ... -.fJI^,, . • . . 

Fji -t priule^l in England, by Richanl 

Pyn^on .... 1497 

TybauU's Prognostications. . . Iu33 

Lilly's Ephemehs . . . . *644 

Poor Robin's Almanrx 


Lady'g Diary 

. . 1705 

Moore'a Aiinanac 

. 1713 

Season on the Seasons 

. . 1735 

(JeiHlemau's Diary 

. 1741 

Nautu'ul Almanac . 

. . 1767 

Poor Richard's Almanac, (Franklin's, 
Philadelphia) .... 1733 

Of Moore's, at one period, upwards of 500,000 copies were annually sold. 
The Stationers' company claimed the exclusive right of publishing, until 
1700, in virtue of letters patent from James I., granting the privilege to this 
company, and the two universities. The stamp duty on almanacs was 
abolLshed in England, 1834. 

AI-METDA, Battle op, between the British and Anglo-Spanish army, com- 
manded by lord Wellington, and the French army under Masscna, who was 
df^feated with considerable loss, August 5, 1811. Wellington comjielled Mas- 
sena to evacuate Portueal, and to retreat rai)i(ily before him j but the route 
of the French was tracked by the most horrid desolation. 

ALPHABET. Athotes, son of Menes, was the author of hieroglyphics, and 
wrote thus the history of the Egyptians, 2122 b. c. — Blair, But Josephus 
affirms that he had seen inscriptions by Seth, the son of Adam ; though 
this is doubted, and deemed a mistake, or fabulous. The first lettei of the 
Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet was akph, called by the Greeks otrpha^ and 
abbreviated by the modern^ to A. The Hebrew is supposed to be derived 
ft-oni the Phoenician. Cadmus, the founder of Cadmea, 1493 b. c, brought 
the Phoenician letters (fifteen in number) into Greece j they were the lol- 
lowing: — 

A, B, r, A, I, K, A, M, N, O, n, P, 2, T, T. 
These letters were originally either Hebrew, Phoenician, or Assyrian char- 
acters, and changed gradually in form till they became the ground of the 
Roman letters, now used all over Europe. Palamedes of Argos invented 
the double characters, e, X, 4, H, about 1224 b. c. ; and Simonides adtled Z, 
▼, H. n, about 489 b. c. — AriituMian Marbi/;s. When the E was introduced 
is not precisely known. The Greek alphabet consisted of sixteen letters 
till 390 b. c, when the Ionic, of 24 characters, was introduced. The small 
letters are of late invention, for the convenience of writing. The alphabets 
of the different nations contain the following number of letters : — 

Eng]i!>h . 

ALPHONSINE TABLES • Celebrated astronomical tables, composed by com- 
mand, and under the direction of, Alphonsus X. of Castile, surnamed the 
Wise. This learned prince is .''aid to have expended upwards of 400.000 
crowns in completing the work, whose value was enhanced by a preface, 
written by his own hand : he commenced his reign in 1252. 

ALTARS, were first raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Cecrops, who also insti- 
tuted and regulated marriages, 1556 b. c. Ho introduced among the Greeks 
the worship of those deities which were held in adoration in Egypt. — Hero- 
dotus. Christian altars in churches were instituted by pope Sixtus I. in 1-36 ; 
and they were first consecrated by pope Sylvester. The first Christian altar 
in Britain was in 634. — Stotee. Tlie Church of England, and all the reformed 
churches, discontinue the name, and have abolished the doctrine that sup- 
ported their use. 

ALCJM, is said to have been first discovered at Rocha, in Syria, about a. d. 1300; 
it was fbnnd in Tuscany, in 1460; was brought to perfection in England, in 


German . 


Greelc . 

. 2i 

Turkish . 

. 33 





. . 2^ 


. SO 


Russian . 


Arabic . 




Latin . 



. .32 

Chinese . 

. 214 

Digitized by 


164 THE world's progress. [ 

1608 : was discovered in Ireland, in 1757 ; and in Anglesey, in 1790. Alum 
is a salt used as a mordant in tanning ; it i» used also to harden tallow, and 
to whiten bread. It may be made of pure clay exposed to vapors of sulphu- 
ric acid, and sulphate of potash added to the ley ; but it is usually obtained 
by means of ore called alum slate. 

AMAZONIA, discovered by Francisco Orellana, in 1580. Coming; from Peru, 
Orellana sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic, and observing com- 
panies of women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and 
^ave the name of Amazon to the river, w^hich had previously been called 

AMAZONS. Their origin is fabulous. They are said to have been the descend- 
ants of the Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, where their husbands having 
made incursions, were all slain, being surprised in ambuscades by their 
enemies. Their widows, reflecting on the alarms or sorrows they under- 
went on account of the fate of their husbands, resolved to form a female 
state, and having firmly established themselves, they decreed that matri- 
mony was a shameful servitude ; but, to perpetuate their race, Jiey, at stated 
times, admitted the embraces of their male neighbors. — Qumlus Curtiuc 
They were conquered by Theseus, about 1231 b. c. The Amazons were con- 
stantly employed in wars ; and that they rai^ht throw the javelin with more 
force, their right breasts were burned oft, whence their name from the 
Greek, Tion and mamma. Their queen, Thalestris, visited Alexander the 
Great, while he was pursuing his conquests in Asia, and cohabited with 
him, in the hope of having issue by so illustrious a warrior; three hundred 
females were in her train. — Herodotus. 

AMBASSADORS, accredited agents and representatives from one court to 
another, are referred to early a^s, and to almost all nations. In most coun- 
tries they have great and peculiar privileges ; and in England, among others, 
they and their servants are secured against arrest. The Portuguese ambas- 
sador in England was imprisoned for debt, in 1653 ; and the Russian, by a 
lace-merchant, in 1709, when a law, the statute of 8 Anne, passed for their 
protection. Two men were convicted of arresting the servant of an ambas- 
sador. They were sentenced to be conducted to the house of the ambassa- 
dor, with a label on their breasts, to ask his pardon, and then one of them 
to be imprisoned three months and the other hned, May 12, 1780. — Phillips, 

AMBER. Of great repute in the world from the earliest time; esteemed as a 
medickne before the Christian era : Theophrastus wrote upon it, 300 b. c. 
Upwards of 160 tons of amber have been found in one year on the sands of 
the shore near Pillau. — Phillips. Much diversity of opinion still prevails 
among naturalists and chemists respecting the origin of amber, some refer- 
ring it te the vegetable, others to the mineral, and some to the animal king- 
dom ; its natural history and its chemical analysis affording something m 
favor of each opinion, 

AMEN. This word is as old as the Hebrew itself In that language it means 
true, faithful, certain. Employed in devotions, at the end of a prayer, it im- 
plies, so be it; at the tennination of a creed, so it is. It has been generally 
used, both in the Jewish and Christian churches, at the conclusion of prayer. 

AMENDE HoNORABLR, originated in France in the ninth century. It was first 
an infamous punishment inflicted on traitors and sacrilegious persons : the 
offender was delivered into the hands of the hangman ; his shirt was stripped 
off a rope put about his neck, and a taper in his hand; he was then led into 
court, and was obliged to pray pardon of Gotl, the king, and the country. Death 
or banishment sometimes followed. Amende honorable is now a term used for 
making recantation in open court, or in the presence of the injured party. 

Digitized by 



AMERICA: See United States. Discovered by Christopher Colombo, a Geno- 
ese, better known as Christopher Columbns, a.d. 1492, on the 11th of Octo- 
ber, on which day he caine in sight of St. Salvador. See Bahama Islands. 
Tliis great navigator found the continent of America in 1497, and the east- 
em coasts were found by Amerigo Vespucci ( Americus Vespucius) in 1498 ; 
and from this latter discoverer the whole of America is named. 

Newfoundland, the firsi British colony 
in this quarter of the world, discover- 
ed by Cabot, and by htm called 
Prima Visln 1497 

Virginia,' the first English Beiijemcni 
on the main land . . 1607 

New England, the second, by the Ply- 
mouth company . . . 1G21 
New York, settled by the Dutch . . 1614 
(.For other occurrences, see TabuUtr 
Views— United States. See also 
separate states, Maine, dec. 

A^tERIC A, SOUTH. The Spaniards, as being the first discoverers of tliis vast 
portion of the Western World, had the largest and richest share of it. When 
they landed in Peru, a. d. 1530, they found it governed by sovereigns called 
Incas. who were revered by their subjects as divinities, but the^ were soon 
subdued by their invaders under the command of Francis Pizarro. The 
cruelties practised by the new adventurers wherever they appeared, will be 
a reproach to Spain for ever.* Spanish America has successfully asserted 
its freedom within the present century. It first declared its independence 
in 1810; and the provinces assembled, and proclaimed tin* sovereignty of the 
people in July, 1814; since when, although the wars of rival and contending 
chiefs have been atflicting the country, it has released itself from the yoke 
of Spain for ever. Its independence was recognized first by the United 
States, chiefly through the influence of H. Clay ; by England, in 1823. ct seq. ; 
and by France, Sept. 30, 1830. See Brazil, Colombia, Lima, Peru, &c. 

AMERICAN LrrERATURE. The American Almanac for 1840 gives a list of 
776 names of American authors who had died previous to that year. This 
did not include authors of mere pamphlets, which would have swelled the 
number three-fold; but the "authorship " of many in the list was of very 
moderate amount or value. Of the 776 names, there were writers on Theo- 
logy, Sermons, &c., 259; Poetry, 67; History and Biography, 80; Politics 
and Law. 77. [In these numbers, writers on two or more of the subjects are 

<i\3IETHYSTS. When this «tone was first prized is not known ; it was the ninth 
in place upon the breastplate of the Jewish high priests, and the name 
Ifsachar was engraved u^on it. It is of a rich violet color, and according 
to Plutarch, takes its name from its color, resembling wine mixed with water. 
One worth 200 rix dollars having been rendered colorless, equalled a dia- 
mond in lustre valued at 18,000 gold crowns. — De Boot Hist. Gcmmarum, 
Amethysts were discovered at Kerry, in Ireland, in 1756. — Burns. 

AMIENS. Peace or, between Great Britain, Holland, France and Spain ; the 
preliminary articles, fifteen in number, were signed by lord Hawkesbury and 
M. Otto, on the part of England and France, Oct. 1, 1801 ; and the definitive 
treaty was subscribed on March 27, 1802, by the marquis Cornwall is for 
England. Joseph Bonaparte for France, Azara for Spain, and Scliinnnelpen- 
ninck for Holland. 

AMMONITES. Descended from Ammon, the son of Lot ; they invaded the 
land of Canaan and made the Israelites tributaries, but they were defeated 

• \An Casas, in describirg the barbarity of the Spania rds while pursuini^ tliflr /ronquosts, records 
many instances of it ihat fill the mind with horror. In .Jamaica, he says, they hanged die unre- 
n^iog natives by thirtefn at a time, in honor of (he thirteen apostle.^! and he han bolipji! them 
ihrow the Indian mfanis to their dogs for food ! "I have heard them," says Casas, "borrow 
rhe limb of a human beinz lo feed their dogs, and have seen them the next day return a quarter of 
WHhcr victim to the lender!" 

Digitized by 


166 THE world's progress. [ana 

by Jephthah, 1188 b. c. They again Invaded Canaan in the re!^ of Saul, 
with an intention to put out the right eye of all those they subdued, but 
Saul overthrew them, 1093 b. c. They were afterwards many limes vah- 
quishod; and Antiochus the Great took Rabboath tlieir capital, and destroyed 
all the walls, 198 b. c. — Joscphus. 

AMNESTY. The word as well as the practice was introduced into Greece by 
Thrasybulus, the Athenian general and patriot, who commenced the expul- 
sion of the thirty tyrants with the assistance of only thirty of his friends: 
having succeeded, the only reward he would accept was a crown made with 
two branches of olive. iOO B. c. — Huvi/:'s Essays. 

AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL : Established at Thermopylaj by Amphictyon, for 
the management of all affairs relative to Greece. This celebrated council, 
which was composed of the wisest and most virtuous men of some cities 
of Greece, consisted of twelve delegates, 1498 b. c. Other cities in process 
of time sent also some of their citizens to the council of the Amphictyons, 
and in the age of Antoninus Pius, they were increased to the number of thirty. 
— Stiidas. 

AMPHITHEATRES. They may be said to be the invention of Julius Caesar 
and Curio: the latter was the celebrated orator, who called the former in 
ftill senate " Ommum miUierum virum, et omnium virorum midiercm." In the 
Roman amphitheatres, which were vast round and oval buildings, the people 
assembled to s(?c the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhi- 
bitions; they were generally built of wood, but Statilius Taurus made one 
of stone, under Augustus CaB.sar. The amphitheatre of Vespasian was built 
A. D. 79; and is said to have been a regular fortress in 1312. The amphi- 
theatre of Verona was next in size, and then that of Nismes. 

AMSTERDAM. This noble city was the castle of Amstel in a. d. 1100 ; and its 
building, a.s a city wa<« commenced about 1203. Its famous exchange was 
built in 1634; and the stadthouse, one of the noblest palaces in the world, 
in 1618 ; this latter cost three millions of guilders, a prodigious sum at that 
tiral^ It is built upon 13 659 piles, and the magnificence of the structure is, 
for its size, both in external and internal grandeur, perhaps without a parallel 
in Europe. Amsterdam surrendered to flie king of Prussia, when that prince 
invaded Holland in favor of the stadtholder, in 1787. The French were 
admitted without resistance. Jan. 18, 1795. The ancient government was 
restored in November, 1813. See Holland. 

>MULETS, OR CHARMS. All nations have been fond of amulets. The 
Egyptians had a great variety ; so had the Jews, Chaldeans, and Persians. 
Among the Greeks, they were much nsed in exciting or conquering the 
)>assion of love. Tiiey were also in estimation among tbe Romans. — Plinv. 
Grid. Among the Christians of early ages amulets were made of the wood 
of the true about a. d. 328. ' They have been sanctioned by religion 
and astrology, and even in modern times by medical and other sciences — 
witness the anodyne necklace «&c. The pope and Catholic clergy make and 
sell amulet<i and charms even to this day. — Ashe. 

ANA BAPTISTS. This sect arose about a. d. 1525. and was known in England 
before 1519. John of Leyden, Muncer, Storck, and other German enthusi- 
asts, about the time of the reformation, spread its doctrines. The analuip- 
tists of Munster (who are. of course, properly distinguished from the existing 
mild sect of this name in England) tauo^lit that inftint baptism was a contriv- 
ance of the devil that there is no original sin that men have a free will ic 
spiritual things, and other doctrines still more wild and absurd. Mmistei 
Uiey called Mount Zion, and one Mathias a baker, was declared to be the 
king of Zion. Their enthusiasm led them to the maddest practices, and 

Digitized by 


avg] diction art of dates. 167 

they, at length, rose in arms under pretence of gospel liberty. Mnnster was 
taken about fifteen months afterwaivds, and they were all put to death. The 
* anabaptists of England ditFer from other Protestants in little more than the 
not baptizing children, as appears by a confession of faith, published by the 
representatives of above one hundred of their congregations, in 1689. 

ANACIIEONTIC VERSE. Commonly of the jovial or Bacchanalian strain, 
named after Anacreon, of Tcos, the Greek lyric poet, about 610 b. g. The 
odes of Anacreon are much prized ; their author lived in a constant round 
of di unkenness and debauchery, and was choked by a grape stone in his 
eightj-tifth year. — Stanley's Lives of the Poets. 

ANAGRAM, a transposition of the letters of a name or sentence ; as from Mary, 
the name of the Virgin, is made army. On the question put by Pilate to our 
Saviour. " Quid est Veritas ?" we have this admirable anagram, " Est vir qui 
adest." The French are said to have introduced the art as now practised, in 
the reign of Charles IX., about the year 15G0. — HbtuiuU. 

ANATHEMAS. The word had four significations among the Jews : the ana- 
thema, or curse, was the devoting some person or thing to destruction. We 
have a remarkable instance of it in the city of Jericho (sec Joshua vi. 17). 
Anathemas were used by the primitive churches, a. d. 887. !>uch ecclesias- 
tical den'inciations caused great terror in England up to the close of Eliza- 
beth's reign. — Rapin. Tlio church anathema, or curse, with excommunica- 
tion, and other severities of the Romish religion, are still practised in Catholic 
countries to this day. — Ashe. 

ANATOMY. The structure of the human body was made part of the philoso- 
phical investigations of Plato and Xenophon ; and it became a branch of 
medical art under Hippocrates, about 420 b. c. But Erasistratus and Hero- 
philus may be regarded as being the fathers of anatomy: they were the first 
to dissect the human form, as anatomical research had been confined to 
brutes only : it is mentioned that they practised upon the bodies of livine 
criminals, about 300 and 293 b. c. In England, the schools were supplied 
with subjects unlawfully exhumed from graves ; and, until lately, the bodies 
of executed criminals were ordered for dissection. The first anatomical 
plates were designed by Vesalius, about a. d. 1538. The discoveries of 
Harvey were made in 1616. The anatomy of plants was discovered in 1680. 
— fVeind's History of Physic, 

AjNCHORITES. Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion were the first anchorites. Many 
of the early anchorites lived in caves and deserts, and practised great aus- 
terities. S<jme were analogous to the fakcers, who impose voluntary pun- 
ishments upon themselves as atonement for their sins, and as being accept- 
able to God ; and their modes of torture were often extravagant and crimi- 
nal. The order first arose in the fourth century. 

ANCHORS KOR SHIPS, are of ancient use, and the invention belongs to the 
Tuscans —Pliny. The second tooth, or fluke, was added by Anacharsis, the 
Scythian. — Strabo. Anchors were first forced in England a. d. 678. The 
anchors of a first-rate ship of war (of which such a ship has four) will 
weigh 90 cwt. each, and each of them will cost je4o0. — Phillips. 

ANEMOMBITER, to measure the strength and velocity of the wind, was in- 
vented by Wolfius. in 1709. Tlie extreme velocity was found by Dr. Lind 
to be 98 miles per hour. See article Winds. 

ANGELIC KNIGHTS op ^. GEORGE. Instituted in Greece, a. d. 456. The 
Angdici were instituted by Angelus Comnenus, emperor of Constantinople, 
1191 The Aneclicof, an order of nuns, was founded at Milan by Louiu 
Torelli, a. d 16U. 

Digitized by 


168 THE world's progress. [aht 

ANGELS. Authors are divided as to the time of the creation of angels. Some 
will have it to have been at the same time with our world ; others, before 
all ages, that is, from eternity. This latter is Origen's opinion. — Cave% 
Hist. Literal. The Jews had ten orders of angels ; and the popes have re* 
cognized nine choirs and three hierarchies. 

ANGELS, IN COMMERCE. An angel was an ancient gold coin, we^hine 
four pennyweights, and was valued at 65. Sd. in the reign of Henry VL, ana 
at IO5. in the reign of Elizabeth, 1562. The angelot was an ancient gold 
coin, value half an angel, struck at Paris when that capital was in the hands 
of the English, in the reign of Henry VI., U^L—Wood, 

ANGLING. The origin of this art is involved in obscurity ; allusion is made 
to it by the Greeks and Romans, and in the most ancient books of the Bible, 
as Amos. It came into general repute in England about the period of the 
Reformation. Wynkin de Worde's Trcalyse of f^ysskinge, the first book 
printed on angling, appeared in 1496. Isaac Walton's book was printed in 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM. This deception was introduced oy father Hehl, at 
Vienna, about 1774 ; and had wonderful success in France, in 1788. It had 
its dupes in England also, in 1789 ; but it exploded a few years af^^erwards. 
It was a pretended mode of curing all manner of diseases by means of sympa- 
tketic affectwn between the sick person and the operator. The efl'ect on the 
patient was supposed to depend on certain motions of the Hngers and features 
of the operator, he placing himself immediately before the patient, whose 
cyea were to be fixed on his. After playing in this manner on the imagina- 
tion and enfeebled mind of the sick, and performing a number of distor- 
tions and grimaces, the cure was said to be completed. — Haydn. 

ANGLO-SAXONS, or ANGLES. The name of England is derived from a vil- 
lage near Sleswick, called Anglen, whose population joined the first Saxon 
freebooters. Egbert called his kingdom Anglcsland. Anglia B^t was a 
kingdom of the heptarchy, founded by the Angles, one of whose chiefs, 
Ufla, assumed the title of king, a. d. 676 ; the kingdom ceased in 792. — See 

ANNIHILATION. The doctrine of annihilation was unknown to the Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Latins : the ancient philosophers denied annihilation ; the first 
notions of which are said to have arisen fVom the Christian theology, — Dr, 

ANNO DOMINI ; in the year of our Lord ; used by the Christian world, and 
abbreviated a.d. This is the computation of time from the incarnation of 
our Saviour and is called the vulgar era ; first adopted in the year 625. See 
Jra. Charles III. of Germany was the first sovereign who added " in the 
,car of our Lord " to his reign, in 879. 
^ci I'ARCTIC. The south pole is so called, because it is opposite to the north 
or arctic pole. A continent of 1700 miles of coast from east to w^est and 
64 to 66 degrees south, was discovered in the Antarctic Ocean by French 
and American Exploring Expeditions, under D'Urville and Wilkes, respec- 
tively on the same day, Jan. 19, 1840; a coincidence the more singular, as 
the discoverers were at a distance from each other of 720 miles. It was 
coasted by captain Wilkes for 1700 miles. Mr. Briscow, of the British Navy, 
fell in with land, which he coasted for 300 miles in M. 67, long. 50, in the 
year 1830. X 

ANTEDILUVIANS. According to the tables of Mr. WhisNp, the number of 
people in the ancient world, or world as it existed previote to the Flood, 
reached to the enormous amount of 549,765 millions, in thenar of the world 
1482. Burnet has supposed that the first human pair might wvc left, at the 

Digitized by 



mnt'] dictionary of dates. 109 

end of the first century, ten married couples ; and from these, allowine 
them to multiply in the same decuple proportion as the first pair did, woula 
rise, in 1500 years, a greater number of persons than the earth was capable 
of holding. He therefore suggests a quadruple multiplication only ; and 
then exhibits the following table of increase during the first sixteen centu- 
ries that preceded the Flood: — 

I. . . 10 V. . . 2,560 IX. . . 666,360 XIU. . . 167,14S,iaO 

n. . . 40 VI. . . . 10,240 X. . 2,621,440 XIV. . 671,088,640 

m. . . 160 Vn. . . 40,960 XL . 10,486,760 XV. . 2,664,36Qa0 

IV. 640 Via . 163,840 XU. . 41,943,040 XVL . 10,737,418,213 

This calculation, although the most moderate made, exceeds, it mil be seen, 
by at least ten times, the present number of mankind, which, at the highest 
estimate, amounts to only a thousand millions. 

ANTHEMS, OR HYMNS. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, and St. Ambrose, were 
the first who composed them, about the middle of the fourth centur>-.— 
Ld^ngUt. They were introduced into the church service in 91&6.— Baker. 
Ignatius is said to have introduced them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose 
into the Western church. They were introduced into the reformed churches 
in queen Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI. Eaters of human fiesh have existed in all ages of the 
world. The Cyclops and Lestrygones are represented as man-eaters, by 
Homer; and the Essedonian Scythians were so, according to Herodotus. 
Diogenes asserted that we might as well eat the fiesh of men, as that of 
other animals ; and the practice still exists in Africa, and the South Sea 
Islands, &c. 

ANTIMONY. This mineral was very early known, and applied by the ancients 
to various purposes. It was used as paint to blacken both men's and wo- 
men's eyes, as appears from 2 Kin^s ix. 30, and Jeremiah iv. 80, and in 
eastern countries is thus used to this day. When mixed with lead, it makes 
types xbr printing ; and in physic its uses are so various that, according to 
its preparation, alone, or in company with one or two associates, it is sufil- 
cient to answer all a physician desires in an apothecary's shop. — Boyle. 
We are indebted to Basil Valentine for the earliest accoimt of various pro- 
cesses, about 1410. — Priestley. 

ANTINOMIANS, the name first applied by Luther to John Agricola, in 1538. 
The Antinomians trust in the gospel, and not in their deeds; and hold 
that crimes are not crimes when committed by them, that their own good 
works are of no effect ; that no man should be troubled in conscience for 
sin, and other equally absurd doctrines. 

AimOCH. built by Seleucus, after the battle of Ipsus, 801 b. c. In one 
day, 100,000 of its j)eople were slain by the Jews, 146 b. c. In this city, once 
the capital of Syria, the disciples of the Redeemer were first called Chris- 
tians. The Era of Antioch is much used by the early Christian writers 
attached to the churches of Antioch and Alexandria: it placed the creation 
5492 years b. c. 

ANTIPODES. PUito is said to be the first who thought it possible that anti- 
podes existed, about 368 b. c. Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of 
pope Zachary, is said to have denounced a bishop as a heretic for maintain- 
ing this doctrine, a. d. 741. The antipodes of England lie to the south-east 
of New Zealand; and near the spot is a small island, called Antipodes 
Island. — Brookes. 

ANTIQUARIES, and ANTIQUE. The term antique is applied to the produc- 
tions of the arts from the age of Alexander to the time of the irruption 
of the Goths into Italy, in a. d. 400. A college of antiquaries is said to have 
existed in Ireland 700 years b. c. ; but this has very little pretensions to 


Digitized by 


,170 THE world's progress. [afo 

credit. A soo'iGty was founded by archbishop Parker, Camden, Stowe, and 
others, in 1572. — Spelman. Application was made in 1689 to Elizabeth for 
a charter, bat her death ensued, and her successor, James I., was far from 
favoring the design. In 1717 this society was revived, and in 1751 it re- 
ceived its charter of incorporation from George II. It began to publish its 
discoveries, &c.. under the title of Archaohpa^ in 1770. The Society o< 
Antiquaries of Edinburgh was founded in 1780. 

ANTI-RENTISM. In Rensselaer and Delaware counties, State of New-Yort, 
an armed resistance of the tenants (chiefly those on the Van Rensselaer 
estates) to the demand for the payment of rents, commenced in 1846. 
See liiots. Gov. Young pardons eighteen anti-rent rioters, and releases them 
fVom prison, Jan. 27, 1847. 

ANTI-TRINITARIANS. Theodotus of Byzantiiun is supposed to have been 
the first who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus, at the close of the 
second century. This doctrine spread widely after the reformation, when it 
was adopted by La^lius and Faustus Socinus. Bayle. — See Ariaiu, Sociru^ 
ans, and Unitarians. 

ANTWERP. First mentioned in history in a. d. 517. Its fine exchange built 
in 1531. Taken after a long and memorable siege by the prince of Parma, 
in 1585. It was then the chief mart of Flemish commerce, but the ci\il wars 
caused by the tyranny of Philip II. drove the trade to Amsterdam. The 
remarkable crucifix of bronze, thirty-three feet high, in the principal street, 
was formed from the demolished statue of the cruel duke of Alva, which 
he had himself set up in the citadel. Antwerp was the seat of the civil war 
between the Belgians and the house of Orange. 1830-31. In the late revolu- 
tion, fhe Belgian troops having entered Antwerp, were opposed by the 
Dutch garrison, who, after a dreadful conflict, being driven into the citadel, 
cannonaded the town with red-hot balls and shells, doing immense mischief, 
Oct. 27, 1830. Greneral Chass^ surrendered the citadel to the French after 
a destnictive bombardment, Nov. 24, 1832. See Belglvm. 

APOCALYPSE, thejlevelation of St. John, written in the Isle of P^tmos, about 
A. D. 95. — Irernsus. Some ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the heretic, 
and others to John, the presbyter, of Ephesus. In the first centuries many 
churches disowned it, and in the fourth century it was excluded from the 
sacred canon by the council of Laodicea, but was a^ain received by other 
councils, and confirmed by that of Trent, held 154o, el seq. Rejected by 
Luther, Michaelis, and others, and its authority questioned in all ages from 
the time of Justin Martvr, who wrote his first Apology fbr the Christians in 
A. D. 139. 

APOCRYPHA. In the preftice to the Apocrypha it is said, "These books are 
neyther found in the Hebrue nor in the Chalde."— JSiAfc, 1539. The history 
of the Apocrypha ends 135 b. c. The books were not in the Jewish canon, 
but they were received as canonical by the Catholic church, and so adjudged 
by the council of Trent, held in 1545, et seq. — Aske. 

APOLLINARIANS, the followers of ApoUinarius, bishop of Laodicea, who 
taught that the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him ; that liis 
flesh was pre-existent to his appearance upon earth, and that it was sent 
down from heaven, and conveyed through the Virgin, as through a channel; 
that there were two sons, one bom of God, the other of the Virs:in, &c. 
ApoUinarius was deposed for his opinions in a. d. 378. 

AIOLLO, Tkmplks op. Apollo, the god of all the tine arts, of medicine, music, 
poetry, and eloquence, had temples and statues erected to him in almost 
every country, particularly Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His most splendid 
temple was at Delphi, built 1263 b. c.^See DdpkL His temple at Daphn», 

Digitized by 



built 484 B. c, daring a period in which pestilence raged, was burn^ in a. d. 
862, and the Christians accused of the crime.— Ltnglet. 
APOSTfLE'S CREED. The summary of belief of the Christian faith, called the 
Apostle's Creed, is generally believed to have been composed a ereat while 
after their time. — Pardon. The repeating of this creed in public worship 
was ordained in the Greek church at Antioch, and was instituted in tb-* 
Roman church in the eleventh century ; whence it passed to the church cf 
England at the period of the reformation, in 1534. 
APOSTOLICI. The first sect of Apostolici arose in the third century; th« 
second sect was founded by Sagarelli, who was burned alive at Paniia, a. d, 
300. They wandered about, clothed in white, with long beards, dishevelled 
hair, and bare heads, accompanied by women whom they called their spirit- 
ual sisters, preaching against the growing corruption of the churck of 
Rome, and predicting its downfall. 

APOTHEOSIS. A ceremony of the ancient nations of the world, oy which they 
raised their kings and heroes to the rank of deities. The nations of the 
East were the first who paid divine honors to their great men, and the 
Romans followed their example, and not only deified the most prudent and 
humane of their emperors, but also the most cruel and profligate. — Hcrodian'. 
ITiis honor of deifying the deceased emperor was begun at Rome by Augus- 
tus, in favor of Julius Csesar, b. c. 13. — TiU4ifnont. 

APPEAL OP MURDER. By the late law of England, a man in an appeal of 
murder might fight with the appellant, thereby to make proof of his guilt 
or innocence. In 1817, a young maid, Mary Ashford, was believed to have 
been violated and murdered by Abraham Thornton, who, in appeal, claimed 
his right to his wager of battle, which the court allowed; but the appellant 
(the brother of the maid) refused the challenge, and the criminal escaped, 
April 16, 1818. This law was immediately aft^^rwards stnick from off the 
statute book, 69 George III., 1819. 

APPRAISERS. The rating and valuation of goods for another was an early 
business in England ; and so early as 11 Edward I. it was a law, that if they 
valued the goods of the parties too high, the appraiser should take them at 
the price appraised. 1282. 

APRIL. The fourth month of the year according to the vulgar computation, 
but the second according to the ancient Romans. Numa Pompilius having 
introduced Janiiarius and f^bruarius before it 713 b. c. — Peacham. 

AQUARIANS. A sect in the primitive church, said to have been founded by 
Tatian in the second century, and who forbore the use of wine even in the 
sacrament, and used nothing but water. 

AQUEDUCTS. Appius Claudius advised and constructed the first aqueduct, 
which was therefore called the Appian-itay, about 453 b. c. Aqueducts of 
every kind were among the wonders of Rome. — Livy. There are now some 
remarkable aqueducts in Europe: that at Lisbon is of great extent and 
beauty ; that at Segovia has 129 arches ; and that at Versailles is three miles 
long and of immense height, with 242 arches in three stories. The stupen- 
dous aqueduct on the Ellesmere canal, in England, is 1007 feet in length, and 
120 feet high ; it was opened Dec. 26, 1805. 

AQUITAINE, formerly belonged (together with Normandy) to the kings of 
Enghind. as descendants of William the Conqueror. It was erected into a 
principality in 1362. and was annexed to France in 1370. Tlie title of duke 
of Aquitaine was taken by the crown of England on the conquest of this 
duchy by Henry V. in 1418 ; but was lost in the reign of Henry VI. 

ARABIA. This country is said never to have been conciuered ; the Arabians 
made no figure in history till a. d. 622, when, under the new name of Sara- 

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172 THE world's progress. [ 

ceiw. they followed Mahomet (a native of Arabia) as their general and pro- 
j)liet, and made considerable conquests. — Prifsilnj. 
ARBRLA, Bati^^b or. The third and decisive battle between Alexander the 
Great and Darius Codomanus, which decided the fate of Persia, 831 b. t;. 
The army of Darhis consisted of 1 000 000 of foot and 40 000 horse ; the 
Macedonian armv amounted to only 40.000 foot and 7,000 horse. — Arrian. 
The gold and silver found in the cities of Susa, Persepolis, and Babylon, 
which fell to Alexander from this victory, amounted to thirty millions ster- 
ling ; and the jewels and other precious spoil, belonging to Darius, sufficed 
to Toad 20,000 mules and 5,000 camels.— PiittercA. 
ARCADIA. The people of this country were very ancient, and reckoned them* 
selves of longer standing than the moon ; they were more rude in theif 
manners than any of the Greeks, from whom they were shut up in a valley, 
surrounded with mountains. Pelasgus taught them to feed on acorns, as 
being more nutricious than herbs, their former food ; and for this discovery 
they honored him as a eod. 1521 b. c. Arcadia had twenty-five kings, whose 
history is altogether fabulous. The Arcadians were fond of military glory, 
although shepherds ; and frequently hired themselves to fight the batUes of 
other states. — Eustathius. A colony of ArcAdians was conducted by CEno- 
trus into Italy, 1710 b.c, and the country in which it settled was afterwards 
called Magna Gracia. A colony under Evander emigrated 1244 b. c. — Idem. 
ARCHBISHOP. This diffnity was known in the East about a. d. 820. Atha- 
nasius conferred it on nis successor. In these realms the dignity is nearly 
coeval with the establishment of Christianity. Before the Saxons came into 
England there were three sees, London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk ; but 
soon after the arrival of St. Austin, he settled the metropolitan see at Can- 
terbury, A. D. 596. 
ARCHDEACONS. There are sixty church officers of this rank in England, 
and thirty-four in Ireland. Tlie name was given to the first or eldest dea- 
con, who attended on the bishop, without any power ; but since the council 
of Nice, his function is become a dignity, and set above that of priest, 
though anciently it was quite otherwise. The appointment is referred to 
A. D. 1075. The archdeacon's court is the lowest in ecclesiastical polity: an 
appeal lies from it to the consistorial court, stat. 24 Henry VIII. 1532. 
ARCHERY. It originated, according to the fanciful opinion of the poet Clau- 
dirtn. from the porcupine being observed to cast its quills whenever it was 
offended. Plato ascribes the invention to Apollo, by whom it was commu- 
nicated to the Cretans. The eastern nations were expert in archery in the 
earliest ages, and the precision of the ancient archer is scarcely exceeded 
by our skill in modern arms. Aster of Araphipolis, upon being slighted by 
Philip, king of Macedonia, aimed an arrow at him. The arrow, on which 
was written " Aimed at Philip's right eye," struck it, and put it out ; and 
PhiHp threw back the arrow with these* words: " If Philip take the town, 
Aster shall be hanged." The conqueror kept his word. 
ARCHERY IS England. It was introduced previously to a. d. 440, and Ha 
rold and his two brothers were killed by arrows shot from the cross-bow* 
of the Norman soldiers at the battle of Hastings, in 10C6 ; that which killed 
the king pierced him in the brain. Richard I. revived archery in England 
in 1190. and was himself killed by an arrow in 1199. The victories of Crecy, 
Poitiers, and Agincourt. were won chiefly by archers. The usual range of 
the h)ng-bow was from 300 to 400 yards. Robin Hood and Little John, il 
is said, shot twice that distance. Four thousand archers surrounded the 
houses of Parliament, ready to shoot the king find the members. 21 Rich- 
ard II. 1397. — Slvioe. The citizens of London were formed into companiei 
of archers in the reign of E<lward III. : they were formed into a corporate 

Digitized by 



body by the style of " The.Fraternity of St. George," 29 Heniy YllL. 1538. 
— Narlkouk's History of Lorulon. 

ARCHES, Triumphal, are traced to the era of the Macedonian conquest by the 
best writers. The triumphal arches of the Romans form a leading feature 
in their architecture. Those of Trajan (erected a. d. 114) and Constantino 
were magnificent. 

ARCHTIT.CTURE was cultivated by the Tynans, about 1100 b. c. Their 
King, Hiram, supplied Solomon with cedar, gold, silver, and other materials 
for the Temple, m the building of which he assisted, 1016 b. c. The art 
]>assed to Greece, and from Greece to Rome. The style called Gothic came 
into vogue in the ninth century. The Saracens of Spain, being engaged 
during jMjacc to build mosques, introduced grotesque carvings, ^., and the 
ponderous sublimity of bad taste ; which species is known by elliptic arches 
and buttresses. The circular arch distinguishes the Norman-Gothic from 
the Saracenic, and came in with Henry I. The true Grecian style did not 
fully revive till about the reign of James I. 1603. 

ARCHONS. When royalty was abolished at Athens, the executive govern- 
luent was vested in elective magistrates called archons, whose office con- 
tinues for life. Medon, eldest son of Codrus, is the first who obtained this 
dignity, 1070 b. c. 

ARCOLA, Battle op; between the French under general Buonaparte, and the 
Au.strians under field-marshal Alvinzy, fought Nov. 19, 1796. The result of 
this bloody conflict, which was fought for eight successive days, was the 
loss on the part of the Austrians of 12,000 men, in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners, four fligs, and eighteen guns. 

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. Several have been undertaken by England, and 
some by Russia and other countries. Sir Martin Frobisher was the first 
Englishman who attempted to find a north-west passage to China, a. d. 1576. 
Davis's expedition to the Arctic regions was undertaken in 1585. After a 
number of similar adventurous voyages, Baffin, an Englishman, attempted 
to find a north-west passage, in 1616. See Baffin^ s. Bay. For the subsequent 
and late expeditions of this kind, including among the latter those of Buchan, 
Franklin, Ross, Parry, Liddon, Lyon, Back, &c., see NorlK- West Passage. 

AKEOPAGXTJE. A famous council said to have heard causes in the dark, be- 
cause the judges were blind to all but facts, instituted at Athens, 1507 b. c. 
— Arund. Marbles. The name is derived from the Greek Areos pagos, the 
mu f»f Mars, because Mars was the first who was tried there for the mur- 
der of Hallirhotius, who had violated his daughter Alcippa. Whatever 
causes were pleaded before them, were to be divested of all oratory and fine 
speaking, lest eloquence should charm their ears, and corrupt their judg- 
ment. Hence arose the most just and impartial decisions. 

ARGENT ARIA, Battle or. One of the most renowned in its times, fought in 
Alsace, between the Allenianni and the Romans, the former being defeated 
by the latter with the loss of more than 36,000 out of 40,000 men, a. d. 878, 
— Dufresnoy. 

ARGON AimC EXPEDITION, undertaken by Jason to avenge the death of 
Phryxus, and recover his treasures seized by the king of Colchis. The ship 
in which Phryxus had sailed to Colchis having l^en adorned with the 
figure of a ram, it induced the poets to pretend that the journey of Jason 
was for the recovery of the golden fleece. This is the first naval expedition 
on record ; it made a great noise in Greece, and many kings and the first 
heroes of the age accompanied Jason, whose ship was called Argo^ from its 
builder, 1263 b. c. — Dufrcsnoy. 

ARGOS. Tliis kingdom was founded by Inachus, 1866 b. c, or 1080 years be- 

• Digitized by 


174 THE world's progress. [ar« 

fore the first Olymplad.-^Blair, The nine kings fVom the founder were 
called ItiachiiuF.. of whom the fourth was Argus, and he gave his name to 
the country. When the Heraclidae took possession of Peloponnesus, b. c. 
1102, Tcmcnus seized Argos and its dependencies. Argos was afterwards a 
republic, and distinguished itself in all the wars of Greece. — Euripides. 

Inachua founds the kingdom . b. c. 1^^ 
Phoroneus rei^s sixty years . Iflli^ 
Apis reign? ihirty-five years . . 1747 

Hypcrmnesira, who saved her hus- 
band, while her forty-nine sisters sa- 
crificed theirs. (See F/om&eoux) B.C. 1125 
Lynceus, son of Egypius, whose Jife 
had been prescrveil by his wife, de* 
throne* Danaus .... I42S 
Rei^nofAbas 13&1 

Reign of Proeius, twin-brother of Acri- 

sius 1361 

Bellerophon comes to Argos ; the pas- 
sion lor him of Sthenobcea . 1361 
Rebellion of Acrisius .... 1314 
Perseus leaves Argos, and founds My- 
cenae itchick see.) .... 1313 

The city of Argos built by Argus, son 
ofNinbe 1711 

Criosus, son of Argus, succeeds his 
father, and reigns .... 1641 

Reign of Triopas; Polycaon seizes 
part of the kingdom, and calls it af- 
ter his wife, Messenia . . in^S 

Reign of Croiopus .... lOOG 

SiheneluB reigns .... 14>v3 

Gelanor is deposed by Danaus . . 1474 

Feast of the Flambeaux, in honor of 

Argos, in modern history, was taken from the Venetians, a. d. 1686. It was 
lost to the Turks in 1716, since when it continued in their hands until 1826. 
Arffos became united in the sovereignty of Greece under Otho, the present 
ana first king, January 26, 1833. See Greece. 

ARIANS. The followers of Arius, a numerous sect of Christians, who deny iLe 
divinity of Christ: they arose about a. d. 315. The Arians were condemned 
by the council of Nice, in 325 ; but their doctrine became for a time the 
reigning religion in the East. It was favored by Constantine, 319. Carried 
into Aft-ica under the Vandals, in the fifth century, and into Asia under the 
Goths. Servctus published his treatise against the Trinity, 1631, and hence 
arose the modern system of Arianism in Geneva. Arius died in 836. Senre- 
tus was burnt, 1553. — VariUas, Hist de I 'Heresie. 

ARITHMETIC. Where first invented is not known, at least with certainty. 
It was brought from Egypt into Greece by Thales. about 600 b. o. The 
oldest treatise upon arithmetic is by Euclid (7th. 8th, and 9th books of bis 
Elements), about 800 b. c. The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was used 
A. D. 130. Diophantus of Alexandria was the author of thirteen books of 
Arithmetical questions (of which six are extant^ in 166. Notation by nine 
digits and zero, known at least as early as the sixth century in Hindostan — 
introduced from thence into Arabia, about 900— into Spain, 1050— into Eng- 
land, 1253. The date in Caxton's Mirrour vf Ike Worlds Arabic characters, 
is 1480. Arithmetic of decimals invented, 1482. First work printed in 
England on arithmetic {de Arte SupjnUandi) was by Tonstall, bishop of Dur- 
ham, 1522. The theory of decimal fractions was perfected by lord Napier 
in his Rabdologia, in 1617. 

ARK. Mount Ararat is venerated by the Armenians, from a belief of its being 
the place on which Noah's ark rested after the universal Deluge, 2347 b. c. 
But Apamea, in Phrygia, claims to be the spot; and medals have been struck 
there with a chest on the waters, and the letters NOE. and two doves: this 
place is 300 miles west of Ararat. The ark was 300 cubits in length, fifty in 
breadth, and thirty high ; but most interpreters suppose this cubit to be about 
a foot and a half, and not the geometrical one of six. There were, we ai*e told, 
three floors — the first for beasts, the second for provisions, and the tliinl for 
birds, and Noah's family. It was not made /ike a ship, but came near the 
figure of a square, growing gradually narrower to the top. There was a 
door in the first floor, and a great window in the third. 

ARKANSAS, one of the United States, was a part of the Louibiaua pnrcha.«M3. 
It was made a separate territory in 1819. and was admitted into the Union 
in 1886. Population in 1830, 80,388 ; in 1840, 97,574. including 19,936 slaves. 

Digitized by 


aam] dictionary op dates. 17.'^ 

ARMADA. The Invincible. The famous Spanish annament so called con- 
sisted of 150 ships, 2650 great euns, 20,000 soldiers, 8000 sailors, and 200C 
volunteers, under the duke of Sledina Sidonia. It arrived in the Channel, 
July 19, 1588, and was defeated the next day by Drake and Howanl. Ten 
fire-ships having been pent into the enemies' fleet, they cut their cables, put 
to sea. and cndeavDrcil to return to their rendezvous between Calais and 
Gravelines : the English fell upon them, took many ships, and admiral 
Howard maintained a running fi^ht from the 21st July to the 27th, obliging 
the shattered fleet to bear away tor Scotland and Ireland, where a storm dis- 
perscd them, and the remainder of the armament returned by the North 
Sea to Spain. The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships in the engafemeut, 
and 5,000 men ; seventeen ships were lost or taken on the coast of Ireland, 
and upwards of 6000 men were drowned, killed, or taken prisoners. The 
English lost but one ship. — Rapin, Carte^ Hume. 

IRMAGH, Sre op, the first ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, was founded by 
St Patrick, its first bishop, in 444. 

ARMED NEUTRALITY". The confederacy, so called, of the northern powers, 
against England, was commenced by the empress of Russia in 1780 ; but 
its objects were defeated in 1781. The pretension was renewed, aiid a treaty 
ratified in order to cause their fia^s to be respected by the belligerent pow- 
ers, December 16, 1800. The principle that neutral flags protect neutral 
bottoms being contrary to the maritime system of England, the British 
cabinet remonstrated, and Nelson and Parker destroyed the fleet of Den- 
mark before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. That power, in consequence, was 
obliged to secede from the alliance, and acknowledge the claim of England to 
the empire of the sea; and the Armed Neutrality was soon after dissolved. 

ARMENIA. Here Noah and his people resided when they left the ark, 2347 
B.C. After being subject successively to the three great monarchies, Ar- 
menia fell to the kings of Syria. The Armenians were the original wor 
shippers of fire : they also paid great veneration to Venus Anailis, to whose 
priests even the highest classes of the people prostituted their daughters, 
prior to marriage. — MartirCs Mittioires sur L'Armenie. 

City of Aitaxarta buill . . b. c. 186 | Artaxias is deposed . . b. c. 30 

Tigranes the Great reigns . . 93 i He is restored to his throne, and dies.— 

He is called to the throne of Syria^ as- i Blair . . . .1 

sumes the fastidious title of ^* King of I Reign of Venones . . a. d. 16 

Kings," and is served by tributary ' Zenon reigns . . . .18 

princes . . . .83 Tigranes IV. reigns ... 36 

Tigranes defeated bv Lucullus 69 He is cited to Rome, and dep>osed . 37 

Again defeated, and lays his crown at Tiridates dethroned, and Roman power 

the feet of Pompey . . 66 , paramount in Armenia . . 62 

His son, ArtavaBdesi reigns . . 64 I Armenia reduced to a Persian province 

Artavasdes assists Pompey against Ju- I under Sapor . . . 365 

lius Cssar . . .48 Subdued b^ the Saracens . . G87 

Artavasdes assists the Parthians against | Irruption of the Turks . 755 

Marc Antony . 36 i Agam made a Persian provhice, under 

Antony subdues, and sends him loaded | Vffhn Casmnes . . 1472 

with silver chains to Egypt, to grace ' Subdued by Selim II. . . 1.722 

his triumph . .34 Overnm by the Russiians . . 1S:'8 

The Armenian soldiers crown his son, Surrender of Erzeroum July 1S2S 

ArtaxiaB .... 33 (See Syria.) 

ARMENIAN ERA commenced on the 9th of July, a. d. 552 : the Ecclesiastical 
year on the 11th August. To reduce this last to our time, add 561 years 
and 221 days ; and in leap years subtract one day from March 1 to August 
10. The Armenians use the old Julian style and months in their coiTe- 
spondcncc with Europeans. 

ARMILLARY SPHERE. Commonly made of brass, and disposed in such a 
manner that the greater and lesser circles of the sphere are seen in their 

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17Q THE world's progress. [ AKM 

natural position and motion, the whole being comprised in a frame It li 
said to have been invented by Eratosthenes, about 255 b. c. 
ARMINIANS rthe) chiefly contend for the doctrine of universal redemption, 
and generally espouse the principles of the Church of England : especially 
asserting the subordination of the Christian church to Uie civil poweis. 
They also contend for the effuMcy of good works, as well as their necessity, in 
securing man's salvation. James I. and Charles I. favored the doctrines ol 
the Arminians ; and the principles of the sect prevail generally in Holland 
and elsewhere, though condemned at the synod of Dort (see Dort) in 1618. 
Arminius, who was a divinity professor at Leyden, died in \(X^.— Brandt. 
ARMORIAL BEARINGS became hereditary in families at the close of the 
twelfth century. They took their rise from the knights painting their ban- 
ners with different figures, and were introduced by the Crusaders, in order 
at flrst to distinguish noblemen in battle a. d. 1100. The lines to denote 
colors in arms, by their direction or intersection, were invented by Colum- 
biere in 1639. Armorial bearings were taxed in 1798— and again in 1808. 
ARMOR. The warlike Europeans at first despised any other defence 'ban 
the shield. Skins and padded hides were first used ; and brass and iron 
armor, in plates or scales, followed. The first bddy-armor of the Britons 
was skins of wild beasts, exchanged, after the Roman conquest, for the 
well-tanned leathern cuirass. — TacUus. This latter continued till the Anglo- 
Saxon era. Hengist is said to have had scale armor, a. d. 449. The heavy 
cavalry were covered with a coat of mail, Henry III. 1216. Some horsemen 
had visors, and skull caps, same reign. Armor became exceedingly splendid 
about 1350. The armor of plate commenced, 1407. Black armor, used, 
not only for battle, but for mourning, Henry V. 1413. The armor of Henry 
VII. consisted of a cuirass of steel, in the form of a pair of stays, about 1500. 
Armor ceased to reach below the knees, Charles 1. 1625. In the reign of 
Charles II. officers wore no other armor than a large gorget, which is commem- 
orated in the diminutive ornament known at the pi-escnt day. — Meyrick. 
ARMS. The club was the first offensive weapon; then followed the mace, 
battle-axe, pike, spear, javelin, sword, and dagger. Among ancient missiles 
were bows and arrows. Pliny ascribes the mvention of the sling to the 
Phoenicians. See the various weapons through the volume. 
ARMY. Ninus and SemiramiH had armies amounting to nearly two millions of 
fighting men, 2017, b. c. The first guards and regular troops as a standing 
army were formed by Saul. 1093 b. c.—Eusebius. One of the first standing 
armies of which we have any account, is that of Philip of Macedon. The 
first standmg army, existing as such, in modern times, was maintained in 
France by Charles VII. in 1445. Standing armies were introduced by 
Charles I. in 1638; they were declared illegal in England, 81 Charles 11. 
1679. The chief European nations have had in their service the following 
armies: Spain 150,000 men ; Great Britain, 310,000 ; Prussia, 350.000; Tur- 
key. 450 000; Austria, 600,000; Russia, 660,000; and France. 680,000. 
ARMY, BRITISH. Statement of the effective military strength of the United King- 
dom at the decennial periods respectively mentioned, and of the sum.s vot^ 
for military expenditure, drawn from parliamentary returcs and other official 
records : 

1700, Time of war ; troops of the line . . amount 110,000 men . . sum roted £7JS^fiOO 

18jO,War ditto 168,000 men., ditto 17,973,000 

iSlO, War; army, including foreign troops ditto 300,000 men . . ditto 26.748,000 
1815, Last year of the war . . ditto 300,000 men., ditto 39^150,000 
1^ Time of peace; war incumbrances . ditto 89,1 00 men., ditto 1&'2S3,(X)0 
1830, Peace ditto 89,300 men . . ditto 6,991,000 

In 1845, the army, of all ranks, numbered 100,011 men; and the sum voted 
was ije4,487,768> See Militia and Volunteers. 

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ARTILLERY. The first piece was a small one, contrived by Schwartz, a Ger- 
man cordelier, soon after the invention of gunpowder, in 1330. Artillery 
was nsed, it is said, by the Moors at Algesiras, in Spain, in the siege of 
1341 ; it was used, according to our historians, at the battle of Ci-essy, in 
1346, when Edward III. had four pieces of cannon, which gained him the 
battle. We had artillery at the siege of Calais, 1347. The Vcnitians first 
employed artillery against the Genoese at sea, 1877. — Voltaire. Cast in 
England, together with mortars for bomb-shells, by Flemish artists in Sussex, 
1543. — Rijmer's F(Bdtra. Made of brass, 1636; improvements by Browne, 
1728. See Irtm, 

ARTS. See Litrraiure. In the eighth century, the whole circle of sciences was 
composed of these seven liberal arts, namely — grammar, rhetoric, logic, 
arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. — Harris. The Royal Society 
of England (which see) obtained its charter April 2, 1663. ITie Society of 
Arts to promote the polite arts, commerce, manufactures, and mechanics, 
was instituted in 1754 ; it originated in the patriotic zeal of Mr. Shipley, and 
of its first president, lord Folkstone. The first public exhibition by the 
artists of the British metropolis took place in 1760, at the rooms of this 
society, and was re})eated there for several years, till, in process of timt. the 
Royal Academy was founded. See lioi/al Academy. The Society ol British Art- 
ists was instituted May 21, 1823 ; and their first exhibition was opened April 
19,1824. — See Briiisk Museum ; British Institution; National GaUcry, <^c. 

ARUKDELIAN MARBLES; containing the chronology of ancient history from 
1682 to 356 B. c, and said to have been sculptured 264 b. c. They consist of 
37 statues. 128 busts, and 250 inscriptions, and wore found in the Isle of 
Paros. in the reign of James I., about 1610. They were purchased by lord 
Arundel, and given to the university of Oxford, i627. 'Jlie characters are 
Greek, of which there are two translations: by Selrtcn, 1G28; by Prideaux^ 
1676.— See Kidd's Tracts; and Parson's Treatise, 1789. 

ASCALON. Battle or ; in which Richard I. of England, commanding the Chris- 
tian forcrs. defeated the sultan Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and other 
infidels. No less than 40 000 of the enemy were left dead on the field of 
battle ; and the victorious Richard marched to Jerusalem, a, d. W^l.—Rijmcr. 

ASH- WEDNESDAY. The primitive Chiistians did not commence their Lont 
until the Sunday, now called the first in Lent. Pope Felix III., in a. d. 487, 
first added the four days preceding the old Lent Sunday, to complete the 
nnmbcr of fasting days to forty ; Gregory the Great introduced the S])riiik- 
ling of ashes on the first of the four additional days, and hence the name of 
Dies Cinerum, or Ash- Wednesday : at the Reformation this practice was 
abolisbed, "as being a mere shadow, or vain show." 

ASIA ; so called by the Greeks, from the nymph Asia, the daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, and wife of Japhet. Asia was the first quarter of the world 
peopled ; here the law of God was first promulgated ; here many of the 
greatest monarchies of the earth had their rise ; and from hence most of 
the arts and sciences have been derived. — Pardon. 

ASP ERNE, Battle op, between the Austrian army under the archduke Cltarlcs, 
and the French, fought on the 21st May, 1809. and two following days. In 
this most sanguinary fight, the loss of the former army exceeded 20,000 
men, and the loss of the French was more than 30 000 : it ended in the defoat 
of Bonaparte, who commanded in person, and was the severest check that he 
had yet received. The bridge of the Danube was destroyed, and his retreat 
endangered : but the success of the Austrians had no beneficial eftect on 
the subsequent prosecution of the war. 

ASSASSINATION PLOT. A conspiracy so called, formed by the earl of Ayles- 
bury and others to assassinate king William III., near Richmond. Surrey, as 

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178 THE world's progress. [ ASS 

he came from hunting. The object of the conspiracy was to have been con- 
summated February 15, 16%-6, but for its timely discovery by Prcndergast. 
— Hist. E?ij!la)ifi. 

ILSSASSINS. A tribe in Syria, a famous heretical sect among the Mahometans, 
settled in Persia, in a. d. 1090. In Syria, they possessed a large tract of land 
among the mountains of Lebanon. They murdered the marquis of Mont- 
ferrat in 1192 ; they assassinated Lewis of Bavaria in 1213 ; the kliau of 
Tartary was murdered in 1254. They were conquered by the Tartars in 
1257 ; and were extirpated in 1272. The chief of the corps assumed the 
title of -'AnciefU of the Mauntainsy 

ASSIENTO. A contract between the king of Spain and other powers, for fur- 
nishing the Spanish dominions in America with negro slaves. — Burke. It 
began in 1689, and was vested in the South Sea Company in 1713. By the 
treaty of Utrecht it was transferred to the English, who were to furnish 
4800 negroes annually to Spanish America. This contract was given up to 
Spain at the peace in 1748. See Guinea. 

ASSIGNATS. Paper currency, to support the credit of the republic during the 
revolution, ordered by the National Assembly of France, April, 1790. At 
one period the enormous amount of eight milliards, or nearly 350 millions 
of pounds sterling of this paper were in circulation in France and its depen- 
dencies. — Alison. 

ASSUMPTION. A festival observed by the church of Rome in honor of the 
Virgin Mary, who, as the Catholics believe, was taken up to heaven in her 
corporeal form, body and spirit, on August 15, a. d. 45. Mary is reported to 
have been in her 75 th year. The festival is said to have been instituted 
in 813. 

ASSURANCE. See Insurance. The practice is of great antiquity. Suetonius 
ascribes the contrivance to Claudius Ca?sar, a. d. 43. It is certain that assu- 
rance of ships was practised in the year 45. The first regulations concern- 
ing it are in the Lex OUron, by which it ap])cars to have been known in 
Europe very generally in 1194. The custom of Lombard-street was made a 
precedent for all policies at Antwerp, and in the Low Countries ; but the 
first statute to prevent frauds from private assurers was made 43 Elizabeth, 
1601. — Molin^atix's Lex Mercatoria. 

ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. This is the earliest recorded empire— that of Bacchua 
wanting records. It commenced under Ninus, who was the Jupiter of the 
Assyrians, and the Hercules of the Chaldeans, 2069 b. c. It arose out of the 
union of two powerful kingdoms, Babylon and Assyria, or Nineveh, the latter 
founded by Ashur, and ending with Sardanapalus, 820 b. c. When this last- 
named prince was conquered by Arbaces, he shut himself up in his palace, 
with his concubines and eunuchs, and causing it to be set on fire, they all 
perished in the fiames. On the ruins of the empire were formed the Assy- 
rians of Babylon, Nineveh, and the Median kingdom. — Lcnglel. 

The lower of Babel built.— Cren««i« x. Babylon and makes it the mat of her 

6 ; xi. I.— Blair - - b. c. 2247 dominion.— Len^/c/ - b. c. *2I)17 

The kinsdom of Babylon begins • 2245 Semiramis invades Libya, Ethiopia, 
Astronomical observations begun by and \mlia.—Leneltt • . . 1973 

the Chaldeans • • • 223>1 , The Arabs seize Nineveh - • ■ 1937 

Belus reigns 55 yetiTn.^Usher • 2l'2i I Belochus, the lost king of the race of 
Ninus, son of Bolus, reigns m Assyria, Ninus.— B/tfir - - - .1446 

and names hiii capital aAer him.<!elf • 2060 He makes his dau^ghter, Artoesa, sur* 
Babvlon taken by Ninus, who, having named Semiramis II., his associate 

subdued the AnnenianK), Pcn-ians, ' on the throne • • - . 1433 

Bactrians, and all Asia Minor, estab- | Belaiores reigns .... 142I 

lishcs what is properly the ARsyrian | • • • • • 

monarchy, of which Nineveh wa.sihe The prophet Jonah appeaiB in thd 

seat of empire.— fi/atr . 2059 : strceia of Nineveh— i5te«r . - 840 

Semiramis enlarges and embellishes ' Nineveh uikcn by ArbacM • -890 

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THE world's PROURESS. 


ASSYRIA, Propkr. After the destruction of the first Assyrian monarchy, Phul, 
the last king's son, was raised to the throne by the Ninevites, 777 b. c, and 
the kingdom continued until 621 b. c, when Sarac, or Sardanapalus II., being 
besieged by the Medes and Babylonians, put his wife and children to death, 
and burnt himself in his palace, a fate somewhat similar to that of Sarda- 
napalus I. iSSee preceding article. Nineveh was then razed to the ground, 
and the conquerors divided Assyria. — Blair, It was finally conquered by 
the Turks in 1637 a. d. — Priestley. 

Phul raised to the throne, about the 
jear.— B/oir - b. o. 777 

lie invades Israel, but departs without 
drawing a sword.— J3/air; 2 King* 
XV. \%'JQ • - . 770 

TielaUi-Piieser invades Syria, takes 
Damascus, and makes great con- 
quests .... 740 

Sbalmanezer takes Samaria, transports 

the people, whom he replaces by 
colony of Cutheans and oiher8,ar 


thus linishes the kingdom of Israel. 

-Blair 721 

He retires from before Tyre, after a 
siege o( five years.— Btoir - • 713 

Sennacherib invades Judea, and his ge- 
neral, Rabshakeh, besieges Jerusa- 
lem, when the angel ol the Loi-d in cue 
night destroys lbU,000 of his army,— 
/saioA xxxvii. • b. o. 71(1 

[Commentators suppose that this mes- 
senger of death was the fatal blast 
known in eastern couniries by the 
name o{ Samiel.] 
Esar-haddon invades Judea, and takes 

Babylon.— fi/a/r - • -690 

He invades Judea —Blair - • - 677 

Holofernes is slain by Judith - 677 

Saoeduchinus reigns.— t/fiAcr • -667 
Nineveh taken, and razed to the ground 621 

A&TROLOGY. Judicial astrology was invented by the Chaldeans, and hence 
was transmitted to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in 
vogue in France in the time of Catherine de Medicis, 1533. — fferiauU. The 
early history of astrology in England is very little known : Bede was addicted 
to it, 700; and so was Roger Bacon, 1260. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, calculated 
the nativity of Elizabeth ; and she, and all the European princes, were the 
humble servants of Dee, the astrologer and conjurer. But the period of the 
Stuarts was the acme of astrology in England. — ^Sir Walter Scott has made 
ample use of sir William Lilly, the noted astrologer, in his tales of this 
period ; and it is certain that Lilly was consulted by Charles I. respecting 
his projected escape from Carisbrook castle in 1647. — Ferguson. 

> miONOMY. The earliest accounts we have of this science are those of 
Babylon, about 2234 b. c. — Blair. The study of astronomy was much ad- 
vanced in Chaldaea under Nabonassur; it was known to the Chinese about 
1100 B. c. ; some say many centuries before. Lunar eclipses were observed 
at Babylon with exceeding accuracy, 720 b. c. Spherical form of the earth, 
and the true cause of lunar eclipses, taught by Tkales, 640 b.c. Further 
discoveries by Pythagoras, who taught the doctrine of celestial motions, and 
believed in the plurality of habitable worlds, 500 b. c. Ulpparchus began 
his observations at Rhodes, 167 b. c. — began his new cycle of the moon in 
143, and made great advances in the science, 140 b. c. The precession of 
the equinoxes confirmed, and the places and distances of the planets discov- 
ered, byPtolrmyj a. d. 130. After the lapse of nearly seven centuries, during 
which time astronomy was neglected, it was resumed by the Arabs about 800; 
ind was afterwards brought into Europe by the Moors of Barbary and Spain, 
but not sooner than 1201, when they also introduced geography. 

The transit of Venus over the sun's disk 

first observed by Hurrox, Nov. 24 a.d. 1639 
Caasini draws his meridian line, afier 

The Alphonsine tables (tohtch •ee'i were 
composed • • - A.n. 1284 

Clocks first used in astronomy, about - lliOQ 

True doctrine of the motions of the pla- 
netary bodies revived by Copernicus 1530 

The science greatly aiivanced by Tycho 
Brahe, abr)ui .... 1582 

True laws of ihe planetary motions, by 
Kepler 1619 

Telescopes and other instruments used 
in astronomy, about . • • 1627 

The discoveries of Galileo were made 
about 1631 

Dante.— See Bologna - • . 1655 

The aberration of ihe light of the fixed 

stars discovered by Ilorrebow • iri59 

Discoveries of Picart - • • 1669 

Map of the moon constructed by Ileve- 

lius ..... 167C 
Motion of the sun round its own axis 

proved by Halley • - - 1678 

Discoveries of Huygens . . - i68i 

Newton's Prineipia published, and tba 

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180 THE WO&LD'S PAOG&ESa. [ Altt 

ASTRONOMY carUinued, 

Bjsiem ajB now taught inccmtroTartibly 
established • - ▲. d. 1687 

Catalogue of the stars made by Flam- 
stead 1688 

Satellites of Saturn, dec. discorerwl by 
Cassini 1701 

Aberration ofthe stars clearly explained 
by Dr. Bradley • - • 1737 

Celestial inequalities fotmd by La 
Grange ..... 1780 

Uranus and satellites discovered by 

nerachel, Blarch 13.— See Oeorgium 
Sidtis . . . -1781 

Micanique Cdute^ published by La 

Place 1796 

Ceres discovered by Piazzi, Jsn 1 . 1801 
Pallas, by Dr. Olbcre, March 28 • 1802 

Juno, by Harding, Scpu 1 • - . 1801 

Vesta, by Olbers . - . 1807 

Neptune, by Le Verrier - - - )846 

Umted Slates astronomical expedition 
to the South Hemisphere, under LieuL 
Gillies, left Baltimore July 18 • • 1849 

The distance ofthe fixed stars is supposed to be 400,000 times greater from 
us than we are from the sun, that is to say, 38 millions of millions of miles ; 
so that a cannon-ball would take near nine millions of years to reach one of 
them, supposing there were nothing to hinder it from pursuing its course 
thither. As light takes about eight minutes and a quarter to reach us from 
the sun, it would be about six years in coming from one of those stars ; but 
the calculations of later astronqmers prove some stars to be so distant, that 
their light must take centuries before it can reach us ; and that every par- 
ticle of light which enters our eyes left the star it comes from three or four 
hundred years ago. — Objects of Science, 

ASYLUMS, OR Privileged Places. At first they were places of refuge for 
those who, by accident or necessity had done things that rendered them 
obnoxious to the law. God commanded the Jews to build certain cities for 
this purpose. The posterity of Hercules is said so have built one at Athens, 
to protect themselves against such as their father had irritated. Cadmus 
built one at Thebes, aud Romulus one on Mount Palatine. A while after the 
coming of Christianity into England, superstitious veneration ran so high, 
that churches, monasteries, church-yards, and bishops' houses became asy- 
lums to all that fled to them, let the crime be what it would ; of which very 
ill use was made, both by the clergy and laity. In London persons were 
secure from arrest in particular localities : these were the Minories, Salis- 
bury-court, Whitefriars, Fulwood's-rents, Mitre-court, Baldwin's-gardens, 
the Savoy, Clink, Deadman's-place, Montaeue-close, and the Mint. This 
security was abolished a. d. 1696 ; but the last was not wholly suppressed 
until the reign of George I.— See Privileged Places and Sanctuaries, 

ATHAN ASIAN CREED and CONTROVERSY. The great controversy regard- 
me the divinity of Christ, arose and extended between a. d. 333 and 3ol. 
Auianasius, who was a native of Alexandria, encountered creat persecution 
at the hands of the Arians for his religious doctrines, and was exiled for 
them again and again. The creed which goes by his name is supposed by 
most authorities to have been written about the year 340 ; but it is affirmed 
by other writers to be the compilation of an African bishop in the fifth cen- 
tury. — Du Pin. 

ATHEISM. This absurd doctrine has had its votaries and its martyrs. Spi- 
nosa, a foreigner, was its noted defender in the 17th century. Lucilio Vanini 
publicly taught atheism in France, and was condemned to be burnt at Tou- 
louse in 1619. Mathias Knutzen, of Holstein, openly professed atheism, and 
had upwards of a thousand disciples in Germany about 1674 ; he travelled 
to make proselytes, and his followers were called Consdejiciares, because 
they held that there is no other deity than conscience. Many eminent men 
of various countries have been professors of Atheism, and even in England 
we have had writers tinctured with it. — Richardson. Ashe. *' Though a small 
draught of philosophy may lead a man into atheism, a deev draught will 
iSertainly brin|( him back again ♦^ the belief of a God."— /i<wd Bacon, "■ f¥ 

Digitized by 



I?ie% n'aastaU pas U faudraU Vinventer :" If a God did not exist, it would 
be necessary to invent one. — Voltaire. 

4THENiEA. These were great festivals celebrated at Athens in honor of 
>f inerva. One of them was called Panathenaea, and the other Chalcea ; 
they were first instituted by Erectheus or Orpheus, 1397 b. c. ; and Theseus 
afterwards renewed them, and caused them to be observed by all the people 
of Athens, the first every fifth year, 1234 b. c. — Plutarch. 

ATHENjEUM. a place at Athens, sacred to Minerva, where the poets and 
philosophers declaimed and recited their compositions. The most celebrated 
Athemea were at Athens, Rome, and Lyons : that of Rome was of great 
beauty in its building, and was erected by the emperor Adrian, a. d. 125.-r 
TUlenunU's Life of Adrian. 

ATHENS. The once celebrated capital of anc.ent Attica, whose magnificent 
ruins yet attest its former grandeur — the seat of science and theatre of valor. 
The first sovereign of whom we have any knowledge is Ogyges, who reigned 
in Boeotia, and was master of Attica, then called Ionia. In his reign a deluge 
took place (by some supposed to be no other than the universal deluge, or 
Noah's floods that laid waste the country, in which state it remained two 
hundred years, until the arrival of the Egyptian Cecrops and a colony, by 
whom the land was repeopled, and twelve cities founded, 1556 b. c. The first 
state of Athens was under seventeen kings, comprising a period of 487 years. 
but the history of its first twelve monarclis is mostly fabulous ; in its second 
state it was governed by thirteen perpetual archons, a period of 816 years ; in 
its thiri state by seven decennial archons, whose nile extended over 70 years, 
and. lastly, in its fourth state by annual archons, who ruled for 760 years. 
Under this democfecy Athens became unrivalled, and her people signalized 
themselves by their valor, munificence, and culture of the fine arts; and 
perhaps not one other single city in the world can boast, in such a short 
space of time, of so great a number of illustrious citizens. The ancients, to 
distinguish Athens in a more peculiar manner, called it Astu, one of the eyes 
of Greece. — Plutarch. The Venetians got possession of Athens in a. d. 12*04, 
and the Turks in 1687. — Priestl/^. It became the capital of Livadia, a pro- 
vince of European Turkey ; and is now that of the new king^dom of Greece, 
and tlie seat of its legislature, established under King Otho L. January 25th, 
1833. — See Greece. For events in the history of Athens, see Tables from 
B. c. 1556 to B. c. 21. 

ATMOSPHERE. Posidonius first calculated the height of the atmosphere, 
stating it to be 800 stadia, nearly agreeing with our modem ideas, about 79 
B.C. Its weight was determined by Gralfleo and Terricellius, about 1630; 
its density and elasticity by Boyle ; and its relation to light and sound by 
Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The composition of the atmosphere was 
ascertained by Hales, Black, Priestley, Scheele, Lavoisier, and Cavendish ; 
and its laws of refVaction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1787. 

ATTAINDER, Acts or, have been passed in numerous reigns : two witnesses 
i:i cases of high treason are necessary where corruption of blood is incurred, 
unless the party accused shall confess, or stand mute, 7 and 8 William III. 
1694-5. — Blackatone. The attainder of Lord Russell, who was beheaded in 
Lincoln 's-inn-Fields, July, 21, 1683, was reversed under William, in 1689. 
The rolls and records of the acts of attainder passed in the reign of king 
James II. were cancelled and publicly burnt, Oct. 2, 1696. Several acts were 
reversed in subsequent reigns. Among the last acts so reversed, not the least 
interesting was the attaint of the children of lord Edward Fitzgenild (who 
was implicated in the rebellion in Ireland of 1798), July 1, 1819. 

MTILA, sumamed the " Scourge of Ood" and thus distinguished for his con- 
quests and his crimes, ravaged all Europe, a. d. 447. He invaded the Ro- 

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182 THE world's progress. [auo 

man empire with an army of 500.000 Huns, and laid waste all the provincea 
He died on the niglit of his nuptials with a beautiful virgin jiamed Ildico, 
about A. D. 4bS.— Goldsmith. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. A great officer of the crown, appointed by letten 
patent. It is among his duties to exhibit informations and prosecute for 
the kin^ in matters criminal ; and to file bills in Exchequer, for any claims 
concerning the crown, in inheritance or profit ; and others may bring bills 
against the king s attorney. The first Attorney-General was William de 
Gisilham, 7 Edward I. l27S.—Beatson. 

AITORNEYS. The number practising in Edward III.'s reign was under 400 
for the whole kingdom. In the 32d of Henry VI. 1464, a law reduced the 
practitioners in Norfolk, Norwich, and Siiflblk, from eighty to fourteen, and 
restricted their increase. The number of attorneys now practising in Eng- 
land, or registered, or retired, is about 13,000. The number sworn, and 
practising or retired in Ireland, is stated at 2fKX). A list of 19,527 "^practis- 
ing lnwtjcrs*' in the United States is given in the Laicyer^s LHrecUny^ 1850. 

ATTRACTION. Copernicus described attraction as an appetence or appetite 
which the Creator impressed upon all parts of matter, about 1520. It was 
described by Kepler to be a corporeal affection tending to union, 1605. In 
the Newtonian philosophy, it is an original power which restores lost motion ; 
a principle whereby all bodies mutually tend to each other. — See Astr^tiwny. 

AUCTION, a kind of sale known to the Romans. The first in Britain was 
about 1700, by Elisha Yale, a governor of Fort George, in the East Indies, of 
the goods he had brought home with him. Auction and sales' tax began, 1 779. 

AUERSTADT, Battle or. In this most sanguinary confiiat between the French 
and Prussian armies, they were commanded by their respective sovereigns, 
and Napoleon obtained a decisive victory. The Prussians were routed on 
every side, and lost 200 pieces of cannon, thirty standards, and 28,000 pri- 
soners, leaving 30,000 slain upon the field, Oct. 14, 1806. The French 
empLTor immediately afterwards enteivd Berlin, fi*um whence he issued his 
memorable Berlin decree. — See Berlin Dtcrce. 

AUGSBURG CONFESSION op FAITH. The confession of articles of faith 
drawn up at Augsburg by Melancthon, and by him and Luther presented to 
the emperor Charles V. in 1530. It was divided into two parts, the first 
consisting of twenty-one articles, and the second of seven, directly opposed 
to the abuses that had crept into the Church of Rome. The elector of Sax- 
ony, his son. and several other princes of Germany, signed this confeasion, 
which was delivered to the emperor in the palace of the bishop of Augs- 
burg, and hence it is called the Confession of Augsburg. 

AUGSBURG, League or. A memorable treaty concluded between Holland 
and other European powers, which had for its object the causing the trea- 
ties of Munster and Nimeguen to be respected, 1680. — See Munster and Ni- 

AUGURY. Husbandry was in part regulated by the coming or goin^: of birds, 
long before the time of Hesiod. Augurs instituted at Rome, wiih vestals 
and several orders of the priesthood, by Numa, 710 b. c. There was a com- 
munity of them, appointed to foretell events by the fiight of birds, and 
other circumstances. The king Car, fVom whom Caria in Asia Minor is 
named, was the inventor of augury by birds. — Vosnus. The nugurs of 
Rome drew omens from the ph(;nomena of the heavens, the chirping and 
flight of birds, and various strange casualties. — Livy. 

AUGUST. The eighth month of the year. It was dedicated to the honor of 
Augustus Ciesar, from whom it was named in the year b b. c, because in 
this month he was born, was created consul, or chief magistrate thric« 

Digitized by 





triumphed in Rome, subdued Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an 
end of the civil wars. It was previously called Sextilis^ or the sixth from 

AUSTERLrrZ, Battle op, between the French and Austrian armies, gained by 
the former. Three emperors commanded at this battle, Alexander of Rus- 
sia, Francis of Austria, and Napoleon of France. The Icilled and wounded 
exceeded 40,000 on the side of the allies, who lost, besides, forty standards^ 
150 pieces of cannon, and many thousands of prisoners. This decisive vic- 
tory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, which was signed Dec. 26, 
same year. The battle was fought Dec. 2, 1806. See Presburg. 

AUSTRALASIA, includes New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, New Guinea, 
New Britian, New Zealand, &c., mostly discovered within two centuries. Oi 
a population of twenty-two millions, the native inhabitants are not supposed 
to exceed one hundred thousand. Several settlements from Europe have 
been made since the commencement of the present century. Act to pro- 
vide for the government of Western Australia, 10 George IV. 1829. Act 
to erect South Australia into a British province, 4 and 2 William IV. 1834. 
New act, 5 and 6 William IV. 1835. Several companies and institutions con- 
nected with Australia have lately been formed in London. 

AUSTRIA, anciently the Belgic Gaul of the Romans. It was taken from Hun- 
gary iind annexed to Grermany, when it received its present name, about a. d, 
1040. This was after Charlemagne had re-established the Western Empire, 
Austria being a part of what was called Eastern France, which its name in 
the German language implies. 

Rodolph, count of napsburg, seizes 
Austria from Bohemia, and makes 
himself archduke - • 1273 

Rcvoll of Switzerland from the house 

of Austna, in the reign of Albert I. - 1307 
Albert 11. duke of AiLstria, succeeds to 
three crowns — the imperial, and 
lho9e of Hungary and Bohemia ; his . 
family still possess the empire. • 1438 
Burgvmdy accrues to AuHtria by the 
marriage of Maximilian with the 
heiress of that province - 1477 

Alen Spain, by the marriage of Philip 
I. of Austria with the heiress of Ara- 
gon and Castile - - • 1496 

Charles V., reigning over Germany, 
Austria. Bohemia, Hungary, Spain, 
the Netherlands, and their dependen- 
cies, abdicates, and retires from the 
worlrl, leaving his German dominions 
10 his brother Ferdinand, and Spain 
and the Netherlands to his son, Philip 
IL— See Spain - - • 1557 

The Protestant princes of Germany, 
being oppressed by the house of A us- 
tria, call in theaidi of Gustavus Adol- 
phus of Sweden, and this leads to the i 

treaty of Westphalia - - -1648' 

Leopold I reigns. -—See Germany - 1658 

Accession of JPrancis, duke of Lorraine, 
who marries the celebrated queen of i 

Hungary, Maria Theresa, daughter of 
the deceased emperor, Charles VI. - 1745 | 

Rei^ of Joseph U. - -1765 

Religious toleration granted - - 1776 

The emperor contmlH the pope 

Rtign of Leopold II. 

Reign of Francis n. ■ - -1792 

Austria becomes a distinct empire, and 
Francis II. of Germany takes the title 

off. of Austria 

The emperor issues his declaration 
against France • - Aug 5, 1805 

Napoleon, after many victories, enters 
Vienna • - Nov. 14, 1806 

Vienna evacuated by the French, 

Jan. 12, 1806 

They again capture it • May 13, 1809 

But restore it at the peace Oct. 24, 1809 

Napoleon marries the archduchess 
Maria Louisa, the daughter of the 
emperor • • AP"' ^' ^^^^ 

Congress at Vienna • Oct 2, 1814 

Treaty of Vienna . Feb. 25, 1816 

Death of Francis I., and accession of 
Ferdinand • • March 2. 1835 

New treaty of commerce with England 

July 3, 1838 

Ferdinand is crowned with great splen- 
dor at Milan • • Sept. 6, 1838 

Tumult at Vienna, agitation for re- 
forms ; Mettemich resigns and flies : 
freedom of the press and national 
guard granted by the emperor 

March 13, 1848 

The emperor publishes^ at Milan, abo- 
lition of the censorship and conven- 
tion of the states ; the people demand 
more, and are refused March 18, " 

Milan revolts, and contends successfully 
with the soldiery • March 23, ** 

Austrians retire to Mantua ; Milan en- 
tered by Charles Albert of Sardinia 

March 23, « 

Lombardy and the Tyrol in rebellion 

March, " 
1782 I The emperor retires to Innsbruck 
1790 . May 18, « 

Austrian army under Radetsky holfls in 
check Charles Albert of Sardinia, in 
Lombardy - ^^y Z: 

Aug. 9, ISM Is defeated and driven to Mantua May 29, 

Digitized by 


184 THE world's PR0ORE86. [ AZO 

AUSTRIA, continued. 

Diet of the Croatian-Slavonic nation Fetxllnand I. abdicates; his brother, 

summoned by the Ban of Croaiia Francis Charles, declines the throne ; 
May 20, 1S48 it is taken by his son, Francis Joseph 

Insurrection at Rome ; order re-esta- Dec. 2, 1816 

blished after bombanlnient, June 12-15 ** The emperor gires a new constitution 

Vicenia and Padua subdued by Ra- March 4-6, 1649 

deisky - • • June " Haynau takes Urescia, after ereai 

Milan retaken - Aug. 4, " siaughlcr, and sacks it MarcTi 30, " 

The emperor returns to Vienna " 12, »* Bologna taken, after a siege of 8 days 

Insurrection at Vienna; Count Latour, May 1&, •* 

minister of war. killed by the mob ; Haynau takes command of the Aus- 

the diet demands the retraction of the trian army in Hungary June — , " 

measures against Hungary, and a Ancona taken, after bombardment 

new ministry ; the emperor flies June 11, ** 

Oct. 6, " Venice taken by Radetskr Aug. 22, " 

The Hungarian army advanced within Hungarian war finished by the surren- 

8ix miles of Vienna Ocl 11, " derofGiirtjey - Aug. 11, « 

Prince Windi?ch^ratz appointed com- Followed by numerous executions. 

mander-in-chiet, Ocl. 16 ; and be- See Germany^ Vienna^ &c. 

sieges Vienna, 17ih; bombards the 

city and masters it Nov. 2, " 

Before the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, Fran- 
cis ceased to be emperor of Germany, and became hereditary emperor of 
Austria, under the title of Francis I. Ui>on the formation of the Germanic 
Confederation in 1815, the emperor of Austria was declared hereditary head 
of that body. 

AUTHORS. For laws securing copyright, see Copyright and Literary Property. 

AUTO DA FE. See InquisUicm. The punishment, often by burning alive, of 
a heretic. This is called an act of Faith, and is coeval with the Inquisition ; 
and since its lirst practice in a.d. 1203, more than one hundred thousand 
victims have been sacrificed by the sentence of the Inquisitions of Roman 
Catholic countries on the burning x)ile. One of the last executions of this 
kind was at Goa, where, for the glory of the Christian religion (!) and in 
vindication of the Catholic faith, twenty sufferers perished in the flames, 
1787. These horrible sacrifices have ceased in Spain. — Ashe, 

AVIGNON, ceded by Philip III. of France to the Pope in 1273. The papal seat' 
was removed for seventy years to Avignon, in 1808. It was seized several 
times by the French, by whom it was taken from the pope in 1769, but was 
restored on the suppression of the Jesuit.s, 1773. Declared to belong to 
France by the National Assembly, 1791. Horrible massacres in October of 
that year. Continued to France by the Congress of sovereigns, in 1815. 

AXE. WEDGE WIMBLE, &c. These instruments, with the lever, and vari- 
ous others of a coarse construction, and still in common use, are said to 
have been invented by Daedalus, an artificer of Athens, to whom also is 
ascribed the invention of masts and sails for ships, 1240 b. c. 

AZORES, OR WESTERN ISLES, supposed to be the sit« of the ancient AU- 
lantis : they were discovered by Vandenburg, a. d. 1439 ; and were settled 
by the Portuguese, in 1448. Martin Behem fbund one of them covered with 
boech-trees, and he called it therefore Fayed; another abounding in sweet 
flowers, and he therefore called it Florcs; and all full of hawks, and he 
therefore named them the Azores. A violent concussion of the earth took 
place here for twelve days, in 1591. A devastating earthquake, in 1757. 
Here are fountains of boiling water. A volcano at St. George's destroyed 
the town of Ursulina, May, 1808; and in 1811, a volcano appeared near St. 
Michael's in the sea, where the water was eighty fathoms deep. An island 
called. Sabrina gradually disappeared, Dec. 1812. 

Digitized by 




BABEL, THE Tower op, built by Noah's posterity, 2247 b c. The temple of 
Beliis, originally this celebrated tower, was the most magnificent in the 
world; it had lofty spires, and was enriched with many statues of gold, one 
of them forty feet high. In the upper part of this temple was the tomb of 
the founder, Bolus (the Nimrod of the sacred ScripturesV who was deitied 
after death ; and in an adjoining apartment was a magnincent bed, whither 
the priests daily conducted a female, who, as they pretended, was there 
honored with the company of the god. — Blair. 

BABINGTON'S CONSPIRACY, formed in the cause of Mary against Elizabeth, 
for which the chief conspirator, with thirteen others, suffered death. Bab- 
ington was a gentleman of Derbyshire, and he associated with persons of hia 
ovfn persuasion (the Roman Catholic), with a design to assassinate the 
queen, and deliver Mary. He seems to have been principally induced to 
this rash conspiracy by a romantic hope that Mary, in gratitude, would 
accept of him as a husband. 15^. 

BABYLON, Empire op, founded by Belus, supposed to be the Nimrod of holy 
writ, the son of Chus, and grandson of Ham, 2245 b. c.—Lenglet. Ninus of 
Assyria seized on Babylon, and established what was properly the Assy- 
•tian empire, by uniting the two soveicignties, 2069 b.c. According to 
Eusebius this empire existed 1240 years ; according: to Justin, 1300 years ; 
according to Herodotus, 600 or 600 years. Of these opinions Blair has 
adopted tlie first, which calculates from the foundation of the empire by 
Ninus, B. c. 2059, to the close of the reign of Sardanapalus, who was de- 
throned by his generals, and his kingdom divided into the Assyrian, Baby- 
lonian, and Median kingdoms, 820 b. c. — See Assyria. 
The tower of Babel built • b. c. 2247 
The kingdom of Babylon begins • 2245 

Ashur builds a city, afterwards called 

Ninereh • • -2^5 

The aBtronomical observations are be- 

Sn at Babylon by the Chaldeans.— 
air ; Lenglet - - - 2234 

Belus, king of Assyria, extends his em- 
pirs over the neighboring states, de- 
feats the Babylonians, and makes 
them tributary.— t7«A«r • -2124 

Minus, son of Belus, reigns in Assyria, : Taken by Darius.— CTsAer • • 511 

The city of Babylon was, anciently, the most magnificent in the world ; and 
in later' times famous for the empire established under the Seleucidse. Its 
greatness was so reduced in succeeding ages, that Pliny says, in his time it 
was but a desolate wilderness ; and at present the place where it stood if 
scarcely kIlo^vn to travellers. — Rollings Ancient Hist. 

Bacchanalia, games celebrated in honor of Bacchus. They arose in 
Egypt, and were brought into Greece by Melampus, and were there called 
IHonysiay about 1415 b. c. — Diodorus. They were celebrated in Rome under 
the name of Bacchanalia. 

BACHELORS. The Roman censors frequently imposed fines on unmarried 
. men ; and men of fall age were obliged to marry. The Spartan women at 
certain ^mes laid hold of old bachelors, dragged them round their altars, 
and inflicted on them various marks of infamy and disgrace. — Vossius. After 
twenty-five years of age, a tax was laid upon bachelors in England, 12/. IO5. 
for a duke, and for a common person, one shilling, 7 William III. 1695. 
Bachelors were subjected to a double tax on their male and female servants, 
in 1785, 

BACKGAMMON. Palamedes of Greece is the reputed inventor of this game 
(decidedly one of the oldest known to our times), about 1224 d. c. Tt if 

and names hw capital after himself, 
Nineveh.— Lejifflet • - b. 0. 2069 

Babylon taken by Ninus • - -2059 

The Assyrian empire ends - • 820 

Belesis governs in Babylon • - 766 

Babylon taken by Esar-haddon • • 680 
Nebuchadnezzar reigns - • - 604 

He takes Jerusalem. —Lenglet • • 687 
He is driven from amon^ men • • 569 

Babylon taken by the Medes and Per- 

sians. under Cyrus 

Digitized by 


186 THE world's progress. [ BRI 

stated by some to have been invented in Wales in the period preceding the 
Conquest. — Henry. 

BADAJOS, Siege of. This important barrier fortress had surrendered to tho 
French, March 11, IbU, and was invested by tlie British under lord Wel- 
lington on March 18, 1812, and stormed and taken on April 6, following. 
Tlirs victory was not only a glorious military achievement in itself, but it 
obliged the French, who had entered Portugal for the purpose of plunder, 
to commence a precipitate retreat from that kingdom. 

BADEN, House op, descended from Herman, son of Berthold I. duke of Zah- 
ringen, who died a. d. 1074. From Christopher, who united the branches 
of Hochberg and Baden, and died in 1627, proceed the branches of Baden- 
Baden, and Baden-Dourlach. This family makes a most conspicuous figure in 
the annals of Germany, and is allied to all the principal families in the empire. 

BADEN, Treaty of, between France and the emperor, when Landau waa 
ceded to the former, Sept. 7, 1714. Baden was formerly a.margravate; it 
was erected into a grand duchy, as a member of the Rhenish Confederation, 
in 1806. Ita territorial acquisitions by it^ alliances with France, were gua- 
ranteed by the congress of Vienna, in 1815. The grand Duke granted his 
people freedom of the press, a burgher guard, trial by jury, and the right 
of public meeting, Feb. 29. Troops revolt at Rastadt, May, 1849. Insur- 
rection at Carlsruhe ;— the grand Duke flees, May 13, 1849. Insurrection 
subdued by the Prussians, June, 1849. 

BAFFIN'S-BAY, discovered by William Baffin, an Englishman, in 1616. The 
nature and extent of this discovery were much doubted until the expeditions 
of Ross and Parry proved that Baffin was substantially accurate in his state- 
ment. These voyagers returned home in 1818. See article North WeU 

BAGDAD, built by Almansor, and made the seat of the Saracen empire, a. d. 
762— taken by the Tartars, and a period put to the Saracen rule, 1268. It 
has since been often taken by the Persians, and (torn thorn again by the 
Turks.— Blair, 

BAGPIPE. This instrument is supposed by some to be peculiar te Ireland and 
Scotland ; but it must have been known to the Greeks, as, on a piece of 
Grecian sculpture of the highest antiquity, now in Rome, is represented a 
bagpiper dressed like a modem highlander. Nero is said to have played 
upon a bagpipe, a.d.61. 

BAHAMA ISLES. Tliese were the first points of discovery by Columbus. 
San Salvador was seen by this great navigator on the night of the 11th Octo- 
ber, 1492.— The Bahamas were not known to tho English till 1667. Seized 
for the crown of England, 1718, when the pirates who inhabited them sur- 
rendered to Captain Rogers. 

BAIL. By ancient common law, before and since the Conquest, all felonies 
were bailable, till murder was excepted by statute ; and by the 3d Edward 
I. the power of bailing in treason, and in divers instances of felony, was taken 
away, 1274. Bail was further regulated, 23 Henry VI. ; 2 Philip and 'Msny 
and in later reigns. 

BAILIFFS OR SHERIFFS, are said to be of Saxon origin. London had its shire- 
reve prior to the Conquest, and this officer was generally appointed for 
counties in England in 1079. Sheriffs were appointed in Dublin under the 
name of bailiiis, in 1808 ; and the name was changed to sheriff. 1548. There 
are still some places where the chief magistrate is called bailiff, as tlie high 
bailiff of Westminster. The term Bum-bailiff is a corruption of bound-bailiff, 
every bailiff being obliged to enter into bonds of security for his good be- 
havior. — Blackstone, 

Digitized by 



BALANCE or POWER, to assure the independency and integrity of states, and 
control ambition ; the principle is said to he a discovery of the Italian poli- 
ticians of the fifteenth century, on the invasion of Charles VTII. of France— 
Robertson. By the treaty of Munster, the principle of a balance of power 
was first recognized by treaty October 24, 1648. 

BALLADS. They may be traced in British history to the Anglo-Saxons. — 
TStrner. Andhelme, who died a. d. 709, is mentioned as the flret who intro- 
duced ballads into England. "The harp was sent round, that those might 
sing who could." — Bede. Alfred sung ballads. — Malmshury. Canute com- 
I>osed one. — Turner. Minstrels were protected by a charter of Edward IV. ; 
but by a statute of Elizabeth they were made punishable among rogues, 
yagabonds, and sturdy beggars. — Viner, 

BALLADS, NATIONAL, " Give me the writing of the ballads, and you may 
make the laws." — FUtcher of Salloun. A British statesmat has said, " Give 
me the writing of the ballaas of the country, and while I pUkCe at your com- 
mand every other species of composition, I will fix public opinion, and rule 
public feeling, and sway the popular sentiment, more powerfully than all 
your writers, political and moral, can do by any other agency or influence." 
The beautiful and frequently touching ballads of Dibdin, particularly those 
of the sea, inspired many a brave defender of his country in the late war ; 
Dibdin died Jan. 20, 1833. 

BALLETS. They arose in the meretricious taste of the Italian courts. One 
performed at the interview between Hen. Vlll. of Eng. & Francis I. of France, 
in the field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520. — Guicciardini. In the next century, 
they reached the summit of their glory in the splendid pomps of the courts 
of Tuscany and Lorraine ; and their most zealous patron, Louis XIV., bore 
a i>art in one, 1664. 

BALLOON. Galien of Avignon \vrote on aerostation, in 1756. Dr. Black gave 
the hint as to hydrogen, in 1767. A balloon was constructed in France by 
MM. Montgolfier, in 1783, when Rozier and the marquis d'Arlandes ascended 
at Paris. Pildtre Desrozier and M. Romaiii perished in an attempted voyage 
from Boulogne to England, the balloon having taken fire, June 14, 1786. At 
the battle of Fleurus, the French made use of a balloon to reconnoitre the 
enemy's army, and convey the observations by telegraph, June 17, 1794. 
Gamerin ascended in a balloon to the height of 4,000 feet, and descended by 
a parachute, Sept. 21, 1802. Gay-Lussac ascended at Paris to the height of 
23,000 feet, Sept. 6, 1804. Madame Blanchard ascended fVom Tivoli at night, 
and the balloon, being surrounded by fire-works, took fire, and she was pre- 
cipitated to the ground, and killed, July 6, 1819. 

BALLOON, The Nassau. The gre^it Nassau balloon, of immense dimensions, 
and which had for some time previously been exhibited to the inhabitants 
of London in repeated ascents from Vauxhall wardens, started from that 
place on an experimental voyage, having three mdividuals in the car, and, 
after having been eighteen hours in the air, descended at Weilburg, in the 
4uchy of Nassau, Nov. 7, 1836. 

BALTIMORE, the third city in population and fifth in commerce in the United 
States ; founded 1729 ; named from lord Baltimore, the proprietor of the 
Maryland patent. In 1766 it contained but 60 houses ; charter^ as a city 
in 1797. Population i» 1790, 13 503; in 1810, 36,583; in 1830, 80,626; in 
1840, 102,313, including 3,199 slaves. A handsome monument in the city 
commemorates its aucces.sful defence against the attack of the British under 
general Ross, St^pt. 12, 1814. 

BALTIMORE, Battle op, between the British army under general Ross and 
the Americans ; the British in making an attack upon the town were nnsuo- 

Digitized by 


l88 THE world's progress. [&UI 

cesafal, and after a desperate engagement were repulsed with great lo«; 
the gallant general who led the enterprise was killed, Sept. 12, lol4. 

BANK. The first established was in Italy, a. d. 808, by the Lombard Jews, of 
whom some settled in Lombard-street, London, where many bankers still 
reside. The name bank is derived from banco, a bench, which was erected 
in the market-place for the exchange of money. The mint in the tower of 
London was anciently the depository for merchants* cash, until Charles L 
laid his hands upon the money, and destroyed the credit of the mint, in 16-10. 
The traders were thus driven to some other place of security for their gold, 
which, when kept at home, their apprentices freqiiently absconded with to 
the army. In 1645, therefore, they consented to lodge it with the goldsmiths 
in Lombard-street, who were provided with strong chests for their own valu- 
able wares ; and this became the origin of banking in England. — 

Bank of Venice formed • • • 1157 i Bank of Hamburgh • • 1619 

Bank of Geneva - • - 1315 Bank of Rottenlam • - 163S 

Bank of Barcelona • • - 1401 Bank of Stockholm • • - 1688 

Bank of Genoa • • - 1407 Bank of England - • . • "694 

Bank of Amsterdam - • - 1(307 I Bank of the United States • 1791 and 1B16 

BANK OF ENGLAND, (See preceding article,) originally projected by a mer- 
chant named Patterson. It was incorporated by William III. in 1694, in con- 
sideration of 1,200 OOOZ., the then amount of its capital, being lent to gov- 
ernment. The capital has gone on increasing from one period to another up 
to the present time, as the discretion of parliament allowed ; and the same 
authority has also at different intervals prolonged the privileges of the bank, 
and renewed its charter. When first established the notes of the bank were 
at 20 per cent, discount; and so late as 1745, they were under par. Bank 
bills were paid in silver, 1745. The first bank post-bills were issued 1764 ; 
small notes were issued 1759 ; cash payments were discontinued February 25, 
1797, when notes of one and two pounds were put into circulation. Silver 
tokens appeared in January, 1798 ; and afterwards Spanish dollars, with the 
head of George III. stamped on the neck of Charles IV., were made current. 
Cash payments were resumed partially, Sept. 22, 1817, and the restriction 
had altogether ceased in 1821. For a number of years the financial mea- 
sures of the crown have been largely aided by loans fVom this great reser- 
voir of wealth. The average amount of the Bank of England notes in cir- 
culation is as follows : — 

In 1718 (earlieat account) - JBI ,829.930 

1778 - . . . 7.030,680 

1790 . . - . 104217,CXX) 

1800 .... 16,450,000 

1810 .... 23,901,000 

The circulation of notes, in 1845, exceeded 27 millions, and the bullion in 
the bank fluctuated between 15 and 16 millions. The returns of issues, &c. 
are now made weekly. To secure the credit of the Bank it was enacted, 
•' that no other banking company should consist of more than six persons," 
6 Anne 1707. There are branch banks of the Bank of England in many of 
the chief towns of the kingdom ; as Birmingham, Bristol, Exeter, Glouces- 
ter, Hull, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Swansea, Ac, 
all formed since 1828. Sec Punds. 
BANK OP THE UNITED STATES, first one established 1791. C&p. $10,000,000. 
—A ne^ one with cap. of $35,000 000. 1816. The act of Congress rechar- 
tering it vetoed by president Jackson, July 10, 1832. The " removal of 
the deposits " of the U. S. government ftom the bank, by order of presi- 
dent Jackson, signed by R. B. Taney, secretary of the Treasury, (W. J. 
Duane the late secretary having refVised to sign the order,) Sept. 23, 1833. 
Resolution of the Senate that the removal was uncalled for, and the respon- 
tibility assumed by the president unconstitutional, &c., introduced by Mr 

In 1815 .... ^£26,803,520 
1»» . . . . 27,174,000 

1830 .... 20,6204300 

1835 ... . 18,215,230 

1840 .... 17,231/300 

Digitized by 


«afJ dictionary of dates. 189 

Webster and passed (26 to 20) March 28, 1834. Senate refVised to enter on 
their journal the jiresident's protest against their resolution, May 7, 1884. 
Noted resolution ot" the Senate "expunging" from th(:ir journals their reso- 
lution of 1834, passed 24 to 19, Jan. 16, 1837. —Sub-Treasury Bill passed 
Jan. 1840, repealed Aug. 9. 1841. The U. S. Bank newly incorporated by 
Pennsylvania, March 29, 1836 : suspended payment Feb. 6, 1841. Bill for 
establishing a " Fiscal Bank of the U. S." passed the House of Representa- 
tives Aug. 6, 1841 ; vetoed by president Tyler Aug. 16. Another bill for a 
" Fiscal Corporation " vetoed Sept. 9, 1841, followed by a resignation of all 
the Cabinet, except Mr. Webster. 

BANKRUPTCY. Suspension of specie payments by the banks of New Engw 
land and New-York, May 10 — 16, 1837 ;— legalized for one year by legisla- 
ture of N. Y. Banks of Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c., also suspended same 
month. General bankruptcy law passed by Congress Aug. 9, 1841. 

BANKRUPTS, IN England,, first law enacted regarding them, 36 Henry VIII. 
1543. Again, 3 of Elizabeth, 1560 ; again, 1 James I. 1602 ; again, 1706 ; 
and more recently. It was determined by the King's Bench that a bankrupt 
may be arrested except in going and coming from any examination before 
the commissioners, May 13, 1780. The lord chancellor (Thurlow) refused 
a bankrupt his ccrtiticate because he had lost five pounds at one time in 
gaming, July 17, 1788. Enacted that members of the house of commons 
becoming bankrupts, and not paying their debts in full, shall vacate their 
seats, 1812. The new bankrupt bul, constituting a new bankrupt court, 
passed October ISSl.—Slatiiles at Large. 

1700 - . 

1725 . 
1750 - 
1775- . 

According to a return to parliament made at the close of February 1826. 
there had become bankrupt i7i ike four months preceding, 59 banking-houses, 
comprising 144 partners ; and 20 other banking establishments had been 
declared insolvent. Every succeeding week continued to add from seventy 
to a hundred merchants, traders, and manufacturers to the bankrupt list. 
Tliis was, however, the period of bubble speculation, and of. unprecedented 
commercial embarrassment and ruin. 
BANNOCKBURN, Battlb of, between king Robert Bruce, of Scotland, and 
Edward 11. of England ; the army of Bruce consisted of 30,000 Scots, and 
that of Edward of 100,000 English, of whom 62.000 were archers. The 
Enfflish crossed a rivulet to the attack, and Bnice having dug pits, which 
he had covered, they fell into them, and were thrown into confusion. The 
rout was complete, the king narrowly escaping, and 60,000 English were 
killed or taken prisoners, June 25, 1314. — Barbour. 

BANNS. In the feudal law, banns were a solemn proclamation of any thing, 
and hence arose the custom of asking banns, or giving notice before marriao;e. 
The use of matrimonial banns is said to have been introduced into the Galil- 
ean church, about a. d. 1210; and banns of marriage are proclaimed in the 
church of England to this day. 

BAPTISM. The sacrament of admission instituted by Christ and practised by 
all sects professing Christianity, except Quakers. St. John, the forerunner 
of our Saviour, is eminently called the Baptist, as being the first that publicly 
baptized with a spiritual intention. Christ came from Galilee to Jordan, 
and waa baptized by John. a. d. 30. Originally the people were baptized in 
rivoTS ; but in the reign of Constantino, a. d. 319, in great cities they built 
chapels, or places specially to baptize in, which in the eastern countries was 

38I1S0O . 

. 1339 


. 1467 

416 1810 . 

. - 2000 

1835 • 

- . ^ 

432 1820 . 

. ia'>8 


- 1308 

620 1825 - , . 

. - 2683 

1844 . 

- . 1064 

Digitized by 


190 TH£ world's progress. L^^^^ 

by dipping the person all over. Now, in the western and colder parts, thej 
1LS0 sprinkling; at first every church had not a baptistery belonging to it; 
our fonts answer the same end. — Pardon. 

BAPTISTS, OR Anabaptists, a sect distinguished from other Christians by their 
opinions respecting baptism, began their doctrine about a. d. 1526, but much 
earlier dates are mentioned. They suflered much persecution in England in 
the sixteenth century. Rhode Island, America, was settled by Baptists in 
1635. Of Baptist missions, it may be said, that the Moravian brethren led 
the way to their benevolent enterprises, about 1732. — See Anabaptists, 

BARBADOES, the first English settlement in the West Indies. This mother 
plantation gave rise to the sugar trade in England about 1605 ; and was, 
with other Caribbee islands, settled by charter granted to the earl of Marl- 
borough, 2 Charles 1. 1627. Barbadoes has suffered severely from elemental 
visitations : in a dreadfhl hurricane in 1780, more than 4000 of the inhabit- 
ants lost their lives. A large plantation with all its buildings was destroyed, 
by the land removing from its original site to another, and covering every 
thing in its peregrination, Oct. 1784. An inundation, Nov. 1795 ; and two 
great fires, May and Dec. 1796. Awful devastation, with the loss of thou- 
sands of lives, and of immense property, by a hurricane, August 10, 1831. 
The history of InkU and Yarico, which Addison, in his Spectator^ has re- 
corded for the detestation of mankind, took its rise in this island. 

BARBER. This trade was practised at Rome in the third century b.c. In 
England, barbers formerly exhibited a head, ov pule, at their doors; and the 
barber's pole until lately used by them was a burlesque imitation of the 
former sign. 

BARBER-SURGEONS. Formerly the business of a surgeon was united to that 
of a barber, and he was denominated a barber-surgeon. A company waa 
formed under this name in 1308. and tlie London company was incorporated, 
1st Edward IV. 1461. This union of profession was dissolved by a statute 
oC Henry VIII. 

BARDS. The profession of bard appeared with great lustre in Gaul, Britain, 
and Ireland. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard by Homer; Alexander the 
Great had a bard named Cherylus; and we lind bards, according to Strabo, 
among the Romans before the age of Augustus. The druids among the 
English were philosophers and priests, and the bards were their poets. 
They were the recorders of heroic actions, in Ireland and Scotland, almost 
down to our own times. Ossian flourished in the third century. Merlin in 
tlie fifth. The former speaks of a prince who kept a hundred bards. Irish 
sonnets are the chief foundations of the ancient history of Ireland. — See 

BARNET, Battle op, between the houses of York and Lancaster, when Bid- 
ward IV. gained a decisive and memorable victory over the earl of War- 
wick. Easter-day, April 14, 1471. — Brooks. 

BAROMETERS. Torricelli, a Florentine, having discovered that no principle 
of .suction existed, and that water did not rise in a pump owing to nature's 
abhorrence of 8 vacuum, imitated the action of a pump with mercury, and 
made the first barometer, in 1643, and Descartes explained the phenomena. 
Wheel barometers were contrived in 1668; pendant barometers in 1G96; 
marine in 1700. 
\RONS. The dignity of baron is extremely ancient: its original name in 
England was Vavasour, which, by the Saxons was changed into Tkane, and 
by the Normans into Baron. Many of this rank are named in the his- 
tory of England, and undoubtedly had assisted in. or had been summoned 
to parliament; but such is the deficiency of public records, that the first 

Digitized by 


bat] dictionary of dates. 191 

precept to be fljUDd is of no higher date than the 49th Henry HI., 1265. The 
first who was raised to this dignity by patent was John de Beaiichamp, 
created Baron of Kidderminster, by Richard II., 1387. Barons first sum- 
moned to parliament, 1205, Took arms against king John, and com- 
pelled him to sign the great charter of our liberties, and the charter of the 
forests, at Runnymcde, near Windsor, June 1215. Charles II. granted a 
coronet to barons on his restoration : they attended parliament in complete 
armor in the reign of Henry HI. — Beatson. 

BARONETS, the first among the gentry, and the only knighthood that is here- 
ditary : instituted by James I., 1611. The baronets of Ireland were created 
in 1619. Baronets of Nova Scotia were created, 1625. 

BARRISTERS. They are said to have been first appointed by Edward I. 
about 1291 ; but there is earlier mention of professional advocates in Eng- 
land. There are various ranks of barristers, as King's Counsel, Ser- 
geants, &c. 

BARROW'S STRAITS. Discovered by Parry, who penetrated as far as Mel- 
ville Island, in lat. 74*' 26' N., and long. 113° 47' W. The strait was entered 
on the 2d August, 1819. The lowest state of the thermometer was 55* 
below zero of Fahrenheit. 

BARTHOLOMEW, Massacre op St. This dreadful massacre in France com- 
menced at Paris on the night of the festival of St. Bartholomew, August 24, 
1572. More than seventy thousand Hugonots, or French Protestants, were 
murdered throughout the kingdom, by secret orders from Charles IX., at 
the instigation of the queen-dowager, Catherine de Medicis, his mother. 
The masaacre was attended with circumstances of demoniacal cruelty, even 
as regarded the female and the infant. 

BASTILE OP PARIS. A royal castle, built by Charles V. king of France, in 
1360, et scq. for the defence of Paris against the English, completed in 1383. 
It was afterwards used as a state prison, like the Tower of London, and be- 
came the scene of the most deplorable suffering and frightful crimes. It 
was of such strength that Henry IV. and his veteran army assailed it in 
vain in the siege of Paris, during the intestine war that desolated France 
between the years 1587 and 1594; yet it was pulled down by the infhriatcd 
populace, July 14, 1789, and thus was commenced the French revolution. 
On the capture of this great monument of slavery, the governor and other 
oflicers were seized, and conducted to the Place de Grfeve, and having had 
their hands cut off, they were then beheaded. The furious citizens having 
fixed their heads on pikes, carried them in triumph through the streets. 
'•Tlie man with the iron maik," the most mysterious prisoner ever known, 
died here, November 19, 1703. — See Irafi> Mask. 

BaTAYIA. The capital of Java, and of all the Dutch settlements in the Eagt 
Indies, fortified by that people, 1618. Twelve thousand Chinese massacred 
here in one day, 1740. Taken by the English, January, 1782. Again, by 
the British, under general sir Samuel Auchmuty, to whom the garrison 
surrendered, Aug. 8, 1811. 

BATHS, long used in Greece, and introduced by Maecenas into Rome. The 
thermae of the Romans and gymnasia of the Greeks were sumptuous. The 
marble Laocoon was found in the baths of Titus, and the Famese Herculea 
in those of Caracalla. — Slrdbo. 

BATTEL ROLL. After the battle of Hastings, which decided the fkte of 
England; and subjected it to the Norman yoke, a list was taken of William's 
chiefs, amounting to 629, and called the Battel-roU ; and among these chieft 
the lands and distinctions of the followers of the defeated Harold were dis- 
tributed, 1066. 

Digitized by 





BATTLE, Wager op. A trial by combat, formerly allowed by English laws, 
where the defendant in an appeal of murder might flffht with the appellant, 
and make proof thereby of his guilt or innocence. In a case of appeal *>f 
murder, Askfard v. Tkornton, before the King's Bench in London, April 1818, 
the court allowed that the law gave the defendant a right to his wager of 
battle ; but the appellant, the brother of a lovely girl, whom Thornton had 
first violated and then murdered, not accepting the challenge, the murderer 
was discharged. A statute was immediately passed, putting an end to this 
mode of trial, 69 George IIL, 1S19.— Statutes at large. 

BATTERING-RAM. Testudo Arietaria, with other military implements, some 
of w^hich are still in use, invented by Artemones, about 441 b. c. These 
ponderous engines by their own weight exceeded the utmost effects of our 
battering c^jmow.-^Desagvliers. Sir Christopher Wren employed a batter- 
ing-ram in demolishing the old walls of St. Paul's church, previously to re- 
building the new edifice in 1675. 

BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos was the first who ranged an army in n regu- 
lar line of battle, and placed sentinels round a camp, and excited the sol- 
dier's vigilance by giving him a watch- word. — Lenglet, The following are 
the principal and most memorable battles mentioned in gi/iieral history, and 
are those also that are most commonly referred to : 

Actium (/Ae empire of Rome is eon- 
firmed to ^UffUSlUS) - 
Arbcla (FaU of Persia) • 



Acre {Siege commenced) - 

iSir Sydney Smith) 

( Storm ing of) 

Adrianople iConstantine) 


Alford iCkivenantera) • 

Alexandria {Abercronibie) - 


Algiers {Exmouth) • 


Alderlon Moor 


Aliwal Undid) 

Almanza,, in Spain 

Anioy iCity taken) - 


Anjou, or Breagne - 

Anioign - 


Ascalon (.Richard I.) • 

Assaye ( Wellesley) - 





Balkan, passage of the • 



Bamoi {Edtoard IV.) 

Barrosa • 


Bayonne - 



- - 331 

July 26, 1799 
Mar. 18, 1799 
May 27, ibid 

Nov. 3, I&IO 

- 323 

May 16, 1811 

July 2, 1615 
Mar. 21, 1801 
May 17, 1799 
Aug. 27, 1816 

July 4, 1830 

- - 1613 
Oct. 25, 1415 
Jan. 20, 1846 
April 4, 1707 

Aug. 27, IWl 

Aug. 5, 1811 

. - 1421 

Aug. 13, 1792 

Nov. 19, 1796 

Sept. 3, 1191 
Sept. %\ 1803 

Oct. 14, 1806 
Aug. 24, 1796 

Dec. 2, 1305 
Mar. 11, 1811 

July 26, 1829 
Sept. 12, 1814 
June 25, 1314 

A. O. 

Berwick ... - 1378 

Bilboa (Bri7iM legion) Dec 24, 1836 

Blackheath ( Comtsh Rebels d^eated) 1497 
Blackrock (Amer. ^ Brit.) - Dec 3, 1813 
Bladensburg - - - Aug. 1», 1814 

Blenheim (Marlborough) Aug. 2, 1704 
Borodina • • • Sept. 7, 1812 

Bosworih - • Aug. 22, 1485 

Both well Bridge, Scotland- • -1679 

Boyne, Ireland • - July 1, 1690 

Bovines ^yench and Gennans) • • 1214 
Boxtel - • • Sept. 17, 1794 

Brandy wine - • • Sept. 11, 1777 

Brechin, Scotland • - - 1453 

Brenau {Austriana and Bavarians) • 1743 
Breslau - - - Nov. 22, 1757 

Briar's Creek • • - - 1779 

Brienne • • • Feb. 29, 1814 

Bridgewater (Americans and British) 

July 25, 1814 
Buena Vista (Amer. and Mexicans) 

Feb. 22, 1847 
Buenos Ay res (Pophani) 


Bunker's Hill 
Busaco • 
Brownsiowi) (Canada) 

June 21, 1806 

July 6, 1807 

June 17, 1773 

SepL 27, IBIO 

Aug. 8, 1612 


Cunnas (Victory of Hannibal) - 216 

Carthage (taJcen by Ptiblius Scipio) - 146 

Choeronea ( Tohnidas) • 

(Philip) . 

: (SyUa) _ 

Mar. 6, 181 1 

May 20, 1813 

Mar. 19, 1794 

- . 1456 

- 1717 

Bennington (Amer 4 Brit.) - Aus. 1777 
Bergen - - • April 13, 1759 

April 14, 1471 ! Cnidos (Lysander kiUed) 
" '" Cranon, in Thcssaly • 

Calais taken 
Calcutta (India) - 
Camdfti (Amer. * Brit.) 
- (Amer. ^ Brit.) - 



. . 406 

A. D. 

.Jan. 7, 1558 
June 1756 
Aug. 16, 178(V 
Apnl 2S, 1781 

Sept. 19 and Oct. 2, 1799 | Campo Santo 

Ber^en-op-Zoora (taken) • 1747 i Canton (Bogue forts taken) Feb. 26, 1841 

— '■ . - Mar. 6, 1814 Casiel Nuoto - Sept. 29, 1806 

Beresina - - - Sept. 7, 1812 1 CaMella - • April 13, 1813 

Digitized by 





BATTLES, continued. 

' 1706 

Aag. 28, 1796 

July 2, 1796 

. - 1453 

. 1690 

JutM 17, 1794 

Oissano CPrincB Eugmni) 

Gaatlebar iPreneh) • 


Catiillon, la Guleone 


Charleroi Fleunii - 

Charleston (loJfcen by the BritiMh) 

Mmj 12, 1780 
Cb»pnltBptcUin.fMes.)9evLl2-\i, 1848 
Chippewa - Jaly 6 and 2S, 1814 

— i-l_ . . . Ocu 1814 

Ciudad Rodrigo {inveated) Jane 11, 1812 

ittomud) - Jan. 19, 1812 

Clontarf, Ireland • • - 1039 

GonManiina (.Alters) . Oct. 13, 1837 
Cootreraa {Amer. and Mexican*} • 1848 
Oorunna, {Moore) • • Jaa 16, 1809 

Cowpena (Amer. t Brit.) - • 1781 

Craney island (Atnerieane and Brit.) 

June 21, 1813 
Creaty (/cA Dien) • • Aug. 25, 1316 

Cullodan (Pretender) • Apnl 16, 1746 
Ciioneradorf • • - Aug. 12, 17G9 

Detroit ieurrendered) • Aug. 16, 1812 
Dottingen {Oeorge II.) • • • 1743 

Dr«flden • • • Aug. 26, 1813 

Dreux. in Franca • • • • 1562 

Drogheda {taken by atorm) • - 1649 

Dumblain {Skeriff-Muir) - Nor. 12, 1715 
Danbar • Sept. 3, 1650 

{King of Scote taken) 
^ Siere of, 

l>uagan Hill- ' • - Jaly 10, 1647 

l>iinkirk • - Sept. 7, 1793 

Dunsinane • - • - • 1054 

Durham, Neril's Cross • 1346 

EastDon {Americans and Britieh) 

^ July 1814 

EdgehiU fight - Oct 23, 1642 

i*. Foil . - Aug. 15, 1814 

Erzeroum ( Tlurits oimI Prasstons) - 1745 
Eotaw Springs • • • 1781 

Eresfaam • Aug. 4, 1265 

Eylau - - Feb. 8, 1807 

Fairfield {Amer. 4- Brit.) • - 1779 

Falkirk, {Wallaee) • • July 22, 1296 

Flatbush, L. L {Am. ^ BnV.) Aug. 27, 177G 

Sept 9, 1513 
Feb. 17, 1814 
April 30, 1745 

July 9, 1755 
Jan. 22, 1813 

June 4, 1745 
Juna 14, 1807 


• 334 


. Oct. 4, 1777 

• 1198 
Mar. 16, 1781 
July 19, 1333 
Orx 17, 1806 
Oct. 29, 1813 

„_ . Oct. 14, 1066 

Hexham < Yorkiete dtfeaUd) May 15, 1464 
Bochkirchen • • Oct. 14, 1758 

Hofaeolindsn Nor. 3, 1800 


iamtalAntvomteeUun) • • • 901 

Sni (IUMA P^rHana tiaiit) • 333 


Fontainebleau • 


Port du Qoana • 

French Town, Canada 


Fiiadland - 

Granicui - 

fiermantown • 

Gison {Dieu et man droiO 


Halkhm HiU, Berwick • 

Halle {Bemadotte) - 

Hanaa (TTrede) 

Hastings {Conguest) 

~ ■ "'trkie' ^ 



Jena - 

Ket and Warwick 

Killiecrankie, Scotland 

Kowno - 


Leuctra • 

Not. 6, 
Oct. 14, 

July 27* 
Dee. 14, 
Nor 16, 

LMffeldi{Duke^Cmnbertand) • • 
Landshut (PrMssions and Attatriane) 

{Auetriane) • April 21, 

Langside - May 13, 

Leipzic • - • Ocu 16, 

Lepanto(OresJfcs) • May 9, 

Lewes . • • May 14, 

Lexington (Am«r.revo<«lf0fi) April 19, 


June 16, 

Feb. 2, 

May 19, 

May 10, 
Aug. 27, 

May 2, 

Lisle {taken by the AUiee) 

Lissa . . > . 


Long Island •' 

Lutzen • 

Lutzingen {Cfuetavue elain) 

Mantinea {Epqminendae elain) 
Munda, in Spain 

McHeniy, Fort {Amerieani and Brit.) 
Oct. 13, 
Malplaquet {Mar^orough) 
Manbeim • • May 30, 

- . July 12, 

. - - Sept.23, 

Mantua • • • May 29, 
" - - - Jan. 31, 

June 14, 


Sept. 12-14, 

April 27, 

Aug. 1, 

Marengo - 

Marignan, Italy 

Marston Moor • 


Milan • 


Miuau {Sheedee and Jtueeiane) 

Mockem • • April 1, 

. . Oct. 14, 

Mohartz, Hungary • 
Molwitz - . - April 10, 

Monmouth {Amer. ^ Brit.)' June 28, 
Monterey {Mexico) • Sept. 24, 
Monimorenci • - Aug. 10, 

Moodkee, India • Pee. 18, 

Morea ( Caetle eurrendere) Oct. 28, 
Moscow {burnt) Sept. 4, 

Moskwa • - Sept. 7, 

Moscow {retaken)_ - Oct 22, 

Narra ( Charlee XII. qf Sweden) - 
Naseby - • - June 14, 


Newbury . . - • • 

{eeeond battle) . 0<.t. 20, 

New London {burnt by the Britieh) • 
New Orleans • JanB, 

Niagara, Fort • • • Nor. 

Nisbet . • • May 7, 

}ioxMk {burnt by the Bntieh) Juno 
Northallerton, {or the battle ^f the 
Slandafd) . . . • 


B. o. 


B. a 
. 363 
• 45 
A. p. 



Digitized by 



THE .world's PROORESS. 


BA'H'LKS, continued. 

A. S. 

Norwalk ibumtbytht Brit.} Aug. 22, 1779 
Nori {Suwarrow) - Aug. 16, 1799 

. - . Jan. 8, 1800 

Ogden8buig<BrtrMAaii<i Americans) 

Feb. 22, 1813 
Oporto • • - Maj 11, 1809 

Ouerbum (Chevy Chase) • • • 1308 

Oudenaid iMariborough) July 11, 1706 


Phanalia - • . -48 

Phiiippi CRoman Republic endt) • 42 


Palo k\\o{}»tofAmer. 4- Mex.) May 8, 1816 
Parma (Austrtane and French) • 1734 

iSuwDarrow)' • July 12, 1799 i 

Patay {Joan of Arc and the English) 1429 
'Pzr\AifyencAandAustrians)Feh.2ij 1525 
Penaacola (taken by general Jackson) 

Nov. 20, 1814 
Peterwarden - Aug. 6, 1717 

Pfaflindorf • • • Aug. 15, 17(50 

Pinkey - • - Sept. 10, 1547 , 

Plattafaurg (Americans and British) \ 

Sept. 11, 1814 
Poiiien - - . Sept 19, 1356 

Prague . - . Nor. 9, 1G20 

Princeton (Amer. &Brit.) 
FultowsL (Charles XII) - July 8, 1709 
Puliusk . • - Dec. 26, 1806 

Pyrenees . • • July 28, 1813 

(luatre Bras -• • June 16, 1815 
Quebec (or the plains of Abraham) 

Sept. 13, 1759 
(death of Montgom«ry)l>ec. 21. 1775 

April 28, 1760 

I Sobraon (India) - Febi IC, 1846 

I Solwav Moss • • Not. 36, 1&12 

Sl Albana ( York and Lancaster) • 1455 

(second) • - - • 1461 

I St. Denis (Motttmorenei) • • 1567 

, St Dizier. Franca - • Jan. 27, 1814 

I St. Sebastian - • May 5, 1836 

Stamford • • - Mar. 13, 1470 

Stony Point (taken by the Amiricans) 1779 

I Stratton (poet Waller) - May 16, 1643 

I Talavera de la Reyna • July 27, 1809 

Tarragona - - • Jan. 24, iSI2 

Tewkesbury ■ May 4, 1471 

Thames (Americaf and Brit.) Sept. 1813 

Thermopylte (Qreetts) - July 13, 1S22 

Tiiie.'noni(/VencAam2iltftea) - 1705 

Toplitz (Austrians and Pntseians) • 17G2 

- . Aug. 30, 1813 

Toumay . - May 8, 1793 

Toulon . • Oct, 1, 1793 

Toulouse - . • April 10, 1814 

Towion - . . Mar. 29, 1461 

Trenton (ilmer, 4- Brit.) - Dec. 26, 7, 1776 
Turin (French and Germans) - 1706 

Ulm . . . June 21, 1800 

(aurrcndered) Oct. 29, 1805 

Valenciennes • • May 23, 1793 

Varna (surrenders) • Oct. 11. 1:25 

Vera Cruz (taken by Amer. Gen, Scott) 

March 27, 1817 

Villa Franca . " 

Vimiera ( Wellington) 
Vittoria, Spain 

May 6, 1757 ' Valenciennes 
Jan. 2, 1777 " 

■■ ... Aum <«3^ i/wu I Wakefield • 

Uueenstown (Amer. ^ Brit.) Oct. 13, 1812 ' Warsaw 

Kamilies (Marlborough) ■ May 23, 1706 i - 

Resaca de la Palma (Mexico) May 9, 18^6 ' (taken) • 

Rosbach • • - Nov. 17, 138:2 Washington (burnt by the British) 

. - Nov. 5. 1787 ; Aug. 1814 

fiackett's Harbor (Americane and \ Waterloo • June 18, 1815 

British) - . - - 1813 , White Plains Uwer. t Brt'O OcL 28, 1776 

iSalamanca • • • July 22, 1812; - Nov. .%, ifrtrf 

April 10, 1812 
6cL21, 1808 
- - 170a 
June 21, 1813 
Julys, 1809 
Dec. 31, 1460 
OcL 10, 1794 
Nov. 8, ibid 
SepL 8, 1831 


(Charles II.)* 

June 12. 1831 
Sept. 13, 1&42 
- . 1651 
July 1778 

San Mareuil (Spaniards) Aug. 4^ 1813 
Saratoga (Burgoyne*s surrender) ' 

Oct. 17, 1777 
^vannah (taken by the British) I 

Dec. 29, 1778 
Schwcrdnitx • - Aug. 16, 1762 ; 

SH^cmoor • • • July 5, 16So . 

Seidlitz (PoZe«) • - Mar. 31, 1831 ' 

Sempach • • • July 9, 1386 

Seringapauim .... 1791 

(Tippoo reduced) • . 1791 , 

(Ttppoo killed) May 4, 1799 ' 

Shrewsbury • • July 21, 1403 ' 

Skenesborough • • July 7, 1777 • 

Smolensko - • • Aug. 27, 1812 ' 

BAVARIA, House op. The dukedom founded in the eleventh century: this 
house has the same origin as that of Saxonj, and is a branch of the Guel- 
phian family ; Henry Guelph was made duke of Bavaria by Conrad IL, em- 
peror of Germany, who reie:ned in 1024. Otho, count 'Wittelpatch, was 
made duke in 1179; and Maximilian I. elector in 1624. Bavaria waa 

* Thii battle and defeat of Charles put a period to th« civil war in England. 
N. B.— Many of ilw above battlaa axa deMnbad mon fully under ^aith nama^ 

Wyoming massacre 
York (Canada) captured by Ameri- 
cans - - April 27, 1813 
York Town (surrender of ComieaUis) 

Oct. 19, 1781 

n. o. 

Zama (Sa'pio and Hannibal) • • 302 

Zela. (C<tsar : venij vidiy vicO - 47 

Zeuta, Hungary (Prince Eugene) 
Zurich .... 

A. D. 

• 1G97 

• 1799 

Digitized by 



erected Into a kingdom by Bonaparte in December 1806 ; and obtained bj 
the treaty of Presburg^ the incorporation of the whole of tlie. Italian and 
German Tyrol, the bishopric of Anspach, and lordships in Germany. This 
kingdom joined the coalition against France in Oct. 1818. Bavarian cham- 
ber recommends freedom of the press, &c., by almost unanimous vote, Oct 
17, 1847. Riots at Munich on account of Lola Monies, the king's mistress, 
Feb. 9, 1848. Violent movement ai Munich ; the king abdicates in favur of 
his son, Maximilliau II., March 22, 1848. 

KiMOB ov BAVARIA. I 1825 Louis, 13th October ;— alxlicata^ 

1805 Maximilian Jomph, the preceding elec- 1 March 22, 1818. 

tor, created king. | 1848 Maximilian IL 

DAYEUX TAPESTRY. This important historical Jocument was wrought by 
Matilda, the queen of William I., and represents the facts of the Conquest, 
from the signature of the will of the Confessor down to the crowning of 
William, 1066. — JRapin. This curious monument of antiquity embroidered 
by Matilda, is 19 inches wide, 214 feet long, and is divided into compart- 
ments showing the train of events, commencing with the visit of Harold to 
the Norman court, and ending with his death at Hastings ; it is now prese^ ;ed 
in the town-house of Rouen. — Agnes Strickland. 

BAYONETS. The short sword or dagger fixed at the end of a musket. This 
weapon was invented at Bayonne, in France (whence the name), about 1670. 
According to the abbe Lenglet, it was first used in battle by the French, in 
1603, '* with great success against an enemy unprepared fbr the encounter 
with so formidable a novelty." 

BAZAAR, OR Covered Market. The word is of Arabic origin. The bazaar 
of Ispahan is masiiificent, yet it is excelled by that of Tauris, which has 
several times held 80,000 men in order of battle. 

BE \DS. The Druids appear to have used beads. They were early used by 
Dervises and other holy men of the East. They were in ^neral use in 
Roman Catholic devotions, a. d. 1213. The bead-roll was a list of deceased 
persons for the repose of whose souls a certain num))er of prayers were re- 
cited, which the devout counted by a string of beaos. — Butler. 

BEARDS. Various have been the customs of most nations respecting them. 
The Tartars, out of a religious principle, waged a long and bloody war with 
the Persians, declaring them infidels, because they would not cut their 
beards after the rites of Tartary. The Greeks wore their beards till the 
time of Alexander, who ordered the Macedonians to be shaved lest the 
beard should give a handle to their enemies, 830 b. c. Beards were worn 
by the Romans, 297 b. c. They have been worn for centuries by the Jews. 
In England, they were not fashionable after the Conquest, a. d. 1066, until 
the thirteenth century, and were discontinued at the Restoration. The 
Russians, even of rank, did not cut their beards until within these fow 
years; and Peter the Great, notwithstanding his enjoining them to shave, 
was obliged to keep ofiicers on foot to cut off the beard by force. 

BEARDS ON WOMEN. A bearded woman was taken by the Prussians at the 
battle of Pultowa, and presented to the Czar, Peter I. 1724 : her beard 
measured 1^ yards. A woman is said to have been seen in Paris with a bushy 
beard and her whole body covered with hair. — Diet, de Trevoiix. The 
CTeat Margaret, governess of the Netherlands, had a very long stift* beard 
In Bavaria, in the time of Wolfius, a virgin had a long black beard. 

BEAUVAIS, Heroines op. On the town of Beauvais being besieged by 
Charles the BoW, duke of Burgundy, at the head of 80 000 men. the women 
under the conduct of Jeanne de la Hachette. or Laine, particularly distin- 
eaished themselves, and the duke was oblieed to raise the siege. July 10, 
1472. In memory of their noble exploits auring the siege, the females of 

Digitized by 


196 THB world's progress [bbb 

Befluvafs walk first in a procession on the anniTersaiy of tbeirdeliTenmoo 

— HenauU. 

BECKET'S MURDER. Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered at 
the altar, Dec. 29, 1171. Four barons hearing Henry II. say, in a moment 
of exasperation, "What an unhappy prince am I. who have not about me 
one man of spirit enough to rid me of this insolent prelate," resolvcnl upon 
Beclcet's as.sa8sination ; and rushing with drawn swords into the cathedral 
of Canterbury, where he was at vespers, they announced their design, when 
he cried out, " I charge you, in the name of the Almighty, not to hurt any 
other person here, for none of them have been concerned in the late trans- 
actions." The confederates then strove to drag him ttom the church ; but 
not being able to do so, on account of his resolute deportment, they killed 
him on the spot with repeated wounds, all which he endured without a 
groan. The bones of Becket were enshrined in gold and set with jewels, in 
1220; and were taken up and burned in the reign of Hi nry VIII. 1539. — 

BED. The practice was universal in the first ages, for mankind to sleep upon the 
skins of beasts. — WkiUaker. This was the custom of the early Greeks and 
Romans, and of the Britons, before tlie Roman invasion. They were after- 
wards changed for loose rushes and heather. Straw followed, and was used 
in the royal chambers of England so late as the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The Romans were the first who used feathers. 

BEER. See Ale, A beverage of this sort is made mention of by Xenophon, in 
his famous retreat, 401 b. c. Beer was drunk generally in England in the 
thirteenth century. By a law of James I., when there was a kmd of duty 
paid on " ale called bere" one quart of the best thereof was to be sold for a 
penny. Subjected to excise in 1660. In England the number of retailers In 
1834 amounted to about 60,000. See Brewers. 

BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of Its odoriferous flowers, thyme, and abun- 
dance of honey, has been f)oeticalIy called the " empire of bees." Hymettns, 
in Attica, is also famoiis for its bees and honey. The economy of bees was 
admired in the earliest ages ; and Eumclus, of Corinth, wrote a poem on 
bees, 741 b. c. There are 292 species of the bee, or apis genus, and 111 in 
England. Strange to say, bees were not originally natives of New England : 
they were introduced into Boston by the English, in 1670, and have since 
spread over the whole continent ; the first planters never saw tinj.—Hardie*s 

BEET-ROOT. It is of recent cultivation in England. MargrafT first produced 
sugar from the white beet-root, in 1747. M. Achard produced excellent 
sugar from it in 1799 ; and the chemists of France at the instance of Bo- 
naparte, largely extracted sugar from the beet-root in 1800. A refinery of 
sugar from beet-root was lately erected at the Thames-bank, Chelsea. 

BEGUINES. Nuns, first established at Liege, and afterwards at Nivelle, in 
1207. The '• Grand Beguinage " of Bruges is the most extensive of modem 
times. — Some of these nuns once fell into the extravagant error that they 
could, in this life, arrive at the highest moral perfection, even to impeo> 
cabiiity. The council of Yieune condemned this error, and abolished a 
branch of the order in 1311. 

BEHEADING— or DccoUalio of the Romans, introduced into England from Noiv 
mandy (as a less ignominious mode of putting high criminals to death) by 
William the Conqueror, 1074. when Waltheo^ earl of Huntingdon, North- 
ampton, and Northumberland, was first so executed. — Salmon's Chron, 
English history is fiUed with instances of this mode of ezecation, partica« 

Digitized by 




larly in the reigns of Henry VIII., and Mary, when even women of the noblest 
blood, greatest virtues, and most innocent lives, thus suffered death.* 
BEHRING'S STRAIT. Explored by a Danish navicator in the service of Rus- 
sia whoso name it bears. Behring thus established that the continents 
of Asia and America are not united, but are distant from each other about 
thirty-nine miles, 1728. 
BELGIUM. Late the southern portion of the kingdom of tlie Netherlands, 
and anciently the territory of the Belg«B, who were conquered by /uliufl 
Ciesar, 47 b. c. Under the dominion of France so late as a. d. 1369 ; formed 
into a kingdom in 1831. 

Became an acquisition of the house of 

Austria .... 1477 
C*>arlea V annexed the Nellierlands to 

the crown oi Spain • • - 1556 

Seven protr inces, under William, prince 
ol'Orange, revolt, owing to the tyranny 
of Philip II. J freed- - - 1579 

The ten remaining provinces are given 

to the archduke - - • 1598 

The^* again fall to Spain • • • 1643 

Seven again ceded to Genaany • 1714 

And three to Prance - - - 1748 

Austrians expelled ; but their rule aAer- 

wards refstored • - - • 1780 

The French entered Belgium Nov. 1, 1792 
United to France • Sept. 30, 1793 

Placed under the sovereignty of the 

house of Orange • > • 1814 

The revolution commences at Brussels 

Aug. 25, 1830 
The Provisional Government declares 

Belgium independent • Oct. 4, 1830 
The ^Igian troops tatce Antwerp ; the 
Dutch are driven to the citadel, fi-om 
whence they cannonade the town, 

Oct. 27. 1830 
Belgian independence acknowledged 

This last treaty arose oiit of the conference held in London on the Belgian 
question ; by the decision of which, the treaty of November 15, 1831, was 
maintained, and the pecuniary compensation of sixty millions of ihincs, 
offered by Belgium for the territories adjudged to Holland, was declared in- 

BELGRADE, Battle or, between the German and Turkish armies, in which 
the latter was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, fought 1456. Belgrade 
was taken by Solyman, 1522 ; and re-taken by the Imperialists in 1688, from 
whom it again reverted to the Turks in 1690. Taken by prince Eugene in 
1717 {see next article^, and kept till 1739, when it was ceded to the Turks. 
It was again taken m 1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in 

BiXGRADE. Sieqe op. The memorable siege, so often quoted, was undcN 
taken in May, 1717, under prince Eugene. On August 5, of that year, the 
Turkish array, of 200,000, approached to relieve it, and a battle was fought, 
in which the Turks lost 20.000 men; after which Belgrade surrendered. 
Belgrade has been frequently besieged. See Sieges. 

by the Allied Powers, announced by 

VanderWeyer • Dec. 26, 1830 

Duke de Nemours elected king; but 

his father, the king of France, refuses 

his consent > Feb. 3, 1831 

M. Surlet de Chokier is elected regent 

of Belgium • • Feb. 2i, 1831 

Leopold, prince of Coburg, is elected 

king . - July 12, 1831 

He enters Brussels • 'July 19, 1831 

The king of the Netherlands reconi* 

mences the war - Aug. 3, 1831 

[France sends COfiOO troops to assist 

Belgium, and an armistice endues.] 
A conference of the ministers of the five 

great powers is held in l^nUon, which 

terminates in the acceptance of the 

24 articles of pacification • Nov. 15, 1831 
Leopold marries Louise, eldest daughter 

ol Louis Philippe • • Aug. 9, 1832 
The French army rBtums to France 

Dec. 27, 1832 
Riot at Brussels (see Bruttets) ; much 

mischief ensues - • April 6, 1834 
Treaty between Holland and Belgium, 

signed in London • April 19, 1838 

Among other instances (besides queens of England), may be mentioned the f^dy Jane Oraj, 
aded,Fer '" -^ " " -' '" "= • ' • 

. Feb. 12, 1554; and the venerable countess of Salisbury— the lauer remarkable for her 
resistance of the executioner. When he directed her to lay her nead on the block, she refused to 
do it; telling him, that she knew of no guilt, and would not submit to die like a criminal. Ho pur* 
mad her round and round the scaflbid, aiming at her hoary head, and at lengiii took it off, aftei 
flaaogliog the neck and shoulders of the illustrious victim in a horrifying manner. She was daughtef 
of George, duke of Clarence, and last of the royal line of Plantagenat. May 27, 1541.— ^ume. 

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198 THE world's progress. [bot 

BELL, BOOK, ind CANDLE; un ecclesiastical ceremony of the Romiah 

churcli, used in excommunication, which see. 

iJELLES-LETTRES, or Polite Learning. We owe the revival of the belles- 
lettres in Europe, after the darkness of previous a^s to Brunetto, lAtiDi, 
and other learned men in ditfereut countries, about a. d. 1272. — Geti. Hist, 
Learning greatly promoted by the Medici family in Italy, about 1550.— /-^im- 
taiia. Literature began to flourish in France. Germany, and England, about 
this time. The belles-lettres commenced in England in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, and flourished in that of Anne. 

BELLOWS. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have been the inventor of 
them, about 669 b. c. To him is also ascribed the invention of tinder, the 
potter's wheel, anchors for ships, &c. Bellows were not used in the furna- 
ces of the Romans. 

BELLS. Used among the Jews, Greeks, Roman Catholics, and heathens. The 
responses of the Dodonsean oracle were in part conveyed by bells. — Strabo. 
The monument of Porsenna was decorated by pinnacles, each surmounted 
by bells. — Pliny, Introduced by Paulinus, bishop cf Nole, in Campagna, 
about A. D. 400. First known in France in 550. The army of Clothair II., 
king of France, was frighted from the siege of Sens by tlie ringing of the 
bells of St. Stephen's church. The second Excerption of our king Egbert 
commands every priest, at the proper hours, to sound the bells of his church. 
Bells were used in churches by order of pope John IX., as a defeiue, by ring- 
ing them, against thunder and UMning^ about 900. First cast in England 
by Turkeytel, chancellor of England, under Edmund I. His successor im- 
proved the invention, and caused the first tunable set to be put up at 
Croyland abbey, \i^^.—Sl(noe. 

Great Bell of Su Pauls, weighs • lbs. 8,400 

Great Tom oi Lincoln - • 9.S94 

Great Tom of Oxford • • • 17,000 

Bell of the Palazzo, Florence -17,000 

The last is the great unsuspendcd bell, the wonder of travellers. Its metal 
alone is valued, at a very low calculation, at £66,565 sterling. In its fusion 
great quantities of gold and silver were thrown in as votive offerings by the 

BELLS, Baptism op. They were early anointed and baptized in churches. — 
Dm, Presnoy. The bells of the priory of Little Dunmow, in Essex, were 
baptized by the name of St. Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinity, 
&c., in 1501. — Weorer. The srcat bell of Notre Dame, in Paris, was bap- 
tized by the name of Duke of Angouldme, in 1816. On the Continent, in 
the Catholic states, they baptize bills as we do ships, but with religious 
solemnity. — Ashe. 

BENEDICTINES. An order of monks founded by Benedict, who was the 
first that introduced the monastic life into the western part of Europe, in 
the beginning of the sixth century. No religious order has been so remark- 
able for extent, wealth, and men of note, as the Benedictine. It spread 
over a large portion of Europe, but was superseded in the vast influence it 
possessed over other reli^ous coramimities. about a.d. 1100. The Bene- 
dictines appeared early in England ; and William I. built them an abbey oa 
the plain where the battle of Hastings was fought, 1066. 
William de Warrcnne. earl of Warren, built them a convent at Lewes, iu 
Essex, in 1077. At Hammersmith is a nunnery, whose inmates are denomi- 
nated Benedictine dames. — Leigh. Of this order, it is reckoned that there 
have been 40 popes, 200 cardinals. 50 patriarchs, 116 archb.shops, 460G 
bishops, 4 emperors, 12 empresses, 46 king« 41 queens, and 36(X) sainta. 
Their founder was canonized.— J9ar<mt«/ 

St. Peter's, at Rome - . lbs. 18,607 

Groat Bell at Erfurth • • 28.;!^ 

St. Ivan's Bell, Moscow • • 127,836 

Bell of the Kremlin • - 443,772 

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BENEFICES. Clerical benefices originated in the twelfth century; till then 
the priests were supported by alms and oblations at mass. All that should 
become vacant in the space of six months were given by pope Clement VTI. 
to his nephew, in 1634. — Notitia Monaslica. Xlie number of benefices in 
England, according to parliamentary returns, is 10 533, and the number of 
glebe-houses 6,527 ; these are exclusive of bishoprics, deaneries, canonries, 
prebendaries, priest-vicars, lay-vicars, secondaries, and similar church pre- 
ferments. The number of parishes is 11,077, and of churches and chapels 
about 12,000. The number of benefices in Ireland is 1456, to which there 
are not more than about 900 glebe-houses attached, the rest having no 
glebe-houses. — See Church of England. 

BEN'EFIT OP CLERGY. A privilege first eiyoyed only by clergymen, but 
afterwards extended to lettered laymen, relating to divers crimes, and par- 
ticularly manslaughter. The ordinary gave the prisoner at the bar a Latin 
book, in a black uothic character, fVoni which to read a verse or two ; and 
if the ordinary said " l/tgit ut cltriciis" the offbnder was only burnt in the 
hand, otherwise he suffered death, 8 Edward I., 1274. This privileee was 
abolished with respect to murderers and other great criminals, as also the 
claim of sanctuary, by Henry VIIL, 1513. — Stmoe. Benefit of clergy was 
wholly repealed by statute 7 and 8 George IV., June 1827. 

States. The known voluntary contributions by citizens of Boston alone, 
dnring 45 years, ending 1845, was ascertained to be (see details in American 
Almanac, 1846) as follows : 

For theoloj^cal education and other 

religiouii objects • • 81,054,966 

For purpoaefl of instruction -1,095,594 

For charitable purposes • •2,162,412 

For miscellaneous objects (such as 
monuments, &c.) - • - 


Total ■ •4,751,293 

[Exclusive of the contributions in churches, for the poor, &c. The popular 
tion of Boston, in 1800. was about 25,000 ; in 1845, about 114,000. Few 
cities can boast of such miuiificence, in proportion to the number of in- 

BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES— some of the principal in the United States. 

Formed. Income' 


Formed. Income, 
Amer. Board of Com. Foreign 1 849. 

Missions • - . 1810 . 1260.897 

Amer. Sunday Sch. Union • 1824 207,764 
« Bible Society - -1816. 2«,.'314 
Tract Society - -1814- 308,42^ 
Ilome Miss. Society - 1826 . 157,460 

Amer. Education Society - 1816 - •32,7.'i4 

" Colonization Society 1819 17,414 

Seamen's Friend Society - 23,497 

- - - 1819- 

Miss. Soc. Methodist Church 
Presbyterian Board Mi.<»ions 


United States ship, Jamestown, sailed from Ro^on for Cork, loaded with provisions, to be 
fd^ren to the disiitute Irish, March 28th, 1847. The frigate Macedoman sailed from 
New York on same ermnd, July 8, 1847. 

Abbott Lawrence gave tiiOjOOO to Harvard College, for scientific department, June, 1847. 

BENGAL. Of the existence of Bengal as a separate kingdom, there is no 
record. It was ruled hy governors delegated by the sovereigns of Delhi in 
1S40, vhcn it became independent, until 1560. It afterwards fell to the 
Mogul empire. — See India. 

The Enellsh were firm permitted to 

trade to Bengal • a. n. 1534 

Factories of the French and Danes • 1664 
First factory at Calcutta - - 1690 

The settlements first placed in a state 

of defence .... 1694 
Calcutta bought, and fortified • - 1700 
lu jarrfeon consisted of only 129 sol- 

dien, of whom but 55 were Europeans 1706 

Calcutta taken by Surriah Dowla : and 
the dreadful ailairorthe Black-hole- 1756 

Retaken by Colonel Clive - • 1757 

Imperial grant, vesting the revenues of 
Bengal in the Company, by which 
the virtual sovereignty of the country 
was obuiined • - Aug. 12, 1766 

Celebrated India-bill ; Beugal made the 
chief presidency • • June 16, 1773 

see IfMf la 

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SOO THE world's progress. [BCf 

BEIRESINA, Battle op. Total defeat of the French main army by the Rns- 
Bians on the banks of the Beresinai followed by their disastrous passage of 
it when escaping out of Russia. The French lost 20,000 men in the battle, 
and in their retreat the career of their glory was closed, Nov. 28, 1812. 

BERGEN, Battle of, between the French and allies, the latter defeated, April 
14, 1759. The allies aniin defeated by the French with great loss, Sept. 1^ 
1799. In another battfe, fought Oct. 2, same year, the allies lost 4,000 men; 
and on the 6th, Uiey were a^ain defeated before Alkmaer, losing 6,000 men. 
On the 20th, the duke of York entered into a convention by which he 
' exchanged his army for 6,000 French and Dutch prisoners in England. 

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, whose works were deemed impregnable, taken by tha 
French, Sept. 16, 1747, and again in 1794. Here a gallant attempt was 
made by the British, under Granam, to carry the fortress by storm, but it 
was defeated ; after forcing an entrance their retreat was cut off, and a 
dreadful slaughter ensued; nearly all wei» cut to pieces or made prisoners, 
March 8, 1814. 

BERLIN. Founded by the margrave Albert, sumamed the Bear, in 1163. Ita 
five districts were united under one magistracy, in 1714 : and it was subse- 
quently made the capital of Prussia. This city was taken by an army of 
Russians, Austrians, and Saxons, in 1760, but they were obliged to retire in 
a few days. On Oct. 27, 1806, thirteen days after the battle of Jena, the 
French entered Berlin, and fVom its palace Napoleon issued his famous 
Berlin decree. — See next article. 

BERLIN DECREE, a memorable interdict against the commerce of England. 
It declared the British islands to be in a state of blockade, and all English- 
men found in countries occupied by French troops were to be treated as 
prisoners of war ; the whole world, in fact, was to cease from any commu- 
nication with Great Britain : issued by Bonaparte from the court of the 
Prussian king, shortly after the battle of Jena (which, for the time, decided 
the fate of Prussia), Nov. 21, 1806.— See Jena. 

BERMUDAS or SOMMERS' ISLES, discovered by Joao Bermudas, a Spaniard, 
in 1527 ; but they were not inhabited until 1609, when sir George Sommers 
was cast away upon them. They were settled by a statute of 9 James I., 
1612. Awful and memorable hurricane here, October 31, 1780. Another, 
by which a third of the houses was destroyed, and all the shipping driven 
ashore, July 20, 1813. , 

BERNARD, MOUNT St. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginian 
army by this pass into Italy ; and it w*as by the same route that Bonaparte 
led his troops to the plains of Lombardy, before the battle of Marengo, 
fought Juno 14. 1800. 

BERNARDINE MONKS. This order was founded by Robert, abbot of Mo- 
leme, in the twelfth century. On the summit of the Great St. Bernard is a 
large community of monks, who entertain in their convent all traveUer* 
gratis for three days. — Brooke. 

BERWICK. This town was the theatre of many bloody contests between the 
English and Scots ; and while England and Scotland remained two king- 
doms, was always claimed by the Scots as belonging to them, because it 
stood on their side of the river. Berwick was burned in 1173, and again in 
121G. It was taken from the Scots, and annexed to England, 1333 ; and 
after having been taken and retaken many times, was finaUy ceded to En<|- 
land in 15(^2. The town surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, and aflerwardt 
to general Monk. Since the union of the crowns (James 1. 1603), the forti- 
fications, which were formerly very strong, have been much neglected. 

BETHLEHEM, the birth-place of Christ. The Bethlehemite monks, who 

Digitized by 



had an order in England in 1257, are named from this once distinguished 
city. It now contains a church, erected by the famous St. Helena, in tho 
form of a cross ; also a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, where 
they pretend to show the manger in which Christ was laid ; another, called 
the Chapel of Joseph ; and a third, of the Holy Innocents. Bethlehem is 
much visited by pilgrims. — Ashe. 

BEYROUT. This city, which was colonized from Sidon, was destroyed by an 
tfarthquake, a. d. 666. It was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed by the 
Christians and Saracens ; and after a frequent change of masters, fell into 
the power of Amurath iV., since when it remained with the Ottoman em- 
pire up to the revolt of Ibrahim Pacha, in 1832. Total defeat of the Egyp- 
tian army by the allied British, Turkish, and Austrian forces, and evacua- 
tion of Beyrout, the Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 
and 20 pieces of cannon, Oct. 10, 1840. 

BIARCHV. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, he left two soqs twins, 
Eur>''sthenes and Procles ; and the people not knowing to whom precedence 
should be ^iven, placed them both upon the throne, and thus established 
the first biarchy, 1102 b. c. The descendants of each reigned alternately 
for 800 years. — Herodotus. 

BIBLE. The first translation from the Hebrew into the Greek was made by 
acventy-two interpreters, by the order of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; it is thence 
called the Septuagint version, and was completed in seventy-two days, at 
Alexandria, 277 b. c. — Josepkus. It was commenced 284 b. c. — Lenglct. In 
283. — Blair. The Jewish sanhedrim consisted of seventy or seventy-two 
members ; and hence, probably, the seventy or seventy-two translators of 
Josephus. — Hewlett. The seventy- two were .shut up in thirty-six cells, and 
eatrh pair translated the whole; and on subsequent comparison, it was 
found that the thirty-six copies did not vary by a word or a letter. — Justin 

BIBLE, Ancient copies op the. The oldest version of the Old and New Tes- 
tament belonging to the Christians, is that in the Vatican, which was writ- 
ten in the fourth or fifth century, and published in 1456. The next in age 
is the Alexandrine MS., in the British Museum, presented by the Greek 
patriarch to Charles I., and said to have been copied nearly about the same 
time. The most ancient copy of the Jewish Scriptures existed at Toledo, 
about A. D. 1000 ; and the copy of Ben Asher, of Jerusalem, was made about 

BIBLE, Bishops'. Bishop Alley prepared the Pentateuch ; bishops Davis and 
Sandys, the Historical Books : bishop Bentham, the Psalms, &c. ; bishop 
Hornc, the prophets ; bishop Grindal, the Minor Prophets ; bishops Park- 
burst and Barlow, the Apocrypha ; bishop Cox, the Gospels and Acts ; and 
archbishop Parker, the remainder. Printed a. d. 1568. 

BIBLE, Division op the. The Bible was divided into twenty-two books by the 
Jews, the number of letters in their alphabet. The Christians divided the 
Bible into thirty-nine books. The Hebrew division into chapters was made 
by the rabbi Nathan, about 14-15. Our Bible was divided into chapters, and 
a part into verses, by archbishop Langton, who died in 1228 ; and this 
division was perfected by Robert Stephens, about 1634. 

BIBLE, Editions op the. The vulgate edition, in Latin, was made by St. Je- 
rome, A. D. 405 ; and is that acknowledged by the Catholic church to l)e 
authentic: it was first printed by Guttenberg at Mayence, 1450—65. (See 
Books.) The first perfect edition in English was finished, as appears from 
the colophon, by Tindal and Coverdale, Oct. 4, 1536. A revision of this 
•ditioB was made, 1638-9. This last was ordered to be read in churches. 


Digitized by 


Spanish . 
German - 




. -1522 


. .1589 




French • 

. - lo3r> 

Modem Greek • 

. .1638 





Daninh • 

. -1550 


- -1685 


- 1560 1 Portuguese 


S02 THE world's progress. [hlL 

1649. In 160 i, at the conference at Harapton-conrt (see Conference)., a new 
translation was resolved upon, which was executed 1607-11, and is that now 
generally used in Great Britain. J. Eliot's Indian Bible, one of the first 
books printed in North America, at Cambridge. 1668. The Bible was first 
printtui in Ireland, at Belfast, in 1704. Permitted by the popj to be trans- 
latod into the language of the Catholic states, 1759. The Bible was printed 

Manks . • • ITH 

Italian • - . 177€ 

Bengalee - -1^1 

Tartar . - - lfil3 

Persian • • 1S15 

African • - - 1816 

Chinese • . ISai 

Editions of the Old and New Testament, separately, appeared m several in- 
stances at earlier dates, particularly in European languages. The Polyglot 
Bible, edited by Walton, bishop of Chester, in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, 
Samaritan, Arabic, Ethiopic, Persic, Greek, and Latin languages, 1657.— 
\Voo(V$ Fasli. Oxon. 

BIBLE SOCIETIES. Among the principal and oldest societies which have 
made the dissemination of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive object, 
are the following :— The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was 
formed 1698 ; Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701 ; 
Society, in Scotland, for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1709 ; French 
Bible Society. 1792; British and Foreign Bible Society, 1801; Hibernian 
Bible Society, 1806 ; City of London Auxiliary Bible Society, 1812; American 
Bible Society (which now has numerous branches), founded 1816 ; Ameri- 
can and Foreign Bible Society (Baptist), founded at New-York, 1838. A 
bull ft'om the pope against Bible Societies appeared in 1817. 

BIGAMY. The Romans branded the guilty parties with an infamous mark: 
with us, the punishment of this offence, formerly, was death. The first act 
respecting it was passed 5 Edward I. 1276.— Vhier's Sfatutrs. Declanid to 
be felony, without benefit of clergy, 1 James I. 1602. Subjected to the 
same punishmenta aa grand or petit larceny, 35 George III. 1794. — St-aluUs 
at large. 

BILL OP RIGHTS. One of the great foundations of the British constitution, 
was obtain ''d from Charles I. by parliament, 1628. This bill recognised the 
legal privileges of the subject; and notwithstanding the employment of all 
manner of arts and expedients to avoid it, Charles was constrained to pass 
it into a law. The Bill of Rights, declaratory of the rights of British subjects, 
passed 1 William and Mary, February 1689. This is the only written law 
respecting the liberties of the people, except Magn^ Charta. — Vlner's 

BILLS OP EXCHANGE. Invented by the Jews, as a means of removing their 
property from nations where they were persecuted, a. d. 1160. — Anderson, 
Bills were used in England, 1307. — ^Thc only legal mode of sending monev 
from England, 4th Richard II., 1381. Regulated, 1698— first stamped, 1782 
— duty advanced. 1797 — again, June 1801 ; and since. It was made capital 
to counterfeit bills of exchange in 1734. In 1825, the year of di.sastrous 
specuktions in bubbles, it was computed that there were 400 millions of 
pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange and promissory notes.' 
The present amount is not supposed to exceed 50 millions. The many 
statutes regarding bills of exchange were consolidated by act 9 George I V. 
1828. A new act regulating bills of exchange, pa-ssed 3 Victoria, July 1839. 

BILLS OP MORTALITY for London. These bills were first compiled about 
A. D. 1536, but in a more formal and recognized manner in 1593, after the 

Digitized by 



gTe*t plapie of that year ; and however imperfect they still are, they yet 
afford Tamable materials for computation on the duration of life ; no com- 
plete series of them has Iteen preserved. The following are returns, show- 
ing the numbers at decennial distances, within the last sixty years :— 


In ihe year 1780, ChristeningB 
1790, ChristenmgB 
1800, Christenings 
1810, Christenings 
1820, Christenings 
1830, Christenings 
1840, Christenings 


In the year 1780, Burials 


1790, Burials 


1800, Burials 


1810, Bunals 


1820, Bunals 


1830, Burials 


1^ Burials 


BILLIARDS. Invented by the French, by whom, and by the Germans, Dutch, 
and Italians, they were brought into general vogue throughout Europe. — 
Nouv. Diet. The French ascribe their invention to Henrique Devigne, an 
artist, in the reign of Charles IX., about 1571.. Slate billiard-tables were 
introduced in England in 1827. 

BIRDS. Divided by Linnaeus into six orders ; by Blumenbach into eight ; and 
by Cuvier into six. Man is especially enjoined not to harm the nest of the 
bird : " If a bird's nest chance to be before thee in the way in any tree, or 
on the ground, whether they be young ones or eggs, and the dam sitting upon 
the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the 
young." — l>uterono7ny, xxii. 6. 

BIRMINGHAM, England. This, town existed in the reign of Alfred, a. d. 872 ; 
but its importance as a manufacturing town commenced in the reign of Wil- 
liam III. Birmingham was besieged and taken by prince Rupert in 1643. 
The great works of Soho were established by the illustrious engineer, Mat- 
thew Boulton, in 1764. 

BIRTHS. Parish registers of them, and of marriages and burials, were insti- 
tuted by Cromwell, earl of Essex, 28 Henry VIIL 1686. The births of chil- 
dren were taxed in England, viz. : birth of a duke, 8(M. — of a common 
person, 25.-7 William III. 1695. Taxed again, 1783. The instances of 
four children at a birth are numerous ; but the most extraordinary delivery 
recorded in modem times is that of a woman of Konigsberg, who had five 
children at a birth, September 3. 1783. — Phillips. The wife of a man named 
Nelson, a journeyman tailor, of Oxford-market, London, had five children at 
a birth, in October 1800. — Annals of Lcmdon. 

BISHOPS. The name was given by the Athenians to those who had the in- 
spection of the city. The Jews and Romans had also a like officer ; but 
now it means only that person who has the government of church affairs in 
a cert** II district. In England, the dignity is coeval with Christianity. St. 
Petei, the flrsl bishop of Rome, was martyred a. d. 65. The bishops of 
Rome assumed the title of pope in 138, the rank was anciently assumed by 
all bishops ; but it was afterwards ordained that the title of po{)e should 
belong only to the occupant of St. Peter's chair. — Warner. 

BISHOPS OP ENGLAND. The first was appointed in a. d. 180. See York, 
London. They were made barons, 1072. The Cange <V Elire of the king 
to choose a bishop originated in an arrangement of king John with the 
clergy. Bishops were elected by the king's Omgi tV Elire, 26 Henry VIII. 
1536. Seven were deprived for being married, 1554. Several suffered mar- 
tyrdom under queen Mary, 1665-6. See Cranmei. Bishops were excluded 
from voting in the house of peers on temporal concerns, 16 Charles I. 1640. 
Twelve were committed for hiffh treason, in protesting against the legality 
of all acts of parliament passed while they remained deprived of their votes, 
1641. Regained their seats, Nov. 1661. Seven were sent to the tower for not 
reading 8ie king's declaration for liberty of conscience, contrived to bring 
the Catholicp into ecclesiastical and civil power, and were tried and acquit* 

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994 I^K world's ntOdRESB. [ BLA 

ted, June 29-80, 1688. The archbishop of Gaii(erbnr> (Dr. Bancroft) and 
five bishops were suspended for refusing: to take the oaths to William and 
Mary, 1689, and were deprived 1690.— Wamefs Eccks. Hist. The sees of 
Bristol and Gloucester were united, and that of Ripon created, in 1836. An 
order in council, in Oct. 1888, directed the sees of fiangor and St. Asaph to 
be united on the next vacancy in either, and Manchester, a new see, to be 
created thereupon. This order, as regarded the union of the sees, rescinded 
in 1846.— See Manchester. 

BISHOPS OP IRELAND. Bishops are said to have been consecrated in this 
country as early as the second centunr. The bishopric of Ossory. first 
planted at Saiger, was founded a. d. 402. thirty years before the arrival of 
St. Patrick. 

BISHOPS OP SCOTLAND. They were constituted in the fourth century. The 
see of St. Andrew's was founded by Heraustus, king of the Picta, who, 
according to a legendary tale of this prelacy, encoura&fed the mission of 
Regulus, a Greek monk of Patrae, about a. d. 370. The bishops were deprived 
of their sees, and episcopacy abolished in Scotland at the period of the revo- 
lution, 1688-9. Warner's Eccles. JSRs^.— There are now, however, six bishops 
belonging to the Scotch Episcopal Church, viz : Aberdeen, Brechin, Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Moray, and St. Andrew's. 

BISHOPS, Pkecedency op, was settled by statute 31 Henry VIH. to bt, ►ext to 
viscounts, they being barons of the realm, 1540 ; and they have the title of 
Lord, and Ri^H Rev. Father in Ood. The archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, taking place of all dukes, have the title of Grace, The bishops of 
London, Durham, and Winchester have precedence of all bishops; the 
others rank acconiing to the seniority of consecration. A late contest in 
Ireland between the bishops of Meath and Kildare for precedency was de- 
cided in favor of the former, who now ranks after the archbishop of Dublin. 
The others rank according to consecration. 

BISHOPS IN AMERICA. The first was the Right Rev. Doctor Samuel Sea- 
bury, consecrated bishop of Connecticut by four nonjuring prelates, at 
Aberdeen, in Scotland, Nov. 14, 1784. The bishops of New- York and Penn- 
sylvania were consecrated in London, by the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Feb. 4 1787 ; aud the bishop of Virginia in 1790. The first Catholic bishop 
of the United States was Dr. Carroll of Maryland, in 1789. 

BISSEXTILE OR LEAP YEAR. An intercalary day was thrown into every 
fourth year to adjust the calendar, and make it agree with the sun's course. 
It originated with Julius Csesar, who Ordered a day to be counted befbre 
the 24th of February, which amon? the Romans was the 6th of the calends, 
and which was therefore reckoned twice, and called Usseoctile : this added 
day we name the 29th of February every fourth year, 45 b. c— See OUei^ 
dar and Leap Year. 

BITHYNIA. Conquered by Croesus, about 560 b. c. ; and again by Alexander, 
832 B. c. It afterwards recovered its liberty ; but its last king bequeathed 
it to the Romans, 40 b. c. In modem history Bithynia makes no figure, 
except that from its ruins rose the Othman Turks, who, in a. d. 1327, took 
Prus^. its capital, and made it the seat of their empire before they possessed 

BLACK BOOK, a book kept in the English monasteries, wherein details of the 
scandalous enormities practised in religious houses were entered for the 
inspection of visitors, under Henry YIII., 1535, in order to blacken them and 
hasten their dissolution j hence the vulgar phrase " I'll set you down in tlie 
black book." 

BLASPHEMY. This crime is recognized both by the civil and canon law of 

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England. Jastinian adjudged it the punishment of death. In Scotland, the 
tongue was amputated. Visited by fine and imprisonment, 9 & 10 William 
m., 169&-7. —SUU^Ues at large. In England this offence has been subjected, 
on some liite occasions, to the visitation of the laws. Daniel Isaac Eaton 
was tri^ and convicted in London of blasphemy, Idth March, 1812. A pro- 
testant clergyman, named Robert Taylor, was tried in London twice for the 
same crime, and as often convicted. Taylor was last brought to the bar, 
and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, and largely fined, for (among 
other things) reviling the Redeemer in his discourses, July, 1831. Even as 
late as in Dec. 1840, two prosecutions against publishers of blasphemous 
writings, subjected the ofienders to the sentence of the court of Queen's 

BLAZONRY. The bearing coats-of-arms was introduced, and became heredi- 
tary in families in France and England, about a. d. 1192, owing to the 
knights painting their banners with different figures, thereby to distinguish 
them in the crusades. — Dugdale. 

BLEACHING. This art was known early in Egypt, Syria, and India. Known 
in a.ncient Gaul. — Pliny. In the last century an improved chemical system 
was adopted by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Scotland in 
1768. There are now immense bleachfields in both countries, particularly 
in Lancashire, and in the counties of Fife, Forfkr, and Renferew, and in the 
vale of the Leven, in Dumbarton. The chemical process of BerthoUet was 
introduced in 1796. — Blanchiment des Tailes. 

BLENHEIM, Battle op ; between the English and confederates, commanded 
by the duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bavarians, under marshal 
Tallard and the elector of Bavaria, whom Marlborough signally defeated 
with the loss of 27,000 in killed, and 13,000 prisoners, Tallard being among 
the latter : the electorate of Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. 
The nation testified its gratitude to the duke by the gifts of the honor of 
Woodstock and hundred bf Wotton, and erected for him one of the finest 
seats in the kingdom, known as the domain and house of Blenheim. 
Fought Aug. 2, nO^.—Hume. 

BLINDING, by consuming the eyeballs with lime or scaldiuff vinegar, a punish- 
ment inflicted anciently on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In the mid- 
dle ages they changed the penalty of total blindness to a diminution of 
8]£;ht. Blinding the conquered was a practice in barbarous states ; and a 
whole army was deprived of their eyes by Basilius, in the eleventh century. 
See Bulgarians. Several of the Eastern emperors had their eyes torn from 
their heads. See article Eastern Empire. 

BUSHTERS. They were first made, it is said, of cantharides.— /5>«7uf. Blisters 
are .said to have been first introduced into medical practice by Aretajus, a 
physician of Cappadocia, about 60 b. c— i> Clerc's Hist, of Physic. 

BLOOD, Circulation of the, through the lungs, first made public by Michael 
Servetus, a Spanish physician, in 1663. Cisalpinus published an account of 
the general circulation, of which he had some confused ideas ; improved 
afterwards by experiments, 1669. Paul of Venice, commonly called Father 
Paolo, whose real name was Peter Sarpi, certainly discovered the valves 
which serve for the circulation ; but the honor of the positive discovery of 
the circulation of the blood belongs to Harvey, an English physician, by 
whom it was fully confirmed, 1628. — I^Veind's Hist, of Physic. 

BLOOD, DftiNKiNO OP. Anciently a mode was tried of giving vigor to the sys- 
tem by administering blood as a draught. Louis XL, in his last illness. 
drank the warm blood of infiints, in the vain hope of restoring his decay^ed 

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206 THE world's progress. [ 

strength, 1488. — HenavU, Eating blood was prohibited to Noah, Qtn. ix. . 
and to t)ie Jews, Lev. xvii. The prohibition repeated by the apostles at 
the council of Jerusalem, Acts xv. 

BLOOD, Transfusion of. In the fifteenth century an opinion prevailed that 
the declining strength and vigor of old people mi^ht be repaired by trans* 
fusing the blood of young persons, drawn from their veins, into those of the 
infirm and aged. It was countenanced in France by the physicians, and 
prevailed for many years, till the most fatal effects ensued from the opera- 
tion. Some of the principal nobility having died, and others turned raving 
mad, it was suppressed by an edict. Attempted in France in 1797. Prac- 
tised more recently there, in a few cases, with success ; and in Englani 
(but the instances are rare) since 1823. — Med. Jour. " One English physi- 
cian, named Louver, or Lower, practised in this way ; he died in 1691." — 
Freind^s Hist, of Physic. 

BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's 
household, and his confederates, seized the duke ofOrmond in his coach, 
and had got him to Tyburn, intending to hang him, when he was rescued 
by his friends. Blood afterwards, in the disguise of a clergyman, stole the 
regal crowi from the Jewel-office in the Tower : yet, notwithstanding these 
and other offences, he was not only pardoned, but had a pension of ;C500 
per annum settled on him by Charles II. 1673. 

BLUE STOCKING. This term is applied to literary ladies, and was originally 
conferred on a society of literary persons of botlv sexes. One of the most 
active promoters of the society was Benjamin Stillingfleet, the distinguished 
naturalist and miscellaneous writer, who always wore blue worsted stock- 
ings, and hence the name : the society existed in 1760, et seq. — Anec. of 
Bow^yer. The beautiful and fascinating Mrs. Jerningham is said to have 
worn blue stockings at the conversaziones of lady Montague ; and this pecu- 
liarity also fastened the name upon accomplished women. 

BOARD OP TRADE and PLANTATIONS. Charles II., on his restoration, 
established a council of trade for keeping a control over the whole com- 
merce of the nation, 1660 ; he afterwards instituted a board of trade and 
plantations, which was remodelled by William III. This board of superin- 
spection was abolished in 1782 ; and a new council for the affairs of trade 
was appointed, Sept. 2, 1786. 

BOATS. Their invention was so early, and their use so general, the art cannot 
be traced to any age or country. Flat-bottomed boats were made in Eng- 
land in the reign of the Conqueror: the flat-bottomed boat was again 
brought into use by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690. Tlie life-boat was 
first suggested at South Shields ; and one was built by Mr. Greathead, the 
inventor, and was first put to sea, Jan. 80, 1790. 

BOCCACCIO'S BOOK, II Decamerone, a collection of a hundred stories or 
novels, not of moral tendency : fei^ed to have been related in ten days, and, 
as is said by Petrarch, " possessmg many charms." A copy of me first 
edition (that of Valdafer, in 1471) was knocked down, at the duke of Rox- 
burgh's sale, to the duke of Marlborough, for JB2260, June 17, 1812. This 
identical copy was afterwards sold, by public auction, for 876 guineas, 
June 6, 1819. 

BCEOTIA, the country of which Thebes was the capital. Thebes was equally 
celebrated for its antiquity, its grandeur, and the exploits and misfortunes 
of its kings and heroes. The country was known successively as Aonia, 
Messapia, Hyantis, Ogygia, Cadmeis, and Bceotia ; and it gave birth to Pin- 
dar, Hesiod, Plutarch, Democritus, Epaminondas, and the accomplished 
and beautiful Corinna. 

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BCEOTIA continued. ^ 

Arrival of Cadmus, the founder of Cad* 

inea - - b. o. 1493 

Reign of Polydore - • -1469 

Labdacus asceada the throne • 1430 

Amphion and Zethua besiege Thebes, 

and dethrone Laius - - 1388 

CEdipua, not knowing his father Lalus, 
kiUa him in an affray, confirming the 
oracle as to his death by the hands of 
hie son - > . 1276 

<Edipiis encounters the Sphinx, and re- 
sol vea her enigmas • - 1266 
War of ihe Seven Captains • • 12^ 

Thebes besieged and taken - B. o. 1216 

Thersander reiena in Thebes • - 1216 

The Thebans abolish royally, and ages 
of obscurity follow - •1128 

» « • • * 

Battle of Charonea, in which the The- 
bans defeat the Athenians • • 44'' 

Epaminondas defeats the Lacedemo- 
nians at Leuctra, restores his country 
to independence, and puis it in a con- 
dition to dictate to the rest of Greece 'it\ 

Philip, king of Macedon, defeats the The- 
bana anoAthenians, near Chaeronea - 338 

Alexander destroyed Thebes, the 

Here the greatDess of this country ends. ^. 

capital, 3& b. c, when the house of Pindar alone was left standing, and all 
the inhabitants were either killed or sold as slaves. — Sirabo. 

BOGS. Commonly the remains of fallen forests, covered with peat and loose 
soil. Moving bogs are slips of land carried to lower levels by accumulated 
water. Acts relating to Ireland, for their drainage, passed, March, 1830. 
The bog-land of Ireland has been estimated at 3,000,000 acres; that of Scot- 
land, at upwards of 2,000,000 ; and that of England, at near 1,000,000 of acres. 

BOH, a fierce barbarian general, son of Odin, lived 60 b. c. The exclamation 
of his name petrified his enemies, and is yet used to frighten children. 

BOHEMIA. This country was originally governed by dukes : the title of king 
was obtained from the emperor Henry IV. The kings at first held their 
territory of the Empire, but they at length threw off the yoke : the crown 
was elective till it came into the house of Austria, in which it is now here- 
ditary. — See Gerjnany. 

The Sclavonians, seizing Bohemia, are i John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two 

ruled by dukes - a. d. 660 

City of Prague founded - • • 795 

Introduction of Christianity - • 894 

Bohemia conquered by the emperor 

Henry in., who spreads devastation 

through the countir • • 1011 

The regal title is conferred on Uraiislas, 

the first king - -1061 

The regal title is farther confirmed to 

Ottoacre I. • . - - 1199 i 

Reign of Ottoacre II., who carries his i 

arms into Prussia • 1258 I 

Onoa :rc, refusing to do horaai^e to the 

emperor Rodolphus, is by him van- 

Suished, and deprived of Austria, 
tyria, and Camiola - • 1282 

In the reign of Winceslas III. mines of 
stiver are firBt discovered, and agri- 
culture is encouraged and improved 
(et sey.) .... 12&4 

Winceslas IV. becoming odious for his 
vices, is assassinated • 1305 

John, count of Luxemburgh, is chosen 
to succeed .... 1310 

Silesia is made a province of Bohemia 1342 

King John slain at the battle of Crecy, 
fought with the English • • -1346 

of the first Reformers, are burnt for 
heresy, which occasions an insurrec- 
tion; when Sigismund, who betrayed 
them, is deposed, and the Imperiarists 
are driven from (he kingdom 14154c 1416 
Albert, duke of Austria, marries the 
daughter of the late emperor aiul 
king, and receives the crowns of Bo- 
hemia and Hungary - • • 1437 
The succession inrnnsed by Ladielia, 
son of the king of Pofand, and George 
Podiebrad, a protestant chief 1440 to 1466 
Ladislos VI.. king of Poland, elected 
king of Bohemia, on the death of Po- 
diebrad 1471 

The emperor Ferdinand I. marries 
Anne, sister of Locis the late king, 
and obtains the crown • • 1527 

The elector palatine Frederick is driven 

from Bohemia - - 1618 

The crown is secured to the Austrian 

family by the treaty of • 1648 

Silesia and Glatz ceded to Prussia - 1742 
Prague taken by the Prussians • - 1744 
The memorable siege of Prague - 1757 
Revolt of the peasantry • • -177^ 

The French occupy Prague - 1806 

See Germany. 

BOILING TO DEATH. A capital punishment in England, by statute 28 Henry 
VIII., 1582. This act was occasioned by seventeen persons having been 
poisoned by Rouse, the bishop of Rochester's cook, when the offence of 
poisoning was made treason, and it was enacted to to be punished by boil- 
ing the criminal to death ! Margaret Davie, a young woman, suffered in th« 
sam« manner for a similar crime, in 1541. 

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BOLOGNA. Distinguished for its imny rare and magnificent Bpeoimens of 
architecture. Its ancient and celebrated university was founded by Theo- 
dosius, A. D. 433. Pope Julius II., after besieging and talcing Bologna, made 
hjs triumphal entry into it with a pomp and magnificence by no means tittinf 
(as Erasmus observes^ for the vicegerent of the meek Redeemer, Nov. 10, 
1506. Here, in the church of St. Patronius, which is remarkable for its 
pavement, Cassini drew his meridian line, at the close of the seventeenth 
century. Taken by the French, : 796 ; by the Austrians, 1799 ; again by the 
French, aflUer the battle of Marengo, in 1800 ; restored to the pope in 1815 ; 
Austrians expelled by the people, August 8, 1848. 

BOMBAY. I.NDiA. Given as part of the marriage-portion of the princess Cath- 
erine of Portugal, on her marriage with Charles II., 1661. Granted by Wil- 
liam III. to the East India Company in 1688, and it now forms one of the 
three presidencies. An awful fire raged here, and a number of lives were 
lost, Feb. 27, 1803.— See India. 

BOMBS, invented at Venlo, in 1495, but accordinc: to some authorities near a 
century after. They came into general use in 1034, having been previously 
used only in the Dutch and Spanish armies. Bomb-vessels were invented in 
France, in l^l.—VoUaire. The Shrapnel shell is a bomb filled with balls, 
and a lighted fuse to make it explode before it reaches the enemy ; a thirteen- 
inch bomb-shell weighs 198 lbs. 

BONDAGE, OR VILLA NAGE, was enforced under William I. A villain in 
ancient times meant a peasant enslaved by his lord. A release from this 
species of servitude was ordered on the manors of Elizabeth, in 1674. See 

BONE-SETTING. This branch of the art of surgery cannot be said to havo 
been practised scientifically until 1620, before which time it was rather im- 
perfectly understood.— Bci/. The celebrity obtained by a practitioner at 
rarid, about 1600, led to the general study of bone-setting as a science 
— Freind's Hist of Physic, 

BOOKS. Ancient books were originally boards, or the inner bark of trees ; and 
bark is still used by some nations, as are also skins, for which latter parch- 
ment was substituted. Papyrus, an Egy[>tian plant, was adopted in that 
country. Books whose leaves were vellum, were invented by Attains, king 
of Pergamus, about 198 b. c, at which time books were in volumes or rolls. 
The MSS. in Horculaneum consist of papyrus, rolled and charred, and matted 
together by the fire, and are about nine inches lon^, and one. two, or three 
inches in diameter, each being a separate treatise. The Pentateuch of 
Moses, and the history of Job, are the most ancient in the world ; and in 
profane literature, the poems of Homer, though the names of others still 
more ancient are preserved. 

BOOKS, Prices op. Jerome states that he had ruined himself by buying a copy 
of the works of Origen. A large estate was given for one on cosmography, 
by Alfred, about a. d. 872. The RoTiian de la Rose was sold for above sQl. ; 
and a Homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quarters of wheat; and 
they usually fetched double or treble their weight in gold. They sold at 
prices varying from 10^ to 40/. each, in 1400. In our own times, the value 
of some volumes is very great. A copy of Macklin^s Bible, ornamented by 
Mr. Tomkins, has been declared worth 500 gJuno&s.—BiUJer, A yet more 
superb copy is at present insured in a London office for 3,000/. — Times. II 
Dccamerone of Boccacio, edition of 1471, was bought at the duke of Rox- 
burgh's sale by the duke of Marlborough for 2260/.. June 17. \SV1.— Phillips 
A copy of the " Mazarin Bible," being the first edition and first book ever 
printed (by Guttemberg at Mentz in 1455) was sold at auction in London 

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in April 1846 for 6001. Tliis copy, the only ono known to exist except 19 
in public libraries, is now in a private library in New ^ork. 

BOOKS, Printed. The first printed books were trifling hymns and psalters, and 
being printed only on one side, the leaves were pasted back to back. The 
first printing was, as a book, the Book of Psalms, by Faust and Schseifer, his 
son-in-law, Aug. 14, 1467. Several works were printed many years before ; 
bat as the inventors kept the secret to themselves, they sold their first printed 
works as manuscripts. This gave rise to an adventure that brought calamity 
on Faust ; he began in 1450 an edition of the Bible, which was finished in 
1460. See article DccU and Dr. Faustus. The second printed was Cicero </■< 
Officiis, 1466. — Blair. The first book printed in England was The Game and 
Play of the Chcsse, by Caxton, 1474. The first in Dublin was the Liturgy, 
in 1550. The first classical work printed in Russia was Com. Nepolis ViUr^ 
in 1762. lAician's Dialogues was the first Greek book printed in America 
(at Philadelphia), 1789. Books of astronomy and geometry were all de- 
stroyed in England as being infected with magic, 6 Edward VI. 1552.— 
Stowe's Chronicles. 

The above is from Haydn; but according to Peltigrew^ (Biblio. Sussex.) 
the first book printed with movable types was the Latin Bible, printed by 
John Guttemberg at Mayence, about 1455. It was in two folio volumes ; 
and so excellent was the workmanship, both in type, ink, paper, and press- 
work, that it has scarcely been surpassed since. The succeeding editions 
for 200 years were much inferior. This edition is called the Mazarin BibUy 
as a copy was first found in the library of cardinal Mazarin. Only 20 copies 
are now known to exist — all but one being in public libraries in Europe. 
[See previous article.] Specimens of the block books, printed with engraved 
wooden blocks, instead of type, are now very rare. Of the BibUa Pauperum, 
done in this way, only two copies exist, one of which belongs to a citizen of 
New York. 

fiOOK-BINDING. The book of St. Cuthbert, the earliest ornamented book, is 
supposed to have been bound about a. d. 650. A Latin Psalter in oak boards 
was bound in the -ninth century. A MS. copy of the four evangelists, the 
book on which our kings from Henry I. to Edward VI. took their coronation 
oath, was bound in oaken boards, nearly an inch thick, a. d. 1100. Velvet 
was the covering in the fourteenth century ; and silk soon after. Vellum 
was introduced early in the fifteenth century ; it was stamped and orna- 
mented about 1510. Leather came into use about the same time. Cloth 
binding superseded the common boards, generally, about 1831 . Caoutchouc, 
or India-rubber backs to account-books and large volumes introduced 1841. 

BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-entry, called originally Italian book- 
keeping, was taken from the of algebra which was published by 
Burgo, at Venice, then a great commercial stale, in the fifteenth century. 
It was made known in England by James Peele, who published his Book- 
keeping in 1569.— Anderson. 

BOOK TRADE of Great Britain, France, and Germany. The number of new 
works published in successive years is thus stated ; 

Gt. Brit. France. Germany. 
182B . &12 • — . 5,654 
1830 • 1,142 • — . 5,926 
1834 - 1,220 . — . 6,074 

The number of printed books received from 1814 to 1847 inclusive, under 
the copyright acts, from the trustees of the British Museum, amount to 
66,474, or 1681 each year. 

England.— The whole number of books printed in England during 14 years, 
from 1666 tol680, waa 8,660 j equal to 253 yearly;— but deducting the 

Gt. Brit. France. Germans. 

1836 . 1,332 . — . 7,891 
1849 . — . — . — 
I860 - — . 7ja08 

Digitized by 


210 THE world's progress. [ 

reprints, fiamphlets, sinjg^le sermons, and maps, the annual average of nev 
books may be computed at much less than 100. 

The number of new works, exclusive of " all pamphlets and other tracts," 
issued during 56 years, as appears from a " Complete Catalogue of Modern 
Books published from the beginning of the century (1700) to 1756," was 
5,280 ; equal to a yearly average of 94. 

The number of new works, exclusive of reprints and pamphlets, issued 
during eleven years, from 1792 to 1802 inclusive, was 4,0^96 ; equal to 872 
each year. 

The number of new publications issued in 27 years, fVom 1800 to 1827, in- 
cluding reprints altered in size and price, but excluding pamphlets, was, 
accordmg to the London Catalogue, 19,860 : — deducting one nflh for reprints, 
we have 15,888, equal to 588 each year. 

Mr. McCulloch estimates the number of volumes of new publications pro- 
duced annually in Great Britain (exclusive of reprints, pamphlets, and 
periodical publications not in volumes) at about 1,500 ; and the average 
impression of each volume at 750 coi)ies; — annual total, 1,125,000 volumes: 
— value at 95. a volume, je506.260. " The number of reprinted volumes, 
particularly of school-books, is very great; and if to these we add the 
reviews, magazines, pamphlets, and all other publications, exclusive of news- 
papers, the total publication value of the new works of all sorts, and new 
copies of old works that are annually produced, may be estimated at about 

FVance.— The activity of the French press has been very greatly increased 
since the downfall of Napoleon. Tlie count Dam, in a very instnictive 
work {Notions Slatisliqucs sur la Librarie), published in 1827, estimated the 
number of printed sheets, exclusive of newspapers, produced by the French 
press in 1816 at 66 852.883 ; and in 1825, at 128,011,488; and we believe 
that the increase from 1825 down to the present period has been little if any 
thing inferior. 

The first six months of the year 1837, as stated by the " Foreign Quarterly 
review," there were printed in France, 3,413 works, in French and other 
languages ; also 571 engravings and lithographs. 

Germany.— TYiQ book-trade of Germany is greatly facilitated by the book- 
fairs held at Leipsic at Easter and Michaelmas, which are attended by the 
booksellers of Germany, and by many of those of the neighboring countries, 
as France, Switzerland, Denmark, &^. This trade began to flourish in 1814; 
the number of works then annually offered for sale was about 2,000; but 
the number has been gradually increasing, having for the first time exceeded 
5,000 in 1827 ; and it now exceeds 7,000. 

•' An Augsburg paper states," (says the " Foreign Quarterly Review," 1836,^ 
" that, on a moderate calculation, 10,000,000 of volumes are annually printed 
in Gremiany, and as every half-yearly fair catalogue contains the names of 
more than 1,000 German writers, it may be assumed, that there are now 
living upwards of 50,000 persons who have written one or more books. The 
total value of all the books published annually in Germany is estimated 
fVom 5 to 6,000,000 dollars." 

Uiissia,— In the year 1836, 674 original works, and 124 translations were 
published in Russia, exdusive of 46 periodicals. 

fiW^ffn.— There are only 28 or 80 printing presses in Sweden ; 10 in Stock- 
holm, 3 in Gottenburg, 2 in Upsal, 2 in Norkdping, and 1 in several other 

BOOK-TRADE op the UNITED STATES. The number of new works which 
appeared in the United States^ in 1834 and 1835, amounted to 1,013, forming 

Digitized by 




21 1 

IdOO Tolnnies, and the cost of which may be estimated at $ 1.220,000. In 
1836. the number was considerably increased, and the cost of the booka 
pablished in that year cannot bo computed at less than $ 1,500,000. Boston, 
New Yor]^, Philadelphia, and Hartford furnished 19 20ths of the amount. 
Another statement for the years 1833, 1834, and 1835, is as follows : — orig^inals 
L030, reprints, 854 ; total, 1,884 j— number of volumes printed (1,000 for 
each edition), 1,884,000. 

Id most cases the editions of one and the same work are larger and more 
Arquent in the United States than in any other country. Many reprinted 
English works have here passed three or four editions, while the publishers 
of the original in England have but one. In one instance, the sale :f a 
book in America amounted to 100,000 copies, whereas in England only four 
editions, of 1,000 copies each, were disposed of 

The amount of literary productions in America has more than doubled 
daring the last ten years. The sales of five book-selling establishments 
amounted in 1836, to $ 1,350,000. 

The following statement will show the relative proportion of native and im- 
ported literary productions in 1834 ; 


Education • • 73 

Divinity - • • 37 

Novels and Tales • 19 

History and Biography • 19 



Poetry • • • 

. 5 




. 10 

Fine Arts • 

. 8 


. 43 

Jurisprudence - '20 • 3 

Thus it appears in American literature the scientific and practically useful 
predominate, and that works of imagination are chieny derived from 
foreign sources. The school-books are almost all written or compiled in the 
United States ; and some idea of tho extensive business done in them may 
he formed from the circumstance, that, of some of the most popular com- 
pihttions in geography, from 100,000 to 300 000 copies have been sold in ten 
years ; so that, in many instances, works of this kind produce a permanent 
income, as well to the author as the publisher. During the last five years, 
the number of American original works in proportion to reprints, has nearly 
[The preceding i 

O. P. Putnam, 1 

cations in sacceasi ve v 

utha LUeraryWorld.] 

Amx&icah PusLiCATiOMs^-JimuaTy to Jtme, 1849. 








Travels . • - 21 


Divinity - 

. 25 


Metaphysics • • 3 


Novels and Talefl 



MisceUaneous • • 25 


History - 

. ao 


Law ) 


16 . 


Juvenile > not ascertained. 

Political Economy 

. 3 

Periodical ) 




— — . 

Science . 

. 11 


For sijc months • 200 







The number of new publications for the year 1849 would thus be 656, exclu- 
sive of hiw and juvenile books, and occasional pamphlets and periodicals. 

BOOTS. They are said to have been the invention of the Carians, and were 
inade of iron, brass, or leather ; of the last material some time after their 
invention, boots were known to the Greeks, for Homer mentions them about 
0O7 B. c. 

BORODINO OR MOSKWA, Battle op, one of the most sanguinary in the 
records of the world, fought Sept. 7, 1812, between the French and Russians ; 
commanded on the one side by Napoleon, and on the other by Kutusoff. 

Digitized by 


212 TBB world's r&ooasss. [boi 

^16,000 men being engaged. Each party claimed the victory, becanae the 
loss of the other was so immense ; but it was rather in favor of Napoleon, 
for the Russians subsequently retreated, leaving Moscow to its fate. The 
road being thus lefi open, the French entered Moscow, Sept. 1.4. with little 
opposition. But a signal reverse of fortune now took place, which preserved 
the Russian empire from ruin, and paved the way to the downfall of the 
French military power over Europe. See Moscow. 

BOROUGH. Anciently a company of ten families living together. The term 
has been applied to such towns as send members to parliament, since the 
election of bureesses in the reign of Henry III. 1265. Burgesses were first 
admitted into the Scottish parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326— and into the 
Irish, 1365. 

BOROUGH ENGLISH. This was an ancient tenure by which the younger son 
inherits. Its origin is thus explained : in feudal times the lord is said to 
have claimed the privilege of spending the first night with the vassal's bride, 
and on such occasions the land was made to descend to the next son, in con- 
sequence of the supposed illegitimacy of the elder. This kind of tenure is 
mentioned as occurring a. d. ^4. It existed in Scotland, but was abolished 
by Malcolm III. in 10^.— Haydn. 

BOSPHORUS, now called Circassia. The history of this kingdom is involved 
in obscurity, though it continued for 530 years. It was named Cimmerian, 
from the Cimmeri, who dwelt on its borders. The descendants of Arcliean- 
actes of Mytilene settled in this country, but they were dispossessed by 
order of the emperor Spartacus, in 438 b. c. Mithridates conducted a pris- 
oner to Rome, by Claudius, and his kingdom soon afterwards made a pro- 
vince of the empire, a. d. 40. The strait of the Bosphorus was closed by the 
Turks, Sept. 8, 1828. It was blockaded by the Russian squadron under ad- 
miral Greig, Dec. 31, same year. See Dardanelles. 

BOSTON, the capital of Massachusetts, founded in August 1680. Here com- 
menced the American Revolution. British soldiers fired on the people, 1770. 
The celebrated " Tea-party" here, took place 1773. The |K>rt closed by pai> 
liament 1774. British army evacuated Boston in March 1776. [See Lexing- 
ton and Bunker Hill.] The cause of American freedom was nowhere more 
actively sustained than by the people of Boston. Benjamin Franklin was 
bom here, Jan. 17, 1706. John Hancock, the first signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, was a Bostonian. Boston incorporated as a citv, 1822. 
Population in 1700, 7000; in 1790, 18,088; in 1810, 33 260; in 1820, '43, 298; 
in 1830, 61,891 ; in 1845, 114,366. Tonnage of vessels in 1840, 220,248 tons. 

BOSWORTH FIELD, Battle of, the thirteenth and last between the houses 
of York and Lancaster, in which Richard III. was defeated by the earl of 
Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., the former being slain, Aug. 22, 1486. 
The crown of Richard was found in a hawthorn bush, on the plain where the 
battle was fought, and Henry was so impatient to be crowned, that he had 
the ceremony performed on the spot with that very crown. In the civil con- 
tests between the " Roses," many of the most ancient families in the king- 
dom were entirely extinguished, and no less than 100,000 human beings lost 
their lives. 

BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder of the philosophy of botany. 
The Historia Plantarvm of Tlicophrastus, Avriften about 820 b. c. Authors 
on botany are numerous fVom the earlier ages of the world, to the close of 
the 16th century, when the science became better understood. The study 
was advanced by Fuchsius, Bock, Bauhin, Caesalpinus, and others, betwetm 
1686 and IQ^O.—MeleMor Adam. The system and arrangement of Linneus, 
the first botanist of modem times, made known about 1760. Jussieu's tys- 

Digitized by 



tcm, !n 1768. At the time of Linmeus's death, a. d. 1778, the spectes of 
plants actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The number of 
species of all denominations now recorded cannot fall short of 100,000. 

BOTANY BAY, originally fixed on for a colony of convicts fVom Great Britain. 
The first governor, Phillips, who sailed from England in May, 1787, arrived 
at the settlement in January, 1788. The bay had been discovered by cap- 
tain Cook in 1770, and the place took its name from the great variety of 
herbs which abounded on the shore. The colony was fixed at Port Jackson, 
alK>ut thirteen miles to the north of the bay. See New South Wales and 

BOTTLES, of glass, were first made in England, about 1558.— See Glass. The 
art of making glass bottles and drinking glasses was known to the Romans 
at least before 79 a. d., for these articles and other vessels have been found 
in the Ruins of Pompeii. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was 
blown, we are told, at Leith, in Scotland, in January; 1747-8. 

BOULOGNE. France. Taken by the British in 1542, but restored to France 
upon the i)eace 1550. Lord Nelson attacked Boulogne, disabling ten vessels, 
and sinking five. Aug. 8, 1801. Prince Louis Napoleon made a descent here 
with about fifty followers, Aug. 6, 1840. — See Tiexl article and Prance. 

BOCX-OGNE FLOTILLA. This celebrated armament against England excited 
much attention for some years, but the grand demonstration was made in 
1804. In that year. Bonaparte had assembled 160,000 men and 10 000 horses, 
and a flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17 000 sailoi-s to invade England. The 
coasts of Kent and Sussex were covered with martello towers and lines of 
defence ; and nearly half the adult population of Britain was formed into 
Tolunteer corps. It is supposed that this French armament served merely 
for a demonstration, and that Bonaparte never seriously intended the inva- 

BOUNDARY QUESTIONS, in the United States. Award of the king of the 
Netherlands on the boundary between Maine and the British possessions, 
Jan. 10, 1831 (rejected by both parties). Collisions between the people of 
Maine and New Brunswick in the disputed territory on the Aroostock. 1838-9, 
suspended by a mutual agreement between sir J. Harvey, Governor of New 
Brunswick, governor Fairfield, of Maine, and general Scott, of the U. S. 
army, March 21, 1839. This boundary settled by the Treaty of Washing- 
ton. 1842. Oregon boundary— 49th parallel agreed upon as the northern 
boundary of the United States, in Oregon, by treaty signed at Washington, 
June 1846. 

BOUNTIES. They were first granted on the exportation of British commodi- 
ties — a new principle introduced into commerce by the British parliament. 
The first bounties granted on com, were in 1688. First legally granted in 
England for raising naval stores in America, 1703. Bounties have been 
granted on sail-cloth, linen, and other goods. — Elements of Commerce. 

BOUNTY, MUTINEERS op the Ship. Memorable mutiny on board the Bounty, 
ajined ship returning from Otaheite, with bread-fruit. The mutineers put 
their captain, Bligh, and nineteen men into an open boat, near AnnamooKa, 
one of the Friendly Islands, April 28, 1789, and they reached the Island of 
Timor, south of the Moluccas, in June, after a perilous voyage of nearly 
4000 miles, in which their preservation was next to miraculous. Tlie muti- 
neers were tried Sept. 16. 1792, when six were condemned, of whom three 
were executed. See Pitcairn's Island. 

BOURBON, House op. Anthony de Bourbon was the chief of the branch of 
Bourbon, so called from a fief of that name which fell to them by marriage 
witih the heiress of the estate. Henry IV. of France and Navarre, justly 

Digitized by 



styled the Great, was son of Anthony, and came to the throne in 1589. The 
crown of Spain was settled on a younger branch of thiH family, and guaran- 
teed by the peace of Utrecht, 1713. — Rapln, The Bourbon Family Compact 
took place, 1761. The Bourbons were expelled France, 1791, and were 
restored, 1814. Re-expelled, and again restored, 1815. The elder branch 
was expelled once more, in the persons of Charles X. and his family in 1830, 
a consequence of the revolution of the memorably days of July in that 
year. — See France. 

BOURBON, Isle op, discovered by the Portuguese, in 1545. The French 
first settled here in 1672, and built several towns. The island surrendered 
to the British, July 2, 1810. It is near the Isle of France, and the two are 
styled the Mauritius. There occurred an awfhl hurricane here in February 
1829, by which immense mischief was done to the shipping, and in the 
Island. See Maurilius. 

BOURDEAUX (or Bordeaux) was united to the dominions of Henry II. of 
England, by his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. Edward the Black 
Prince brought his royal captive, John, king of France, to this city after the 
battle of Poitiers in 1366, and here held his court during eleven years : his son, 
Richard II., (of Eng.) was bom at Bourdeaux, in 1362. The fine equestrian 
statue of Louis XV. was erected in 1743. Bourdeaux was entered by the 
victorious British army, after the battle of Orthes, fought Feb. 25, 1814. 

BOURIGNONISTS a sect founded by Madame AntmncUc Bmtrisnon, a fanatic, 
who, in 1658, took the habit of St. Auffustin, and travelled into France, 
Holland. England and Scotland. In the last she made a strong party and 
some thousands of sectarists. about 1670. She maintained that Christianity 
does not consist in faith or practice, but in an inward feeling and supernatu- 
ral impulse. This visionary published a book entitled the Lis^kt of the 
World, in which, and in several other works, she maintained and taught her 
pernicious notions. A disciple of hera, named Court, left her a good estate. 
She died in 1680. 

BOWLS, OR BOWLING, an English game, played as early as the thirteenth 
century, and once in great ref)Ute among the higher ranks. Charles I. 
played at it. It formed a daily share in the diversions of Charles II., at 
Tunbridge. — Memoires de GrammoiU. 

BOWS AND ARROWS. See Archery. The invention of them is ascribed to 
Apollo. Known in England previous to a. n. 450. The of them was 
again introduced into England by the Conqueror, 1066 ; and greatly encour- 
aged by Richard I., ll^.—Baker^s Chronicle. The usual range of the long- 
bow was from 300 to 400 yards ; the length of the bow was six feet, and 
the arrow three. Cross-bows were fixed to a stock of iron or wood, and 
were discharged by a trigger. 

BOXING, OR PRIZE-FIGHTING, the pugilatus of the Romans, and a fiivorite 
sport with the British, who possess an extraordinary strength in the arm an 
advantage which gives the British soldier great superiority in battles decid- 
ed by the bayonet. A century ago, boxing formed a regular exhibition, and 
a theatre was erected for it in Tottenham-court — Brougnton's amphitlwatre, 
behind Oxford-road, built 1742. Schools were opened in England to teach 
boxing as a science in 1790. Owing to the dishonest practices in the " ring," 
selling the victory, and one combatant allowing the other to beat him, &c., 
the fights have been fewer of late, and the number of the patrons of boxing 
have declined. 

BOrLE LECTURES. Instituted by Robert Boyle (son of the p^roat earl of 
Cork), an exceedingly good man and philosopher, distinguished by his 
eenius. virtues, and unbounded benevolence. He instituted eight lectures 
m vindication of the Christian religion, which were delivered at St. Mary-le- 

Digitized by 


bea] diction a&y of dates. 215 

Bow chnrch, on the first Monday in each month, ft-om Jannaiy to May, and 
September to November — endowed 1691. 

BOYNE, Battle op, between king William in. and his father-in-law. James 11., 
fought July 1, 1690. The latter was signally defeated, his adherents losing 
1500 men, and the Protestant array about a third of that number. James 
immediately afterwards fled to Dublin, thence to Waterford, and escaped to 
France. The duke of Schomberg was killed in the battle. 

BRABANT. It was erected into a duchy a. d. 620, and devolved upon Lam- 
bert I. count of Louvain, in 1005, and iVom him descended to Philip U. of 
Burgimdy, and in regular succession to the emperor Charles Y. In the 
seventeenth century it was held by Holland and Austria, as Dutch Brabant, 
and Walloon. These provinces underwent many changes in most of the 
great wars of Europe. The Austrian division was taken by the French 1746 
— ajrain in 1794 by their Republic ; and it now forms part of the kingdom 
of Belgium, under Leopold, 1831. See Belgium. 

BRACELETS. They were early worn and prized among the ancients ; we read 
of them in almost all nations ; those that were called armilla were usually 
distributed as rewards for valor among the Roman legions. — Nouv. Diet. 
Those of pearls and gold were worn by the Roman ladies ; and armlets are 
female ornaments to the present day. 

BRAGANZA, House op, owes its elevation to royalty to a remarkable and 
bloodless revolution in Portugal, a. d. 1640, when the nation, throwing off 
the Spanish yoke, which had become intolerable, advanced John, duke of 
Braganza, to the throne, on which this family continues to reign. — Abbe 

BRAHMINS, a sect of Indian philosophers, reputed to be so ancient that Py- 
thagoras is thought to have learned from them his doctrine of the Metemp- 
sycAosis ; and it is affirmed that some of the Greek philosophers went to 
India on purpose to converse with them. The modem Brahmins derive 
their name from Brahme, one of the three beings whom Grod, according to 
their theology, created, and with whose assistance he formed the world. 
They never eat flesh, and abstain from the use of wine and all carnal enjoy- 
ments. — Slrabo. The modem Indian priests are still considered as the de- 
positaries of the whole learning of India. — Holweli. 

BRANDEN BURGH, Family of, is of great antiquity, and some historians say 
it was founded by the Sclavonians, who gave it the name of Banber, which 
signifies Cruard of the Forests, Henry I., surnamed the Fowler, fortified 
Brandenburgh, a. d. 928, to serve as a rampart against the Huns. He be- 
stowed the government on Sifroi, count of Ringelheim, with the title of 
Margrave, which signifies protector of the marches or frontiers, in 927. 
The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of Nurem- 
berg, who was made elector in 1417. See Prussia. 

BRANDYWINE, Battle of, between the British royalist forces and the Ameri- 
cans, in which the latter were defeated with great loss, and Philadelphia fell 
to the possession of the victors, September 11, 1777. 

BRASS. Its formation was prior to the Flood, and it was discovered in the 
seventh generation from Adam. — Bible. Brass was known among all the 
early nations. — Usher, The Britons from the remotest period were acquainted 
with its use.— WhUtaker. When Lucius Mumonius bumt Corinth to the 
ground, 146 b. c, the riches he found were immense, and during the confla- 
eration. it is said, all the metals in the city melted, and running together, 
lormed the valuable composition since known under the name of Corinth- 
ian Brass. This, however, may well be doubted, for the Corinthian artists 
had long before obtained great credit for their method of combining gold 

Digitized by 



and silvei with copper ; and the Syriac translation of the Bible sajs, that 
Hiram made the vessels for Solomon's temple of Corinthian brass. Aitidet 
made of this brilliant composition, though in themselves trivial and inaif - 
nificant, were yet highly valued. — Dtu I'Vesnoy. 

BRAZIL. It was discovered by Alvarez de Cabral, a Portuguese, who waa 
driven upon its coasts by a tempest in 1500. He called it the Land of the 
Holy Cross ; but it was subsequently called Brazil on account of its red 
wood, and was carefully explored by Amerigo Vespucci, about 1504. Th« 
goldmines were first opened in 1684; and the diamond mines were discov- 
eied 1730 (see Diamonds), The French having seized on Portugal in 1807, 
the royal family and most of the nobles embarKed for Brazil. A revolution 
took place here in 1821. Brazil was erected into an empire, when Don 
Pedro assumed the title of emperor, in November 1826. He abdicated the 
throne of Portugal, May 2, 1826 ; and that of Brazil, in favor of his infant 
son, now emperor, April 7, 1831, and returned to Portugal, where a civil 
war ensued. — See Portugal. 

BREAD. Ching-Noung, the successor of Fohi, is reputed to have been the 
first who taught men (the Chinese) the art of husbandry, and the method 
of making bread from wheat, and wine from rice, 1998 b. c. — Univ. Hisi. 
Baking of bread was known in the patriarchal ages ; see Exodus xii. 15. 
Baking bread became a profession at Rome, 170 b. c. During the siege of 
Paris by Henry IV., owing to the famine which then raged, bread, which 
had been sold whilst any remained for a crown a pound, was at last made 
from the bones of the chamel-hou»e of the Holy Innocents, a. d. 1594. — 
HenauU. In the time of James I. the usual bread of the poor was made of 
barley ; and now in Iceland, cod-flsh, beaten to powder, is made into bread; 
and the poor use potato-bread in many parts of Ireland. Earth has been 
eaten as bread in some parts of the world : near Moscow is a portion of 
land whose clay will ferment when mixed with flour. The Indians of Lou- 
isiana (1) eat a white earth with salt ; and the Indians of the Oronooko eat 
a white unctuous earth. — Oreig ; Phillips. 

BREAKWATER at PLYMOUTH. The first stone of this stupendons work 
was lowered in the presence of the army and navy, and multitudes of the 
great, August 12. 1812. It was designed to break the swell at Plymouth, 
and stretches 5280 feet across the Sound ; it is 360 feet in breadth at the 
bottom, and more than thirty at the top, and consumed 8,666,000 tons of 
granite blocks, from one to five tons each, up to April, 1841 ; and cost a 
million and a half sterling. The architect was Rennie. The first stone of 
the lighthouse on its western extremity was laid Feb. 1, 1841. 

BREAST-PLATES. The invention of them is ascribed to Jason, 937 b. c. The 
breast-plate formerly covered the whole body, but it at length dwindled in 
the lapse of ages to the diminutive gorget of modern times. See Armor. 

BREDA. This city was taken by prince Maurice of Nassau in 1590 ; by the 
Spaniards in 1625 ; and again by the Dutch in 1687. Charles II. resided 
here at the time of the Restoration, 1660. See Restoration. Breda was 
taken by the French in 1793, and retaken by the Dutch the same year. The 
French garrison was shut out by the burgesses in 1813, when the power of 
France ceased here. 

BREECHES. Among the Greeks, this garment indicated slavery. It waa 
worn by the Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations ; and in Italy, 
it is said, it was worn in the time of Augustus Caesar. In the reign of Ho- 
norius, about a. d. 394, the drauari, or breeches-makers, were expelled from 
Rome ; but soon afterwards the use of breeches was adopted in other ooon* 
tries, and at length it became general. 

Digitized by 



BREMEN, a venerable Hanse town, and ducby, sold to George I. as elector of 
Hanover, in 1716. It was taken by tbe French in 1767 ; they were driven 
out by the Hanoverians in 1758 ; and it was a^^ain seized in 1806. Bremen 
was annexed by Napoleon to the French empire in 1810 ; but its indepen- 
dence was restored in 1813. See Hanse T\nons^ 

BRESLAU, Battle of, between the Austrians and Prussians, the latter under 
prince Severn, who was defeated, but the engagement was most bloody on 
Doth sides, Nov. 22, 1767, when Breslau was taken ; but was regained the 
same year. This city was for some time besieged by the French, and sur- 
rendered to them January 5, 1807, and again in 1813. 

BREST. It was besieged by Julius Caesar, 64 b. c— possessed by the English, 
A. D. 1378 — given up to the duke of Brittany, 1391. Lord Berkeley and a 
British fleet and army were repulsed here with dreadful loss in 1694. 
The magazine burnt, to the amount of some millions of pounds sterling, 
1744. The marine hospitals, with fifty galley-slaves, burnt, 1766. The 
magazine again destroyed by a lire, July 10, 1784. From this great depot 
of the French navy, numerous squadrons were equipped against England 
during the late war. 

BRETHREN in INIQUTftT. The designation arose from i)ersons covenanting 
formerly to share each other's fortune, in any expedition to invade a coun- 
try, as did Robert de Oily and Robert de I very, in William I.'s invasion of 
England, 1066. 

BRETIGNY, Peace op, concluded with France at Bretigny, and by which Eng- 
land retained Gascony and Guieune, acquired Saintonge, Agenois, Perigord, 
Limousin, Bigorre, Angou'mois, aud Rovergne, and renounced her preten- 
sions to Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and Normandy ; England was also to 
receive 8,000,0()0 cro^vns and to release king John, who had been long 
prisoner in London, May 8, 1360. 

BREVIARIES. The breviary is a book of mass and prayer used by the church 
of Rome. It was first called the ciistos^ and afterwards the breviary ; and 
both the cler^ and laity use it publicly and at home. It was in use among 
the ecclesiastical orders about a. d. 1080 ; and was reformed by the councils 
of Trent and Cologne, and by Pius V., Urban VIII., and other popes. The 
quality of type in which the breviary was first printed gave the name to the 
type called brevier at the present day. 

BREWERS. The first are traced to Eeypt. Brewing was known to our Anglo 
Saxon ancestors. — TiTMial. " One William Murle, a rich maultman or bruer, 
of Dunstable, had two horses all traped with gold, 1414." — Slowe. There 
are about 1700 public brewers in EngUnd, about 200 in Scotland, and 260 in 
Ireland : these are exclusively of retail and intermediate brewers, of which 
there are in England about 1400 ; there are, besides, 28,000 victuallers, &c., 
who brew their own ale. In London, there are about 100 wholesale brewers, 
many of them in immense trade. Various statutes relating to brewers ana 
the sale of beer have been enacted ftom time to time. See Beer. 

BRIBERY. In England an indictable offence to bribe persons in the adminis- 
tration of public justice. Thomas de Weyland, a judge, was banished the 
land for bribery, in 1288; he was chief justice of the Common Pleas. Wil- 
liam de Thorpe, chief justice of the King's Bench, was hanged for bribery 
in 1361. Another judge was fined 20,0(w;. for the like offence, 1616. Mr. 
Walpole, secretary-at-war, was sent to the tower for bribery in 1712. Lord 
Strangford was suspended from voting in the Irish of Lords, for soli- 
citing a bribe, January 1784. 

BRIBERY AT ELECTIONS, as in the preceding cases, made an indictable 
offence. Messrs. Sykes and Rumbold fined and imprisoned for bribery at 

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218 THE world's progress. [B&i 

an election, March 14, 1776. An elector of Durham convicted, July 1808 \ 
and several similar instances have occurred since. 

BRICKS, for building, were used in the earliest times in Babylon, Egypt, 
Greece, and Rome. Used in England by the Romans, about a. d. 44. Made 
under the direction of Alfred the Great, about 88Q.-~Saxon Ckron. The 
size regulated by order of Charles I. 1625. Taxed, llSi. The number of 
bricks which paid duty in England in 1820 was 949,000,000 ; in 1830, the 
number exceeded 1,100,000,000; and in 1840 it amounted to 14,000,000.000. 
See Building. 

BRIDAL CEREMONIES. Among the more rational ceremonies observed by 
the ancients, was the practice of conducting the bride to the house of her 
spouse on a chariot, which was afterwards burned ; it originated with the 
Thebans, and was intended as a symbol of tlie bride's Aiture dependence on 
her husband, from whom there was no chariot to convey her back to her 
parents ; it is mentioned 880 b. c. 

BRIDEWELL. Originally the name of a royal palace of kinc Join, near 
Fleet-ditch, London ; it was built anew by Henry VIII. in lo22, and was 
given to the city by Edward VI. in 1553. There are several prisons of this 
name throughout England. The first London Bridewell was in a locality 
near to Bride's well; but this is no reason, as is justly observed, why simi- 
lar prisons, not in a similar locality, sliould have this name. 

BRIDGES. So early and general, and the expedients for their construction so 
various, their origin cannot be traced ; they were first of wood. The ancient 
bridges in China are of great magnitude, and were built of stone. Abydos 
is famous for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built across the Hellespont. 
Trajan's magnificent stone bridge over the Danube, 4770 feet in length, was 
built in A. D. 103. The Devil's bridge in the canton of Uri, so called from its 
frightful situation, was built resting on two high rocks, so that it could 
scarcely be conceived how it was erected, and many fabulous stories were 
invented to account for it. At Shafi'hausen an extraordinary bridge was 
built over the Rhine, which is there 400 feet wide : there was a pier in the 
middle of the river, but it is doubtful whether the bridge rested upon it; a 
man of the lightest weight felt the bridge totter under him. yet wagons 
heavily laden passed over without danger. ITiis bridge was destroyed by 
the French in 1799. Suspension bridge at Niagara Falls completed July 
29, 1848. 

BRIDGES IN ENGLAND. The ancient bridges in England were of wood, and 
were fortified with planks and merlined ; the first bridge of Stone was built 
at Bow, near Stratford, a. d. 1087. Westminster bridge, then the finest 
erected in these realms, and not surpassed by any in the world, except in 
China, was completed in twelve years, 1750. The other London bridges are 
Blackfriars, completed 1770; London, (rebuilt) 1831; Southwark, of iron, 
1819. The first iron bridge, on a large scale, was erected over the Severn, 
in Shropshire, 1779. The finest chain suspension bridge is that of the 
Menai Strait, completed in 1825. Hungerford suspension bridge, 1845. 

BRIDGEWATER CANAL, the first great work of the kind in England, waa 
begun by the duke of Bridgewater, styled the father of canal navigation in 
that country, in 1758 : Mr. Brindley was the architect. The canal com- 
mences at Worsley, seven miles from Manchester ; and at Barton-bridge is 
an aqueduct which, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys the canal across the 
navigable river Irwell ; its length is twenty-nine miles. 

BRIEF. A written instrument in the Catholic church, of early but uncertain 
date. Briefs are the letters of the pope dispatched to princes and others on 
public affairs, and are usually written short, and hence the name, and are 
without prefi&ce or preamble, and on paper ; in which particulars they are 

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distingfuished from buUs. The latter are ample, and always written on 
parchment; a brief is scaled with red wax, the seal of the fisherman, or St. 
Peter in a boat, and always in ])resence of the pope j they are nsed for graces 
and dispensations, as well as business. 
BRIENNE, Battle op, between the allied armies of Russia and Prussia, and 
the French, fought on the Ist, and resumed on the 2d February, 181i. The 
allies were defeated with great loss ; this was one of the last battles in which 
the French achieved victory, previously to the fall of Napoleon. 

fSRlSTOL. This city, one of the principal in England, was built by Brennus, 
a prince of the Britons, 380 b. c. It was granted a charter and became a 
distinct county in the reign of Edward III. Taken by the earl of Glouces- 
ter, in his defence of his sister Maude, the empress, against king Stephen, 
1138. Bristol was attacked with great fury by the forces of Cromwell, 1655. 
Riot at Bristol, on the entrance of sir Charles Wetherell, the .ecorder, into 
the city, attended by a large police and special force, to open the sessions. 
He being politically obnoxious to the lower order of the citizens, b rioi en- 
sued, which was of several days' continuance, and which did net terminate 
until the mansion-house, the bishop's palace, several merchants* fetores, some 
of the prisons (the inmates liberated), and nearly 100 houses were burned, 
and many lives lost. Oct. 29, 1831. Trial of the rioters, Jan. 2, 1832 ; four 
were executed, and twenty-two transported. Suicide of col. Brereton during 
his trial by court-martial, Jan. 9, same year. 
BRITAIN. The earliest records of the history of this island are the manu- 
scripts and poetry of the Cambrians. The Celts were tH% ancestors of the 
Britons and modem Welsh, and were the first inhabitants of Britain. Bri- 
tain, including England, Scotland, and Wales, was anciently called Albion, 
the name of Britain being applied to all the islands collectively — Albion to 
only one. — Pliny. The Romans first invaded Britain under Julius Csesar, 
55 B. c, but they made no conquests. Tho emperor Claudius, and his gen- 
erals, Plautius, Vespasian, and Titus, subdued several provinces after thirty 
pitched battles with the natives, a. d. 43 and 44. The conquest was com- 
pleted by Agricola, in the reign of Domitian, a. d. 85. 

Firat invaidon of Britain bj the Romans, 
under Julius Caesar - • b. c. 66 

Cymbe line, king of Britain • - 4 

Bxpedition ofClaudiuB into Britain, a. d. 40 

I^ndon founded bv the Romans - 49 

Caraciacus carried in chains to Rome • 51 

The Romans defeated by fioadicea; 
70,000 slain, and London burnt - 61 

A vast army of Britons is defeated by 
Suetonius, and 80,000 slain • • 61 I driving them into Wales - 466 

Reier. of Lucius, the first Christian king | Many o( the natives settle in Armorica, 
uf Britain, and in the world • -179 since called Brittany • - • 467 

Constaniius, emperor of Rome, dies at 
York . - . . A. D. 306 

The Roman forces are finally with- 
drawn from Britain • 420 to 426 

The Saxona and Angles are called in to 
aid the natives against their northern 
neighbors the Picts and Scots • 449 

Having expelled these, the Anglo-Sax- 
ons attack the natives themselves, 

Severus keeps his court at York, then 
called Eboracum • .• • 207 

He dies at York - - - -211 

Carausius, a tyrant, usurps the throne 
of Britain 286 

He is killed hj Alectus, who continues 
the usurpation • - • • 293 

Constaniius recovers Britain by the de- 
feat of Alectus • • -296 

The Saxon Heptarchy ; Britain divided 

into seven kingdoms - • • 467 

Reign of the renowned Arthur - - 506 

Arrival of St. Augustin (or Austin), and 

CRtablishment of Christianity - - 598 
Cadwallader, last king of the Britons, 

beiran his reign - - • 678 

The Saxon Heptarchv ends • • B2S 

See England, and also Tabular Viewd, p. 
. 75, &c. 

That Britain formerly joined the Continent has been inferred fVoin the simi- 
lar cliffs of the opposite coasts of the English Channel and from the con- 
stant encroachments of the sea in still widening the channel. For instance, 
a larg:e part of the cliffs of Dover fell, estimated at six acres, Nov. 27, 1810. 
Phillips's Annals. 
mnSEi MUSEUM. The origin of this great national institution was tho 

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220 Tii£ world's progress. [brv 

grant by parliament of 20,0002. to the daughters of sir Hans Sloane, in pay- 
ment for his tine library, and vast coUection of the productions of nature 
and art, which had cost him 50,00W. The library contained 50.000 volumes 
and valuable MSS., and 69,862 articles of vertili were enumerated in the cat- 
alogue of curiosities. The act was passed April 5, 1753 ; and in the same 
year Montagu-house was obtained by government as a place for the recei>- 
tion of these treasures. The museum has since been gradually increased 
to an immense extent by gifts, bequests, the purchase of every species of 
curiosity, MSS., sculpture and work of art, and by the transference to its 
rooms of the Cottonian, Harleian, and other libraries, the Elgin marbles, 
&c. George IV. presented to the museum the library collected at Bucking- 
ham-house by Greorge III. — See Cottonian Library^ and other collections. 

BROAD SEAL op ENGLAND, first affixed to patents and other grants of the 
crown, by Edward the Confessor, a. d. 1048. — Baker's Chron. 

BROCADE. A silken stuff variegated with gold or silver, and raised and en- 
riched with flowers and various sorts of figures, originally made "by the Chi- 
nese. — Johnson. The trade in this article was carried on by the Venetians. 
— Anderson. Its manufacture was established with great success at Lyons, 
in 1757. 

BROCOLI : an Italian Tlsknt.— Pardon. The white and purple, both of which 
are varieties of the cauliflower, were brought to England from the Isle of 
Cyprus, in the seventeenth century. — Anderson. About 1603. — Bturns. The 
cultivation of this vegetable was greatly improved in the gardens of £ng> 
land and caiw into great abundance about 1680. — Anderson. 

BROKERS. Those both of money and merchandise were known early in Eng- 
land. See Appraisers. Their dealings were regulated by law, and it was 
enacted that they should be licensed before transacting business, 8 and 9 
William III. 1695-6. The dcalinsrs of stock-brokers were regulated by act 
6 George 1. 1719, and 10 George" II. IIZQ.— Statutes at large. See Pawn- 

BRONZE, known to the ancients, some of whose statues, vessels, and various 
other articles, made of bronze, are in the British Museum. The equestrian 
statue of Louis XIV., 1699, in the Place Vend6me at Paris, (demolished Aug. 

10, 1792,) was the most colossal ever made ; it contained 60,000 lbs. weight 
of bronze. Bronze is two parts and one copper, and the Greeks added 
one fifteenth of lead and silver. 

BROTHELS, were formerly allowed in London, and considered a necessary evil, 
under the regulation of a good police. They were all situated on the Bank- 
side, Southwark, and subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop of Winches- 
ter ; and they were visited weekly by the Sheriff" 's oflScers. and the severest 
penalties being enacted against keeping infected or maiTied women, 6 Henry 

11. IW2.— Survey of London. Brothels tolerated in France, 1280. Pope 
Sixtus IV. licensed one at Rome, and the prostitutes paid him a weekly tax, 
which amounted to 20.000 ducats a year, 1471. — Ital. Ckron. 

BROWNISTS, a sect founded by a schoolmaster in Southwark, named Robert 
Brown, about 1615. It condemned all ceremonies and ecclesiastical distinc- 
tions, and affirmed that there was an admixture of corruptions in all other 
communions. But the founder .subsequently recanted his doctrines for a 
benefice in the church of England. — Collins' s Eccks. Hist. 

BRUCE'S TRAVELS undertaken to discover the source of the Nile. Tlie 
illustrious Bruce, the " Abyssinian Traveller,' set out in June 1768, and pro- 
ceeding first to Cairo, he navigated the Nile to Syene, thence crossed the 
desert to the Red Sea. and. arriving at Jidda, passed some months in Arabia 
Felix, and after various detentions, reached Gondar, the capital of Abys- 

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sipia, in Feb. 1770. Oq Nov. 14th, 1770, he obtained the great object of his 
wishes— a sight of the sources of the Nile. Bruce returned to England in 
1773, and died in 1794. 
BRUNSWICK, House op. This house owes its origin to Azo, of the family of 
Este. Azo died in 1055, and left, by his wife Cunegonde (the hcires:} of 
Guelph III., duke of Bavaria), a son who was Guelph IV., the grcat-grand- 
Cither of Henry the Lion. This last married Maude, daughted of Henry II. 
of England, and is always looked upon as being the founder of the Bruns- 
wick llimily. The dominions of Henry the Lion were the most extensive of 
any prince of his time ; but having refused to assist the emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa in a war against pope Alexander HI., he drew the emperor's re- 
sentment on him, and in the diet of Wurtzburg, in 1179, he was proscribed. 
» The duchy of Bavaria was given to Otho, tVom whom is descended the family 
of Bavaria ; the duchy of Saxony, to Bernard Ascanius, founder of the 
bouse of Anhalt ; and his other territories to different persons. On this, he 
retired to England ; but on Henry's intercession, Brunswick and Lunenburg 
were restored to him. The house of Brunswick has divided into several 
branches. The present duke of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel is sprung from the 
eldest ; the duke of Brunswick-Zell was from the second ; and from this 
last sprang the royal family of England. A revolution took place at Bruns- 
wick, when the ducal palace was burat, and tlu* reigning prince obliged to 
retire and seek shelter in England, Sept. 8, 18^30. 

BRUSSELS, founded by St. Gery of Cambray, in the seventh century. The " 
memorable bombardment of this city by Marshal Villeroy, when 14 churches 
and 4000 houses were destroyed, 1695. Taken by the French, 1746. 
Again, by Dumouriez. 1792. The revolution of 1830 commenced here, Aug. 
25.~See Belgium, This town is celebrated for its fine lace, camlets, and 
tapestry. There is here a noble building, called the Hdlelde VUle^ whose tur- 
ret is 364 feet in height ; and on its top is a copper figure of St. Michael, 17 
feet high, which turns with the wind. Riot in Brussels, in which the costly 
furniture of 16 principal houses was demolished, in consequence of a dis- 
play of attachment to the house of Orange, 5th April, 1834. 

BtTBBLE COMPANIES, in commerce, a name ffiven to projects for raising 
money upon false and imaginary grounds, much practised, often with disas- 
trous consequences, in France and England, in 1719 and 1721. Many such 
projects were formed in England and Ireland in 1825. See Companies^ and 
LAvfi Bubble. 

BUCCANEERS. These piratical adventurers, chiefly French, English, and 
Dutch, commenced their depredations on the Spaniards of America, soon 
after the latter had taken possession of that continent and the West Indies. 
The principal commanders of the first expedititm were, Montbar, Lolonois, 
Basco, and Morgan, who murdered thousands, and plundered millions. The 
ex^iedition of Van Horn, of Ostend, was undertaken in 1603 j that of Gramont, 
in 1685; and that of Pointis, in 1697. 

BUCHANITEIS. Hundreds of deluded fanatics, followers of Margaret Buchan, 
who promised to conduct them to the new Jerusalem, and prophesied the 
end of the world. She appeared in Scotland in 1779, and died in 1791, when 
her followers dispersed. 

BUCHAREST, Treaty op. The preliminaries of peace ratified at this place 
between Russia and Turkey, it being stipulated that the Pruth should be 
the iVontier limit of those empires, signed May 28, 1812. The subsequent 
w'ar between those powers altered many of the provisions of this treaty. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE. London. Buckingham-house, built 1703. wai 
pnlled down in 1825, and the new palace commenced on its site * and after 

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222 THE world's progress. [bui« 

expenditure which must have approached a milHon sterlings, it was com- 
pleted, and was taken possession of by queen Victoria, July 13, 1837. 

BUCKLERS. Those used in single combat were invented by Proetus and Acri- 
sius, of Argos, about 1370 b. c. When Lucius Papirius defeated the Sam- 
nites, he took from them their bucklers, which were of gold and silver, 309 
B. c. See article Amuyr. 

BUCKLES. The wearing of buckles commenced in the reign of Charles II. ; 
but people of inferior rank, and such as affected plainness in their garb, 
w^ore string in their shoes some years after that period : these last were, 
however, ridiculed for their singularity in using them. 

BUDA ; once called the Key of Christendom. It was taken by Solyman II. at • 
the memorable battle of Mohatz, when the Hungarian king, Louis, was killed, 
and 200,000 of his subjects were carried away captives, 1526. Buda was 
sacked a second time, when the inhabitants were put to the sword, and Hun- 
gary was annexed to the Ottoman empire, 1540. Retaken by the Imperial- 
ists, and the Mahometans delivered up to the fury of the soldiers, 1686. See 

BUENA VISTA, Battle op, between the American force, of about 6.000 men, un- 
der general Taylor and general Wool ; and the Mexicans, about 20,000, under 
Santa Anna: the latter defeated with the loss of 2500 killed and wounded. 
American loss, 264 killed, 460 wounded. This victory securing to the Ameri- 
cans the whole of the northern provinces of Mexico, Feb. 22, 1847. 

BUENOS AYRES. The capital was founded by Pedro Mendoza, in 1536. It 
was taken by the British under sir Home Popham, June 21, 1806 ; and was 
retaken, after an attack of three days, Aug 12, the same year. The British 
suffered a great repulse here under genersu Whitelock, who was disgraced, 
July 6, 1807. Declaration of independence of this province, July 19, 1816 : 
the treaty was signed February 1822. To put a stop to a war between Bue- 
nos Ayres and Monte Video, Englaiid and France blockaded the port of Bue- 
nos Ayres, Oct. 24, 1846 ; the troops of Buenos Ayres under general Rosas, 
defeated by the combined forces, Nov. 20, 1846. 

BUFFOONS. These were originally mountebanks in the Roman theatres. The 
shows of the buffoons were discouraged by Domitian, and were finally abol- 
ished by Traian, a. d. 98. Our ancient kings had j^rs^ers, who are described 
as being, at first, practitioners of indecent raillery and antic postures ; they 
were employed under the Tudors. Some. writers state that James I. con- 
verted the jesters into poet-laiireates ; but poet-laureates existed long before j 
Selden traces the latter to 1251. — WaTton. 

BUILDING. The first structures were of wood and clay, then of rou^h stone, 
and in the end the art advanced to polished marble. Building with stone 
was early among the Tyrians ; and as ornaments and taste arose, every 
nation pursued a different system. The art of building with stone may be 
referred in England to Benedict, or Benet. a monk, about a. d. 670. The first 
bridge of this material in England was at Bow, in 1087. Building with brick 
was introduced by the Romans into their provinces. AlfVed encouraged it 
in England, in 886. Brick-building was generally introduced by the earl of 
Arundel, about 1598, London being then almost built of wood. The increase 
of building in London was prohibited within three miles of the city gates by 
Elizabeth, who ordered that one fkniily only should dwell in one house, 1680. 

BULGARIANS. They defeat Justinian, a. d. 687 ; and are subdued by the 
emperor Basilius, in 1019. On one occasion, this emperor having taken 
16,000 Bulgarians prisoners, he caused their eyes to be put out, leaving on« 
eye only to every hundredth man, to enable him to conduct his countr^'men 

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home. Bulgaria was governed by Roman dukes till 1186; subdued by 
Bajazet, IZ^.— Univ. Hist. vol. xvii. 

BULL, OR EDICT op the POPE. This is an apostolical rescript, of ancient 
use, and generally written on parchment. The bull is. properly, the seal, 
deriving its name from bulla, and has been made of gold,, silver, lead, and 
ivax. On one side are the heads of Peter and Paul ; and on the other, the 
name of the poi>e, and the year of his pontificate. The celebrated golden 
bull of the emperor Charles IV. was so called because of its golden s«ial ; 
and was made the fundamental law of the German . empire, at the diet of 
Nuremburg, a. d. 1356. Bulls denouncing queen Elizabeth and her abet- 

. tors, and consigning them to hell-fire, accompanied the Spanish Armada, 

BUI-Lf-BAITING, or BULL-FIGH17NG. This atrociously criminal sport of 
Spain and Portugal is somewhat equivalent in those countries to the fights 
of the gladiators among the Romans. It is recorded as being an amuse- 
ment at Stamford so early as the reign of John, 1209. Bull-running was a 
sport at Tutbury in 1374. In the Sporls of England^ we read of the " Easter 
fierce hunts, when foaming boars fought for their heads, and lusty bulls and 
huge bears were baited with dogs ;" and near the Clink, London, was the 
Paris, or Bear Garden, so celebrated in the time of Elizabeth for the exhi- 
bition of bear-baiting, then a fashionable amusement. A bill to abolish 
buU-baiting was thrown out in the Commons, chiefly through the influence 
of the late Mr. Windham, who made a singular speech in favor of the cus- 
tom. May 24, 1802.— ^i^^fcr. It has since been declared illegal. See CTVr- 
eltff (o Animals. Bull-fights were introduced into Spain about 1260: 'abol- 
ished there, " except for pious and patriotic purposes," in 1784. There was 
a bull-flght at Lisbon, at Campo de Santa Anna, attended by 10,000 specta- 
tors, on Sunday, June 14, 1840. 

BULLETS. Those of stone were in use a. d. 1514 ; and iron ones are first 
mentioned in the Fadera, 1550. Leaden bullets were made before the close 
of the sixteenth century, and continue to be those in use in all nations for 
musketry. The cannon-ball in some Eastern coimtries is still of stone, 
instead of iron. — Ashe. 

BUNKER HILL, Battle op, (near Boston,) between the British under Howe, 
and the Americans under Prescott and Putnam, June 17, 1776. British loss, 
1054 killed and wounded; American, 453. The latter obliged to retreat for 
want of powder. But this, the first important battle of the revolution, has 
always justly been regarded as a great victory for the American cause, and 
is so commemorated by the granite obelisk on the battle-ground, of which 
the comer-stone was laid by general La Fayette, in 1825. It was finished 
July 23, 1842, at the cost altogether of about S100,000, raised by voluntary 
contributions. The height is 220 feet. Its completion celebrated by a pro- 
cession, &c., and an oration by Daniel Webster ; president Tyler and 60,000 
people present, June 17, 1843. 

BUONAPARTE S EMPIRE op FRANCE. Napoleon Bonaparte, the most 
cxtraordinarj' man of modern times, ruled over France, and subdued most 
of the nations of the Continent, in the early part of the present century. 
See his various military and other achievements under their respective heada 
'Jhroughout the volume : — 

Napoleon bom at Ajaccio, in Italj, 

Aug. 15, 1769 
He fim dntini^isheci himself in the 

command of the artillery at Toulon - 1793 
He embarks for Egypt - May 10, 1796 
(s repulsed before Acre - May 27, 1799 
He returns from Egypt - Aug. 23, 1799 

Deposes the French directory, and be- 
comes first consul - Nov. 9, 1799 

Sends overtures of peace to the king of 
England • • • Jan. 1, 1800 

His life attempted by an '* infernal ma- 
chine" . . . 18UU 

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THE world's PBOGUEBS. 



b defeated at Waterloo 
Keiuma to Paris 

Elected president of the Italian, late 

Cisalpine, republic - Jan. 25, 1802 ' 

Elected consul for 10 years • May 8, 1802 
Made first consul for life • Aug. 2, 1802 
Accepts the title of emperor from the 

senate in name of the people May 18, 1604 
Crowned emperor by the pope Dec 2, 1801 
Crowned kin^ of Italy May 26, 1806 

Divorced from the empress Josephine 

Dec. 16, 1809 
Marries Maria Louisa • April 7, 1810 
A son, the fruit of this marriage, bom, 

and styled king of Rome - March 20, 1811 
His overtures of peace to England re- 
jected • . • April 14, 1812 
[The reverses of Bonaparte now follow 

in quick succession.] 
He renounces the thrones of France 
and Italy, and accepts of the Isle of 
Elba for his retreat - April 6, 1814 
Embarks at Fr6jus • • April 28, 1814 
Arrives at Elba • - May 3, 1814 

Again appears in France ; he quits Elba 

and lands at Cannes • March 1, 1815 
Enters Lyons • • March 10, 1815 

Arrives at Fontainebleau March 20, 1815 
Joined by all the army - March 22, 1815 
The allies sign a treaty for his exter- 

- March 25, 1815 

June 18, 1815 
June 20, 1815 

And abdicates in favor of his mfiint 
son - - • June 22, 1816 

Intending to embark for America, he 
arrives ai Rochefort July 3, 1815 

He surrenders to Capt. Maitlond, ofthe 
Betterophon • - July 15, 1815 

Transferred at Torbay to the Northum- 
berland,tLDd sails for St. Helena Aug. 6, 1815 

Arrives at St. Helena (where it is de- 
creed by the allied sovereigns he shall 
remain for life) • Oct. 15, 18I& 

The family of Bonapane excluded for 
ever from France by the law of am- 
nesty . . . Jan. '2, 1816 

Death of Bonaparte • May 5, 1821 

His will registered in England • Aug. ISM 

His son, ex-king of Rome, dies July2S{, 1632 

The French chambers decree, with the 
consent of England, that the ashes of 
Napoleon be removed from St. Hele- 
na, and brought to France • May 12, 1840 

They are exhumed • Ocu 16, 1840 

The Belle Poule^ French frigate, arrives 
at Cherbourg with the '^mains of 
Napoleon, in the care of lie prince 
deJoinville • • Nov. 30, 1840 

They are interred with great solemnity 
in the Hotel des Invalides • Dec 15, 1840 

mination . 

He abolishes the slave-trade March 29| 1815 
Leaves Paris for the army • June 12, 1815 

BURGESS, from the French Bourgeois, a distinction coeval in England with 
its corporations. Burgesses were called to parliament in England a. d. 1265 ; 
in Scotland, in 1326 ; and in Ireland, about 1865. Burgesses to be resident 
in the places which they arc elected to represent in parliament, 1 Henry V. 
1413.— Viner's Statutes. See Borough. 

BURGLARY. Until the reign of George IV. this crime, in England, was pun- 
ished with death. 

BURGOS SiKGE OF. Wellington entered Burgos after the battle of Salamanca, 
which was fought July 22, 1812, and the castle was besieged by the British 
and allied army, and several attempts were made to carry it by assault, but 
the siege was abandoned in October, same year. The castle and fortifica- 
tions were blown up by the French in June 1813. 

BURGUNDY. This kingdom begins in Alsace, a.d. 413. Conrad II. of Ger- 
many being dcclared^hoir to the kingdom, is opposed in his attempt to an- 
nex it to the emi)ire, when it is dismembered, and on its ruins arc formed 
the four provinces of Burgundy, Provence, Viennes, and Savoy, 1034. Bur- 
gundy becomes a circle ol the German empire, 1521. It Iklls to Philip 11. 
of Spain, whose tyranny and religious persecutions cause a revolt in the 
Batavian provinces, 1566. After various changes, Burgundy annexed to 
France, and formed into departments of that kingdom. 

BURIAL. The earliest and most rational mode of restoring the body to earth. 
The lirst idea of it was formed by Adam, on his observing a live bird cover- 
ing a dead one with leaves. Barrows were the most ancient graves. See 
Barroies. Places of burial were consecrated under pope Calixtus I. in 210.— 
Etisebius. The first Christian burial-place was instituted in 596 ; burial in 
cities, 742 ; in consecrated places, 760 ; in church-yards, 758. Vaults were 
erected in chancels first at Canterbury, 1076. Woollen shrouds used in Eng- 
land, 1666. Linen scarfs introduced at fVinerals in Ireland, 1729; and woollen 
shrouds used, 1788. Burials were taxed, 1695— again, 1673.. See Cemeteries. 

BURIALS. Parochial registers of them, and of births and marria^^s, were in* 

Digitized by 


kr] dictionary op dates. 225 

stituted in England by Cromwell, Lord Essex, about 1686. — Staioe. A tax 
was exacted on burials in England : for the burial of a duke, JC50, and foi 
that of a common person 45., under William III., 1696, and Geo. III. 1783.— 
Statutes. See Bilis of MortalUy. 

BURKING. A new and horrible species of murder committed in England. It 
was thus named from the first known criminal by whom the deed was perpe- 
trated being called Burke. His victims were strangled, or made lifeless by 
pressure, or other modes of suffocation, and the bodies, which exhibited no 
marks of violence, were afterwards sold to the surgeons for the purpose 
of dissection. Burke was executed at Edinburgh in February, 1829. The 
crime has been more recently perpetrated by a gan^ of murderers in London. 
The monster named Bishop was apprehended in November 1831, and exe- 
cuted with Williams, one of his accomplices, for the murder of a poor Italian 
boy, named Carlo Ferrari, a friendless wanderer, and therefore selected as 
beJDg less likely t*) be sought after (they confessing to this and other similar 
murders), December 5, same year. 

BURMESE EMPIRE. Founded in the middle of the last century, by Alom- 
pra. the first sovereign of the present dynasty. — See India 

BURNING ALIVE. This punishment, was inflicted amon^^ th: Romans, Jews, 
and other nations, on the betrayers of councils, incendiaries, and for incest 
in the ascending and descending degrees The Jews had two ways of burn- 
ing alive : one with wood and faggots to burn the body, the other by pour- 
ing scalding lead down the throat of the criminal, conibustio aninia, to bum 
the soul. —See Suttees. 

BIJRXIXG ALIVE, in England. Even in England (see preceding article) burn- 
ing alive was a punishment upon the statute-book. The Britons puni.shed 
heinous crimes by burning alive in wicker baskets. See Stonehenge. This 
punishment was countenanced by bulls of the pope ; and witches suffered 
in this manner. — See Witches. Many persons have been burned alive on ac- 
count of religious principles. The first sufferer was sir William Sawtree, 
parish priest of St. Osith, London, 3 Henry IV., February 9, 1401. In the 
reigij of the cruel Mary numbers were burned, among others, Ridley, bishop 
of London: Latimer, bishop of Rochester; and Cranmer. archbishop of 
Canterbury, who were burned at Oxford in 1556 and 1566. Numerous others 
suffered this dreadful death in Mary's reign.* 

BURXING THE DEAD. The antiquity of this custom rises as high as the Tlie- 
han war; it was practised among the Greeks and Romans, and the poet Ho- 
mer abounds with descriptions of such funeral obsequies. The practice was 
very general about 1225 b. c, and was revived by Sylla, lest the relics of the 
dead in graves should be violated ; and to this day the burning of the dead 
is practised in many parts of the East and West Indies. 

BUR>fING-GL ASS and CONCAVE MIRRORS. Their power was not unknown 
to Archimedes, but the powers of these instruments are rendered wonderful 
by the modern improvements of Settalla: of Tchimhausen. 1680; of Buffon, 
1747 ; and of Parker and others, more recently. The following are experi- 
ments of the fuJ»ion of substances made with Mr. Parker's lens, or burning 
mirror : 

It Is computed, ihet daring the three years of Mary's reign In which these shocking violences 
»H barbarities were carried on, there were 277 persons brought to the stake; besides ihiwe who 
WRffi punished by imprisonmenL, tines, and connscailons. Atfiong those who suflfered by lire wers 
3j»wrwp», 21 clergymen, 8 lay gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, 100 husbandmen, servants, an(l laborerw, 
w women, and 4 children. The unprincipled agents of this merciless queen were the bishops Oar- 
•"Mr and Bonner. The latter especially was a man of brutal character, who seemed to derive a 
••age pleasure in witnessing the torture of the suirereP!. 


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THE world's progress. [ BY2 


Sfubsta/tces fused. Weight. Time. 

Pure gold - • 20 grains 4 seronda. 

Silver - - -20 grains 3 secomls. 

Copper • • • 33 grains 20 8econil9. 
Plaiina ... 10 grains 3 seconds. 

Cast iron • • 10 grains 3 seconds. 

Steel • • - 10 grains 12 seconds. 

Subatanceefttsed. WefgkL Timt, 
A topaz • . - 3 grains 45 Becon<W 

An emerald • • 2 grains 25 M^couda. 
A crystal pebble • 7 grains G wron><a. 

Flint • • • . 10 grains 3l>9erouilB. 
Cornelian • • 10 grams Taseconilfl. 

Pumice stone • • 10 grains 24 seconds. 

Green wood takes fire Instantaneously ; water boils immediately ; bones arc 
calcined ; and things, not capable of melting, at once become red-hot like iri»n. 

dURYlNG ALIVE. A mode of death adopted in Boeotia. where Creon ordered 
Antiffone, the sister of Polynices, to be buried alive. 1226 b. c. The Rouian 
vestals were subjected to this horrible kind of execution for any levity in dress 
or conduct that could excite a suspicion of their virtue. The vestal Minutia 
was buried alive on the charge of incontinence. 837 b. c. The vestal Sextilia 
was buried alive 274 b. c. 'fhc vestal Cornelia a. d. 92. Loixi Bacon gives 
instances of the resurrection of persons who had been bur?«d alive ; the fa- 
mous Duns Scotus is of the number. The assassins of Cajvu dlstria, Presi- 
dent of Greece were (two of them) sentenced to be immured in brick walls 
bnilt around them up to their chins, and to be supplied with food in this 
species of torture until they died, Oolober, 1831.— See Grcect. 

BUSTS. This mode of preserving the remembrance of the human features is 
the same with the kermee of the Greeks. Lysistratus, the statuary, was the 
inventor of moulds ft^om which he cast wax figures, 828 b. c. — Pliny, Busts 
from the face in plaster of Paris were first taken by Andrea Verrochi, about 

A. D. 1466.— Fiwan. 

BUTCHERS. Among the Romans there were three classes : the Suarii pro- 
vided hoffs, the Boarii oxen, and the Lanii, whose office was to kill. The 
butchers trade is very ancient in England; so is their company in London, 
although it was not incorporated until the second year of James I. 16(^4. — 
Annals of London. 

BUTTER. It was late before the Greeks had any notion of butter, and by the 
early Romans it was used only as a medicine — never as food. The Chris- 
tians of Egypt burnt butter in their lamps, instead of oil. in the third cen- 
tury. In 1675, there fell in Ireland, during the winter time, a thick yellow 
dew, which had all the medicinal properties of butter. In Africa, vegetable 
butter is made ft-om the fruit of the shea tree, and is of richer taste, at Kebba, 
than any butter made from cow's milk. — Mungo Park. 

BUTTONS, of early manufacture in England ; those covered with cloth were 
prohibited by a statute, thereby to encourage the manufacture of metal but- 
tons, 8 George 1. 1721. The manufacture owes nothing to encouragement 
from any quarter of late year», although it has, notwithstanding, much im- 
proved . — PkiUips. 

BYRON'S VOYAGE. Commodore Byron left England, on his voyage round 
the globe, Juno 21, 1764, and returned May 9, 1766. In his voyage he dis- 
covered the populous island in the Pacific Ocean which bears his name Au- 
gust 16. 1766. Though brave and intrepid, such was his general ill fortune 
at sea, that he was called by the sailors of the fleet, " Foul- weather Jack." — 

BYZANTIUM. Now Constantinople, founded by a colony of Athenians, 716 

B. c.—Eusebius. It was taken by the Romans, a. d. 78, and was laid in ruins 
bv Severus in 196. Byzantium was rebuilt by Constantino in 838 ; and after 
him it received the name of Constantinople. See Constantinople 

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cad] pictionary op dates. 227 

CABAL. A Hebrew word, used in various senses. The rabbins were cabalists, 
and the Christians so called those who pretended to ma^ic. In Enelish his- 
tory, the Cabal was a conncil which consisted of five lords in administration, 
supposed to be pensioners of France, and distingfuished by the appellation 
of the Cahai, from the initials of their names: Sir Thomas Clifford, the lord 
Ashley, the duke of Buckingham, lord Arlington, and the duke of Lauder- 
dale, 22 Charles II. m^—Hume. 

CABINET COUNCIL. There were councils in England so early as the reign 
of Ina, king of the West Saxons, a. d. 690; Offa, king of the Mercians, 758, 
and in other reigns of the Heptarchy. The cabinet council, in which secret 
deliberations were held by the king and a few of his chosen friends, and the 
great officers of state, to be afterwards laid before the second council, now 
styled the privy council, was instituted by Alfred the Great, about a. d. 896. 
Spelman. The modern cabinet council, as at present constituted, was recon- 
structed in 1670, and usually consists of the following twelve members :* 

Lord preaident. 

Lord chancellor. 

Lord privy seal. 

First lonl of the treasury. 

Chancellor of ihe exchequer. 

Home, forei^, and colonial secretariea of state. 

President ol the board of control. 

President of the boan of trade. 

Master of the iniuu 

First lord of the admiralty. 

In 1841 the number was 14, and included the Secretary at War, the Woods 
and Forests, and Chief Secretary for Ireland, the Mint and the Board of 
Trade being united in right hon. H. Labouchere. The cabinet ministers of 
the various reigns will be found under the head AdministTations of England. 

CABLES. Their use was known in the earliest times : a machine for making 
the largest, by which human labor was reduced nine-tenths, was invented 
in 1792. This machine was set in motion by sixteen horses, when making 
cables for ships of large size. Chain cables were introduced into the British 
navy in 1812. 

CADDEE, OR Leagub op God's House. The celebrated league of independence 
in Switzerland, formed by the Grisons, to resist domestic tyranny, a. d. 1400 
to 1419. A second league of the Grisons was called the Grise or Gray 
league, 1424. 

CADE S INSURRECTION. Jack Cade, an Irishman, a fugitive from his coun- 
try on account of his crimes, assumed the name of Mortimer, and headed 
20.000 Kentish men, who armed '• to punish evil ministers, and procure a 
redress of grievances." Cade entered London in triumph, and tor some time 
bore down all opposition, and beheaded the lord treasurer, Lord Saye, and 
several other persons of consequence. The insurgents at length losing 
ground, a geneml pardon was proclaimed ; and Cade, finding hnuself de- 
serted by his followers, fled: but a reward being offered for his apprehen- 
sion, he was discovered, and refusing to surrender, was slain by Alexander 
Iden, sheriff of Kent, 1451. 

CADIZ, formerly Gades, was built by the Carthaginians 530 b. c. — PricsUey. 
One hundred vessels of the armament preparing, as the Spanish Armada, 

* The term cabinet council is of comparatively modem date, and originated thus : the aflNir* 
of state, in the reign of Charles I. were principally manaj?ed by the archbishop of Canterbury, tlie 
earl of gtraffbnJ, and the lord Cottinsrton ; to these were added ilie earl of Nonhumbcrland, for or- 
nament; the bishop of J^ndon for his place, being lord treasurer; the two secretaries, Va:Te and 
Windebank, for service and intelligence : only the marquis of Hamilton, by his skill and interest, 
meddled just so far, and no further, than he had a mind; These persons nuule up the committee of 
nate, reproachfully called the ^n/o, and aftenfrards, enviously, the cabinet council— hoRD CiJi* 


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238 THE world's progress. [cal 

affainst England, were destroyed in the port by sir Francis Drake, 1587. 
Cadiz was taken by the English, under the earl of Essex, and plundered, 
September 15, 1596. It was attempted by sir George Rooke in 1702, but he 
failed. Bombarded by the British in 1797, and blockaded by their fleet, 
under lord St. Vincent, for two years, ending in 1799. Again bombarded by 
the British, on board whose fleet were 18,000 land forces, October 1800. 
Besieged by the French, but the siege raised after the battle of Salamanca 
in 1812. Massacre of the Inhabitants by the soldiery, March 10, 1820. 
Cadiz was declared a free port in 1829. 

C.£SARS, ERA op the ; or Spanish Era, is reckoned from the flrst of January 
88 B. c, being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It was 
much used in Africa, Spain, and the south of France ; but by a synoil held 
in 1180 its use was abolished in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. 
Pedro lY., of Arragon, abolished the use of it in his dominions in 1350. John 
of Castile did the same in 1383. It continued to be used in Portugal till 
1455. The months and days of this era are identical .with the Julian calen- 
dar, and to turn the time into that of our era, subtract thirty-eight from the 
year; if before the Christian era subtract thirty-nine. 

CAI-FONG, in China. This city being besieged by 100,000 rebels, the com- 
mander of the forces who was sent to its relief, in order to drown the enemy, 
broke down its embankments : his stratagem succeeded, and every man of 
the besiegers perished; but the city was at. the same time overflowed by 
the waters, and 300,000 of the citizens were drowned in the overwhelming 
flood, A. D. 1642. 

CAIRO, OR GRAND CAIRO. The modern capital of Egypt, remarkable for 
the minarets of its mosques, and the splendid sepulchres of its caliphs in 
what is called the city of the dead : it was built by the Saracens, in a. d. 
969. Burnt to prevent its occupation by the Christian invaders, called Cru- 
saders, in 1220. Taken by the Turks ili'om the Egyptian sultans, and their 
empire subdued, 1517. Ruined by an earthquake and a great fire, June, 
1754, when 40,000 persons perished. Set on Are by a lady of the beglerbeg, 
Dec, 1755. Taken by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte, July 23, 1798. 
Taken by the British and Turks, when 6000 French capitulated, June 27, 

CALAIS. Taken by Edward III. after a year's siege, Aug. 4, 1847, and held 
by England 210 years. It was retaken in the reign of Mary, Jan. 7, 1558, 
and the loss of Calais so deeply touched the queen's heart, historians say it 
occasioned her death, which occurred soon afterwards. Calais was bom- 
barded by the English, 1694. Here Louis XVIII. landed after his long 
exile fVom France, April 24, 1814. See France. 

CALCUTTA. The flrst settlement of the Enrfish here was made in 1689. It 
was purchased as a Zemindary, and Fort William built in 1698. Calcutta 
was attacked by a large army of 70,000 horse and foot, and 400 elephants, 
in June, 1756. On the capture of the fort, 146 of the British were crammed 
into the Black-hole prison, a dungeon about 18 feet square, from whence 
twenty-three only came forth the next morning alive. Calcutta was re- 
taken the following year, and the inhuman Soubali put to death. Supremo 
court of Judicature established 1773. College founded here 1801.— -See 
Bengal and India. 

CALEDONIA. Now Scotland. The name is supposed by some to be derived 
ft-om Gael or Ga£lmen, or Gadet-daine, corrupted by the Romans. Tacitus, 
who died a. d. 99, distinguishes this portion of Britian by the appellation of 
Caledonia ; but the etymology of the word seems undetermined. Vener- 
able Bede says, that it retained this name until a. d. 258, when it was invaded 
by a tribe ftom Ireland, and called Scotia. The ancient inhabitants appewr 

Digitized by 


oal} dictionary of dates. 229 

to have been the Caledonians and Picts, tribes of the Celts, wLo passed 
OTer IVom the opposite coasts of Gaul. About the beginning of the fourth 
century of the Christian era, they were invaded (as stated by some autho- 
rities'), by the Scuyths or Scythians (since called Scots), who, having driven 
the Picts into the north, settled in the Lowlands, and gave their name to 
the whole country. Hence the origin of that distinction of language, habits, 
customs, and persons, which is still so remarkable between the Highlanders 
and the inhabitants of the southern borders. 

Caledonian monarchy, said to have been 

The country is invaded by the Scuytha, 
or iicois^ and the government is over- 
thrown, about - A. D. 30s 

The Caledonian monarchy is revived by 
Fergus 11. 404 

Afler many sanguinary wars between 
the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, Ken- 
neth II. obtain!) a victory over the Picts, 
unites the whcie country under one 
monarchy, and gives it the name of 
Scotland - • • 838 to 843 


founded by Fergus 1., about • b. c. 330 
The Picts from the north of England 

settle in the southern borders • • 140 
Agricola carries the Roman arms into 

Caledonia, with little success, in the 

reign of Galdus, otherwise called Cor- 

bredll. A.D. 79 

He is signally defeated by the forces of 

Corbred 80 

Christianity is introduced into Caledonia 

in the reign of Donald I. • '201 

The origin of the Scots, it should be stated, is very uncertain ; and the his- 
tory of the country until the eleventh century, when Malcolm III., sumamed 
Canmore. reigned (1057) is obscure, and intermixed with many and improb- 
able (ictions. 

CALEDONIAN CANAL, from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. By means 
of this magnificent canal, the nautical intercourse between the westt-rn 
ports of Great Britain, and those also of Ireland, to the North Sea and Bal- 
tic, is shortened in some instances 800, and in others. 1000 miles. A sum 
exceeding a million sterling was granted by parliament from time to time ; 
and this safe navigation for ships of nearly every tonnage was completed, 
and opened in 1822. 

CALENDAR. Tlie Roman calendar, which has in great part been adopted by 
almost all nations, was introduced by Romulus, who divided the year into 
ten months, comprising 304 days, a. d. 738 b. c. The year of Romulus was 
of fifty days less duration than the lunar year, and of sixty-one less than 
the solar year, and its commencement did not, of course, correspond with 
any fixed season. Numa Pompilius, 713 b. c. corrected this calendar, by 
adding two months ; and Julius Caesar, desirous to make it more correct, 
fixed the solar year as being 8G5 days and six hours, 45 b. c. This almost 
perfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and prevailed gener- 
ally throughout the Christian world till the time of pope Gregory XIII. 
The adendar of Julius Cajsar was defective in this particular, that the solar 
year consisted of 366 days, five hours, and forty-nine minutes : and not of 
365 days six hours. This difference, at the time of Gregory XIII. had 
amounted to ten entire days, the vernal equinox falling on the 11th, instead 
of the 21st of March. To obviate this error, Gregory ordained, in 1582, 
that thai year should consist of 365 days only ; and to prevent fhrther irregu- 
larity, it was determined that a year beginning a century should not be bis- 
sextile, with the exception of that beginning each fourth century : thus, 
1700 and 1800 have not been bissextile, nor will 1900 bo so ; but the year 
2000 will be a leap year. In this manner three days are retrenched in 400 
years, because the lapse of eleven minutes makes three days in about that 
period. The year of the calendar is thus made as nearly as possible to 
correspond with the true solar year ; and future errors of chronology are 
avoided. See New Style. 
CALICO. The well-known cotton cloth, is named from Calicut, a city of India, 
which was discovered by the Portuguese, in 1498. Calico was first brought 
to England l)^ the East India Company, in 1631. Calico printing, and the 

Digitized by 



Dutch loom engine, were first used in 1676. — Anderson. Calicoes were pro- 
hibited to be printed or worn, in 1700; and again, in 1721. Tliey were first 
made a branch of manufacture in Lancashire, in 1771. Soo Cotton, 

CALIFORNIA, Lower, discovered by Grigalon, sent by Cortes, the conqueror 
of Mexico, 1634; explored by Cortes himself, 1636, and by his subordinate 
Ulloa, 1638. First settlement by Viscaino and a small colony sent out by 
Philip II. of Spain, 1696. Viscaino explored the coast and founded St. Diego 
and Monterey, and was the first Spaniard in Upper California, 1602. 

CALIFORNIA, Upper, discovered by sir Francis Drake, and named New Al- 
bion, 1696. The Spanish colonists having been expelled by the ill-used 
natives, the country was granted by Charles II. of Spain to the Jesuits, in 
1697. Jesuit missions and Presidios established in New "'alifornia 1769. 
Eighteen missions established up to 1798. California a province of Mexico, 
1824 ; the Mexican governor expelled from Monterey, 1836. California ex- 
plored by the United States expedition, under Wilkes, co-operating with 
that of Fremont, overland, in 1841-3. Another expedition under Fremont, 
1845-6. Mexican war began 1846. San Francisco taken po^tsession of by 
Com. Montgomery, July 8, 1845. Com. Stockton takes possession of Upper 
California May-August, 1846, and institutes United States military govern- 
ment. JVIovcments of general Kearney, lieutenant Emory, &c., 1846. Cali- 
fornia secured to the United States by the treaty with Mexico, 1848. Gold 
placers first discovered on the grounds of captain Suter, February, 1848. 
Great emigration from the United States commenced November, 1848. Con- 
vention at Monterey for forming a state constitution, Aug. 31, 1849. Con- 
stitution adopted by popular vote, and P. H. Burnet chosen first governor, 
Dec. 1849. 

CALIPH. In Arabic, vicar, or apostle; the title assumed by the Sophi of 
Persia, in the succession of Ali, and by the Grand Seigniors as the succes- 
sors of Mahomet. The caliphat was adopted by Abubeker, the father of 
the Prophet's second wife, in whose arms he died, a.d. 631. In process of 
time the soldans or sultans engrossed all the civil po^Ter, and little but the 
title was left to the caliphs, and that chiefly in matters of religion. — Sir. 7\ 

CALLIGRAPHY. Beautiful writing, in a small compass, invented by Callicra- 
tes, who is said to have written an elegant distich on a sesamum seed, 472 
B. c. The modem specimens of this art are, many of them, astonishing and 
beautiful. In the sixteenth century, Peter Bales wrote the Lord's Prayer, 
creed, decalogue, two short Latin prayers, his own name, motto, day of the 
month, year of our Lord, and of the reign of queen Elizabeth, to whom he 
presented it at Hampton-court, all within the circle of a silver penny, 
enchased in a ring and border of gold, and covered with crystal, so accu- 
rately done as to be plainly legible, to the great admiration of her majesty, 
the whole of the privy council, and several ambassadors then at court, 1674. 
— Holinshed. 

CALLAO, IN Peru. Here, after an earthquake, the sea retired from the shore, 
and returned in mountainous waves, which destroyed the city, a. d. 1687- 
The same phenomenon took place in 1746, when all the inhabitAuts perifhed, 
with the exception of one man, who was standing on an eminence, and to 
whose succor a wave providentially threw a boat. 

CALOMEL. ITie mercurial compound termed calomel is fii-st mentioned by 
CroUius, early in the seventeenth century, but must have been previously 
known. The first directions given for its preparation were those announced 
by Beguin, in 1608. It is said that corrosive sublimate was known somo 
centuries before. 

Digitized by 



CALVARY, Mount. The place where the Redkemkr suffered death, a. d. 88. 
Calvary was a small eminence or hill adjacent to Jerusalem, appropriated 
to the execution of malefactors. See Luke xxiii. 33. Adrian at the time 
of his persecution of the Christians erected a temple of Jupiter en Mount 
Calvary, and a temple of Adonis on the manner at Bethlehem, a. d. 142. 
Here is the church of the Holy Sepulchre, whither pilgrims flock from all 
Christian countries. 

CALVINISTS. Named after their founder, John Calvin, the celebrated re- 
former of the Christian church from the Romish superstition and doctrinal 
errors. Calvin was a native of Noyon, in Picardy ; but adopting the princi- 
ples of the Reformers, he fled to Angou16me, where he composed his Jnsti- 
tuiio Christiana ReUgionis, in 1533, published about two years afterwards. He 
subsequently retired to Basle, and next settled in GJeneva. Although he 
differed from Luther in essential points, still his followers did not consider 
themselves as different on this account from the adherents of Luther. A 
formal separation first took place after the conference of Poissy, in 1561, 
where they expressly rejected the tenth article of the confession of Augs- 
burg, besides some others, and took the name of Calvinists. 

CAM BRAY. The town whence the esteemed manufacture called cambric 
takes its name. This city was taken by the Spaniards by a memorable sur- 
prise, in 1595. Cambray was taken and retaken several times. In the war 
of the French revolution it was invested by the Austrians, August 8, 1793, 
when the republican general, Declay, replied to the Imperial summons to 
surrender, that " he knew not how to do thai, but his soldiers knew how to 
fight." In the late war it was seized by the British under general sir Chas. 
Colville, June 24, 1815. The citadel surrendered the next day, and was 
occupied by Louis XVIII. and his court. 

CAMBRAY, League or. This was the celebrated league against the republic 
of Venice, comprising the pope, the emperor, and the kings of France and 
Spain; and whereby Venice was forced to cede to Spain her possessions in 
the kingdom of Naples, entered into Dec. 10, 1508. 

CAMBRICS. A fabric of fine linen used for rxi^G^.—Shakipeare. Cambrics 
were first worn in England, and accounted a great luxury in dress, 22 Eliza- 
beth, 1580. — Stawe. The importation of them was restricted, in 1745 ; and 
was totally prohibited by statute of 32 George II. 1758. Readmitted in 
1786, but afterwards again prohibited : the importation of cambrics is now 

CAMBRIDGE, once called Granta , and of most ancient standing, being fre- 
quently mentioned in the earliest accounts of the oldest British historians. 
Roger de Montgomery destroyed it with fire and sword to be revenged of 
king William Rnf\is. The university is said to have been commenced by 
Sigebcrt, king of East Angles, about a. d. 631 ; but it lay neglected during 
the Danish inva.sions, from which it suffered much. Cambridge now contains 
thirteen colleges and four halls, of which first, Peter-house is the most 
ancient, and King's College the noblest foundation in Europe, and the 
chapel one of the finest pieces of Grothic architecture in the world. 

CAMERA LUCID A. Invented by Dr. Hooke, about l^ A.— Wood's Ath. Ox. 
Also an instrument invented by Dr. Wollaston, in 1807. The camera ob- 
scura, or dark chamber, was invented, it is believed, by the celebrated Roger 
Bacon, in 1297 ; it was improved by Baptista Porta, the writer -on natural 
magic, about 1500.— Miwm. Sir I. Newton remodelled it. By the recent 
invention of M. Daguerre, the pictures of the camera are rendered perma- 
nent ; the last was produced in 1839. 

CAMERONIANS. A sect in Scotland which separated from the Presbyterians^ 
and continued to hold their religious meetings in the fields. — Bwrnet. 

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232 THE world's progress. I [ CAN 

CAMP. All the early warlike nations had camps, which are consequently 
most ancient. The disposition of the Hchrevv encampment was, we are 
told, at first laid out by God himself. The Romans and Gauls had in- 
trenched camps in open plains ; and vestiges of such Roman encampments 
are existing to this day in numerous places in England and Scotland. The 
last camp in England was formed at Hyde Park in 1745. 

CAMPEACHY-BAY. Discovered about a, d. 1620; it was taken by the Eng- 
lish in 1659 ; and was taken by the Buccaneers, in 1678 ; and by the free- 
booters of St. Domingo, in 1686. These last burnt the town and blew up 
the citadel. The English logwood cutters made their settlement here, in 

CAMPERDOWN, Battle op. Memorable engagement off Camperdown, south 
of the Texel, and signal victory obtained by the British fleet under admiral 
Duncan, over the Dutch fleet, commanded by admiral de Winter; the latter 
losing fifteen ships, which were either taken or destroyed, Oct. 11, 1797. 

CAMPO FORMIO, Treaty op, concluded between France and Austria, the 
latter power yielding the Low Countries and the Ionian Islands to France, 
and Milan, Mantua, and Modena U) the Cisalpine republic. This memor- 
able and humiliating treaty resulted from the ill success of Austria on the 
Rhine. By a secret article, however, the emperor took possession of the 
Venetian dominions in compensation for the Netherlands, Oct. 17, 1797. 

CANADA. This country was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, a. d, 
1499, and was settled by the French, in 1608. but it had been pi-eviously 
visited by them. Canada was taken by the English, in 1628, but was re- 
stored in 1631. It was again conquered by the English, in 1769, and was 
confirmed to them by the peace of 1763. This country was divided into two 
provinces. Upper and Lower Canada, in 1791 ; and it was during the debates 
on this bill in the British parliament, that the quarrel between Mr. Burke 
and Mr. Fox arose. 

CANADIAN INSURRECTION. The Papincau rebellion commenced at Mon- 
treal, Dec. 6, 1837. The Canadian rebels came to an engagement at St. 
Eustace, Dec. 14, following. The insurgents surrounded Toronto, and were 
repulsed by the governor, sir Francis Head, Jan. 6, 1838. Lord Durham, 
governor general. Jan. 16, 1838. Lount and Mathews hanged as traitors, 
April 12, 1838. Lord Durham resigned, Oct. 9, 1838. Rebellion again man- * 
ifested itself in Bcauharnais, Nov. 3, 1838. The insurgents concentrated at 
Napierville under command of Nelson and others, Nov. 6 ; some skirmishes 
took place, and they were routed with the loss of many killed and several 
hundred prisoners. Sir John Colborne announced the suppression of the re- 
bellion in his dispatches dated Nov. 17, 1888. Lord G<)sford, governor of 
Lower Canada, proclaims martial law, and a reward of .£1.000 for Papi- 
neau. Dec. 5, 1837. M Leod (charged with the destruction of the Caroline, 
American steamer, at Schlosser, Dec. 30, 1837) acquitted at Utica, Oct. 12, 
1841. President Van Buren's proclamation warning citizens of the United 
States against meddling with the Canadian insurrection. Sir Charles Met- 
calfe, govenior-general, 1844. Earl of Elgin appointed governor-general, 
took the oath, Jan. 30, 1847. Riots at Montreal, and burnmg of the Parlia- 
ment House by a mob (caused by the dissatisfaction about the act for paying 
losses by the late rebellion to some of the rebels themselves). Aug. 15, 1849. 
Movements in favor of annexation to the United States. Warning against 
such movements as high treason, proclaimed in the dispatch of earl Grey, 
the British colonial secretary, Feb. 1850. 

CANALS. The most stupendous in the world is a canal in China, which passes 
over 2000 miles, and to 41 cities, commenced in the tenth century. The 
canal of Languedoc which joins the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean 

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was commenced in 1666. That of Orleans, from the Loire to the Seine, com- 
menced in 1675. That between the Caspian Sea and the Baltic, commenced 
1709. That from Stockholm to Gottenburg, commenced 1751. That between 
the Baltic and North Sea at Kiel, opened 1785. That of Bourbon, between 
the Seine and Oise, commenced 1790. The first canal made in England was 
by Henry I., when the river Trent was joined to the Witham, a. d. 1134. 
That from the Durance to Marseilles, France, 88,000 metres, of which 17,000 
are subterranean passages through the Alps, finished July 8, 1847. In Eng- 
land, there are 2o00 miles of canals, and 2500 miles of rivers, taking the 
length of those only that are navigable — total, 5300 miles. In Ireland, there 
are but 800 miles of canals ; 150 of navigable rivers, and 60 miles of the 
Shannon, navigable below Limerick, making in all 510 miles. — Williams. 

CANALS IN THE UNITED I^ATES. Act for commencing the great Erie canal 
in New York, passed chiefly through the influence of De Witt Clinton, 1817. 
The canal (363 miles long) completed ; a grand celebration, 1825. Chesa- 
peake and Delaware canal opened, &c., Ju5^ 4, 1829. 

CANARY ISLANDS. These islands were known to the ancients as the Poritt- 
note Ides. The first meridian was referred to the Canary isles by Hipparchus, 
about 140 B. c. They were re-discovered by a Norman, named Bethencourt, 
A. D. 1402; and were seized by the Spaniards, who planted vines, which 
flourish here, about 1420. The canary-bird, so much esteemed in all parts 
of Europe, is a native of these isles j it was brought into England in 1500. 

CANDIA, the ancient Crete, whose centre is Mount Ida, so famous in history. 
It was seized by the Saracens, a. d. 808, when they changed its name. Taken 
by the Greeks, in 961 ; sold to the Venetians, 1194, and held by them till the 
Turks obtained it, after a 24 years' siege, during which more than 200,000 
men perished, 1669. 

CANDLE. The Roman candles were composed of strings suiTounded by wax, 
or dipped in pitch. Splinters of wood, &tted, were used for light among the 
lower classes in England about a. d. 1300. At this time wax candles were 
little used, and esteemed a luxury, and dipped candles usually burnt. The 
wax-chandlers' company was incorporated, 1484. Mould candles are said 
to be the' invention of the sieur Le Brez of Paris. Spermaceti candles arc of 
modem manufacture. The Chinese candles (see Candlebeny Myrtle) are 
made from the berries of a tree, and they universally bum this wax, which 
is fragrant, and yields a bright light. 

CANDLEMAS-DAY. A feast instituted by the early Christians, who conse- 
crated on this day all the tapers and candles used in churches during the 
year. It is kept in the reformed church in memory of the purification of 
the Virgin Mary, who, submitting to the law under which she lived, pre- 
sented the infant Jesus in the Temple. Owing to the abundance of light, 
this festival was called Candlemas, as well as the Purification. The practice 
of lighting the churches was discontinued by English Protestants by an order 
of councir2 Edward VI. 1548 ; but it is still continued in the church of Rome. 

CAKSJE, Battle op. One of the most celebrated in history, and most fatal to 
the Romans. Hannibal commanded on one side 50,000 Africans, Gauls, and 
Spaniards ; and Pautlis iEmilius and Terentius Varro, 88,000 Romans, of 
whom 40^000 were slain. — lAvy. The victor, Hannibal, sent three busheb 
of rings, taken from the Roman knights on the field, as a trophy to Carthage. 
Neither party perceived an awful earthquake which occurred during the 
battle. The place is now denominated the field of blood ; fought May 21, 
216 B. c. — Bossuet. 

CANNIBALISM has prevailed from the remotest times. The Greeks inform 
UB that it was a primitive and universal custom, and many of the South 

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234 THE WORLDS t'ROORESS. [ cah 

Araerican tribes ami natives of the South Sea Islands eat hnman flesh at the 
present day, and the propensity for it prevails more or less in all savage 
nations. St. Jerome says, that some British tribes ate human flesh ; and the 
Scots from Galloway killed and eat the English in the reign of Henry I. 
The Scythians were drinkers of human blood. Columbus found cannibals in 
America. See Antkropophagi. 

CANNON. They are said to have been used as early as a. d. 1338. According 
to some of our historians they were used at the battle of Cressy in 1346 ; but 
this Voltaire disputes. They are said to have been used by the English at 
the siege of Calais, 1347. Cannon were first used in the English service by 
the govenior of Calais, 6 Richard II. IZ^.—Rymer's Fadera. Louis XIV., 
upon setting out on his disastrous campaign against the Dutch, inscribed 
upon his cannon, " The last argument of kings." See AHiiUry. 

CANNON, Remarkablr. The largest known piece of ordnance is of brass, cast 
in India in 1685. At Ehrenbreitstein castle, one of the strongest forts in 
Germany, opposite Coblentz on the Rhine, is a prodigious cannon eighteen 
feet and a half long, a foot and a half in diameter in the bore, and three feet 
four inches in the breech. The ball made for it weighs ISOlbs. and its charge 
of powder 941b8. The inscription on it shows that it was made by one Simon, 
in 1529. In Dover castle is a brass gun called queen Elizabeth's pocket- 
pistol, which was presented to her by the States of Holland ; this piece is 24 
feet long, and is beautifully ornamented, having on it the arms of the States, 
and a motto in Dutch, importing thus, 

" Charge me well, and sponge me clean, 
ru throw a ball to Calais Green." 

Some fine specimens are to be seen in the Tower. A leathern cannon was 
fired three times in the King's Park, Edinburgh, Oct. 23, nSS.—PkiUips. 

CANON. The first ecclesiastical canon was promulgated, a. d. 380.— C/iAer. 
Canonical hours for prayers were instituted in 391. The dignity of canon 
existed not previously to the rule of Charlemagne, about 7&S.—Pasckier. 
Canon law was first introduced into Europe by Gratian, the celebrated canon 
law author, in 1151, and was introduced into England, 19 Stephen, 1154. — 

CANONIZATION of pious men and martyrs as saints, was instituted in the 
Romish church by pope Leo III. in SOO.^TallerU's Tables. Saints have so 
accumulated, every day in the calendar is now a saint's day. — HcnauU. 

CANTERBURY. The Durovcrnum of the Romans, and capital of Ethelbert, 
king of Kent, who reigned a. d. 560. Its early cathedral was erected during 
the Heptarchy, and was several times burnt, and rebuilt. It was once famous 
for the shrine of Becket (see Beckel) and within it are interred Henry FV. and 
Edward the Black Prince. 
, CANTERBURY, Archbishoprtc op. This see was settled by St. Austin, who 
preached the gospel in England a. d. 596, and converted Ethelbert, king of 
Kent. The king, animated with zeal for his new religion, bestowed great 
fiivors upon Austin, who fixed his residence in the capital of Ethel bert's 
dominions. The church was made a cathedral, and consecrated to Christ, 
although it was formerly called St. Thomas, from Tliomas Jl Bcckct, mur- 
dered at its altar, December 1171. The archbishop is primate and metropo- 
litan of all England, and is the first peer in the realm, having precedency of 
all ofticers of state, and of all dukes not of the blood royal. Canterbury had 
formerly jurisdiction over Ireland, and the archbishop was styled a patriarch. 
This see hath yielded to the church of Rome, 18 saints and 9 cardinals ; and 
to the civil state of England, 12 lord chancellors and 4 lord treasurers. St. 
Austin was the first bishop, 696 The see was made superior to York, 1073. 

Digitized by 


cap] dictionary of dates. 235 

— See York. The revenue is valued in the king's books at je2816. l"! 5. 9<i.— 

CANTHARIDES. A venomous kind of insects which, when dried and pulver- 
ized, are used principally to raise blisters. They were first introduced into 
medical practice by Aretojus, a physician of Cappadocia, about 50 b. c. — 
J^rclnd's History of Physic, 

CANTON. The only city in China with which Europeans have been allowed 
up to the present time to trade. Merchants Drst arrived here for this pur- 
pose in 1517. Nearly every nation has a factory at Canton, but that of Eng- 
land surpasses all others in elegance and extent. Various particulars relating 
to this city will be found under the article China. In 1822. a fire destroyed 
15,000 houses at Canton ; and an inundation swept away 10,000 houses and 
more than 1000 persons in October 1833. 

CAOUTCHOUC, or Indian Rubber, is an elastic resinous substance that exudes 
by incision from two plants that .grow in Cayenne, Quito, and the Brazils, 
called Hcsvia caoutchouc and Siphonia elastica, and vulgarly called syringe 
trees. It was first brought to Europe from South America, about 1733. — 
See Jiuiia Rubber. 

CAP. The Romans went for many ages, without regular covering for the '>ead, 
and hence the heads of all the ancient statues appear bear. But a. one 
period the cap was a symbol of liberty, and when the Romans gave it to their 
slaves it entitled them to freedom. The cap was sometimes used as a mark 
of infamy, and in Italy the Jews were distinguished by a yellow cap, and in 
France those who had been bankrupts were for ever after obliged to wear 
a green cap. The general use of caps and hats is zcferred to the year 1449 -, 
the first seen in these parts of the world being at the entry of Charles VII. 
Into Rouen, from which time they took the place of chaperons or hoods. A 
statute was passed that none should sell any hat above IQd. (40 cts.) nor cap 
above 25. U. (66 cts.) 6 Henry VII. 1489. 

CAPE BRETON, discovered by the English in 1584. It was taken by the 
French in 1632, but was afterwards restored ; and again taken in 1745 ; and 
re-taken in 1748. It was finally possessed by the English, when the garrison 
and marines, consisting of 5600 men, were made prisoners of war, and eleven 
ships of the French navy were captured or destroyed, 1758. Ceded to Eng 
land at the peace of 1763. 

CAPE COAST CASTLE, settled by the Portuguese, in 1610: but it soon fell to 
the Dutch. It was demolished by admiral Holmes, in 1661. All the British 
settlements, factories, and shipping along the coast were destroyed by the 
Dutch admiral, de Ruyter, in 1665. This Cape was confirmed to the English 
by the treaty of Breda, in 16^7. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ; the geographical and commercial centre of the East 
Indies : it was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz, in 1486, and was originally 
called the " Cajie of Tempests," and was also named the " Lion of the Sea^' 
and the "Head of Africa." The name was changed by John II., king of 
Portugal, who augured favorably of ftiture discoveries from Diaz having 
reached the extremity of Africa. The Cape was doubled, and the paasage 
to India discovered by Vasco da Gama, Nov. 20, 1497. Planted by tho 
Dutch, 1651. Taken by the English, under admiral Elphinstone and general 
Clarke, Sept. 16, 1795, and restored at the peace in 1802 ; again tiiken by 
sir David Baird and sir Home Popham, Jan. 8, 1806 ; and finally ceded to 
Engkintl in 1814. Emigrants began to arrive here fi*om Britain in March, 
1820. The Caffrcs have made several irruptions on the British settlementi 
here ; and they committed dreadful ravages at Graharastown, in Oct. 1884« 
Battle between the English and the Boors, Aug. 26, 1848. 

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236 THE world's progress. [ca» 

GAPE DE VERB ISLANt)S. These islands were known to the ancients under 
tlie name of Gorgades ; but were not visited by the moderns till discovered 
by Antonio de Noli, a Genoese navigator in the service of Portugal, a. d. 1446. 

CAPE ST. VINCENT, Battles of. Admiral Rooke, with twenty ships of war, 
and the Turkey fleet under his convoy, was attacked by admiral Tourville, 
with a force vastly superior to his own, ofl' Cape St. Vincent, when twelve 
English and Dutch men-of-war, and eighty merchantmen, were captured or 
destroyed by the French, June 16, 1693. Battle of Cape St. Vincent, one of 
the most glorious achievements of the British navy. Sir John Jervis, beinf^ 
in command of the Mediterranean fleet of fifteen sail, gave battle to the 
Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line oflT this Cape, and signally defeated the 
enemy, nearly double in strength, taking four ships, and destroying several 
others, Feb. 14, 1797. For this victory Sir John was raised to the English 
peerage, by the titles of baron Jervis and earl St. Vincent, with a pension of 
8000^. a year. 

CAPET, House op, the third race of the kings of France. Hugo Capet, count 
of Paris and Orleans, the first of this race (which was called from him Cape- 
vigians), was raised to the throne for his military valor, and public virtues, 
A. D. m.—HenauU. 

CAPITOL, the principal fortress of ancient Rome, in which a temule w^as built 
to Jupiter, thence called Jupiter CapUoliniis. The foundation'laid by Tar- 
quinius Priscus, 616 b. c. The Roman Consuls made large donations to 
this temple, and the emperor Augustus bestowed 2000 pounds weight of 
gold, of which precious metal the roof was composed, whilst its thresholds 
were of brass, and its interior was decorated with shields of solid silver. De- 
stroyed by lightning, 188 b. c. ; by fire, a. n. 70. The Capitoline games in- 
stituted by I>)mitian, a. d. 86. 

CAPPADOCIA. This kingdom was founded by Phamaces, 744 b. c. The suc- 
cessors of Phamaces are almost wholly unknown, until about the time of 
Alexander the Great, after whose death Eumenes, by defeating Ariarathcs H. 
became king of Cappadocia. 

m^ the throne^ poisona five of her own 
children, the sixth and only remaining 
child is saved, and the queen put to 

death 153 

This young prince reigns as Ariarathes 

VII. 163 

Gonlius assassinates Ariarathes VII. . 97 
Ariaraihes VIII. assassinated • . 96 

Capf)adocia declared a free country by 

the senate of Rome . .96 

Thfl people electa new king Ahobar- 

zanes I. • . . • • 9ft 

His son, Ariobarzanes II. reigns • 66 

He is dethroned by Marc Antony - 38 

Archelaus, the last king of Cappadocia, 

dies, and bequeathes his kingdom to 

the Roman empire a. d. 17 

CAPRI. The CaprcoB of the Romans, and memorable as the residence of Tibe- 
rius, and for the debaucheries he committed in this once delightful retreat, 
during the seven last years of his life : it was embellished by him with a 
sumptuous palace, and most magnificent works. Capri was taken by sir 
Sidney Smith, April 22, 1806. 

CAPUCHIN FRIARS. A sort of Franciscans to whom this name was given, 
from their wearing a great Capuclion, or cowl, which is an odd kind of cap, or 
hood, sewn to their habit, and hanging down upon their backs. The Capu- 
chins were founded by Matthew Baschi, about a. d. 1525. Although tho 

Phamaces is declared king • b. c. 744 
His successors are unknown for nearly 

three centuries. 

• ♦ • • • ♦ 

Rcisn of Ariarathes I. - ■ -368 

Peraiccas takes Cappadocia, and Aria- 
rathes is crucified - - • - 322 
Defeat of the Parthians - • -217 
Irruption of the Trocmi • • - 164 
Mithridates, sumamed Philopator, as- 
cends the throne - • -162 
Orophernes dethrones Philopator • 161 
Attains 85sists Philopator, and Oro- 

phenies dethroned • - • • 154 

Philopator joins the Remans against 

Aristonicus, and perishes in battle • 153 
His queen, Laodice, desirous of usurp- 

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oar] dictionary op dates. 237 

rigors of this order have abated, still the brethren are remarkable for their 
extreme poverty and privations. — Ashe. 

CAR. Its invention is ascribed to Ericthonius of Athens, about 1486 b. c. The 
covered cars {currus arcuati) were in use among the Romans. Triumphal 
cars were introduced by Romulus, according to some ; and by Tarquin the 
Elder, according to others. 

CARACCAS. One of the early Spanish discoveries, a. d. 1498. The province 
declared its independence of Spain, May 9, 1810. In 1812, it was visited by 
a violent convulsion of nature; thousands of human beings were lost-, rocks 
and mountains split, and rolled into valleys ; the rivers were blackened or 
their courses changed ; and many towns swallowed up, and totally destroyed. 

CARBONARI. A dangerous and powerful society in Italy, a substitute for 
freemasonry, which committed the most dreadful outrages, and spread terror 
in several states ; they were suppressed, however, by the Austrian govern- 
ment in Sept. 1820. 

CARDINALS. They are properly the council of the pope, ai.d constitute the 
conclave or sacred college. At first they were only the principal priests, or 
incumbents of tlie parishes in Rome. On this footing they continued till the 
eleventh century. They did not acquire the exclusive power of electing the 
popes till A. D. 1160. They first wore the red hat to remind them that they 
ought to shed their blood, if required, for religion, and were declared princes 
of the church, by Innocent IV., 1243. Paul 11. gave the scarlet habit, 1464 ; 
and Urban VIII. the title of Eminence in 1680; .some say in 1623.— •/>!* Cange. 

CARDS. Their invention is referred to the Romans ; but it is generally supposed 
that they were invented in France about the year 1390, to amuse Charles VI. 
during the intervals of a melancholy disorder, which in the end broueht 
him to his grave. — Mezerai, Hist, de France. The univei-sal adoption of an 
amusement which was invented for a fool, is no very favorable specimen of 
wisdom. — MaLkin. Cards are of Spanish, not of French origin. — Daines 
Barringtan. Picquetand all the early games are French. Car^s first taxed 
in England, 1756. 428 000 packs were stamped in 1775, and 986,000 in 1800. 
In 1825. the duty being then 2s. 6</. per pack, less than 150,000 packs were 
stamped ; but in 1827, the stamp duty was reduced to l5., and 310.854 packs 
paid duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 packs, in the year ending 6th 
Jan. 1840.— Pari. Reports. 

f'ARICATURES originated, it is said, with Bufalmaco, an Italian painter: he 
first put labels to the mouths of his figures with sentences, since followed by 
bad masters, but more particularly in caricature engravings, about 1330. — 
De Pilc^. A new and much improved stylo of caricatures has latterly set in ; 
and the productions in this way of a clever but concealed artist, using the 
initials H. B., ar<' political satires of considerable humor and merit. — Haydn. 

CARLISLE. The frontier town and key of England, wherein for many ages a 
strong garrison was kept. The castle, founded in 1092, by William II.. was 
made the prison of the unfortunate Mary queen of Scots, in 1568. Taken 
by the parliament forces in 1645. and by the pretender in 1745. 

CARLSBAD, Congress op, on the affairs of Europe : The popular spirit of 
emancipation that prevailed in many of the states of Europe against despotic 
government, led to this congress, in which various resolutions were come 
to, denouncing the press, and liberal opinions, and in which the great conti- 
nental powers decreed measures to repress the i-age for limited monarchies 
and free institutions, August 1, 1819. 

CARMELITES, or White Friars, named from Mount Carmel, and one of thu 
four orders of mendicants, distinguished by austere rules, appeared in 1141. 
Their rigor was moderated about 1540. They claim their descent in an un< 

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288 TfiE world's progress. [cah 

interrupted sacoession fVom Elvjah, Elisba, &c. Mount Carmel has a moDa»- 
tery, and the valley of Sharon lies to the south of the mount, which is 2000 
feet high, shaped like a flatted cone, with steep and barren sides : it is oftea 
referred to iu Jewish histories. 

" See spicy clouds from lowly Sharon rise, 
And Carmel's flowery top perfumes the skies." — fV^JS. 

CAROLINA, discovered by Sebastian Cabot, in 1550. A body of English, 
amounting to about 850 persons, hinded and settled here in 1667 ; and Caro- 
lina was granted to lord Berkeley and others a few years afterwards. Se« 
N. 4" S. CaroliiUL. 

C ARPEl^S They were in use, at least in some kind, as early as the days of 
Amos, about 800 b. c. — Amos ii 8. Carpets were spread on the ^und, oq 
which persons sat who dwelt ip tents; but when first used m houses, 
even in the East, we have no record. In the 12th century carpets were arti- 
cles of luxury; and in England, it is mentioned as an instance of Becket's 
splendid style of living, that his sumptuous apartments were every day in 
winter strewn with clean straw or hay; about a. d. 1160. The manufacture 
of woollen carpets was introduced into France from Persia, in the reign of 
Henry IV., between 1589 and 1610. Some artisans who had quitted France 
in disgust went to England, and established the carpet manufacture, about 
1750. There, as with most nations, Persian and Turkey carpets, especially 
the former, are most prized. The famous A.xminster, Wilton, and Kidder- 
minster manufacture is the growth of the last hundred years. The manu- 
facture of Kidderminster and Brussels carpets has much advanced within 
fifteen years, at Lowell. Ma.(». and Thomsonville Conn. 

CARRIAGES. The invention of them is ascribed toEricthonius of Athens, who 
J roduced the first chariot about 1486 b. c. Carriag(fs were known in France 
m the reign of Henry II. a. d. 1547 ; but they were of very rude construction, 
and rare. They seem to have been known in England in 1555; but not the 
art of making them. Close carriages of good workmaa<hip began to be uscnI 
by j>ersons of the highest quality at the close of the six t*:enth century. Hen- 
ry IV. had one, but without straps or springs. Their construction was va- 
rious: they were first made in England in the reign of Elizabeth, and were 
then called whirlicotes. The duke of Buckingham, in 1619, drove six horses ; 
and the duke of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove eight. They were first 
let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at the Hotel Fiacre ; and hence their name. 
See Coaches. 

CARTESIAN DOCTRINES. Tlieir author was Rend des Cartes, the French 
philosopher, who promulgated them in 1647. He was an original thinker : 
his metaphysical principle *' I think, therefore lam," is refuted by Mr. Locke; 
and his physical principle, that '* nothing exists but substance," is disprov- 
ed by the Newtonian philosophy. His celebrated system abounds in great 
singularities and originalities; but a spirit of inde}>endent thought prevails 
throughout it. and has contributed to excite the same spirit in others. Des 
Cartes was the most distinguished philosopher of his time and country. — 

CARTHAGE founded by Dido, or Elissa, sister of Pygmalion, king of Tyre, 
869 B. c. She fled fVom that tyrant, who had killed her husband, and took 
ref\ige in Africa. Carthage became so powerful as to dispute the empire of 
the world with Rome, which occasioned the Punic wars, and the total dew.^ 
lition of that city. Taken by Seipio, and burned to the ground 146 b. c. 
when the flames raged during seventeen days, and many of the inhabitants 
perished in them, rather than survive the subjection of their country. The 
Roman senate ordered the walls to be razed, that no trace might remain of 
this once powerful republic — Eusebins. 

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CARTHAGE, amtinued. 

Dido arriTes in Africa, and builds Byna. 

—Blair - • b. c. 869 

First alliance of the Carthaginians with 

the Romans • • • 609 

The Carthaginians in Sicilj are defeated 
by Gelo ; the elder Hainilcar perishes. 
Herodotus, I. vii. • ■ 480 

They send a)D,000 meti into Sicily • 407 
The siege of Syracuse • • • 396 

The Carthaginians land in Italy - 379 

Their defeat by Timoleon - - 340 

j They are defeated by Agathocles, and 

< immolate their children on the ahar of 

Saturn, thereby to propitiate the gods • 310 
Hie first Punic war ueirins • • 264 

The Carthaginians defeated by the Ro- 
mans in a naval engagement • - 260 

Hannibal, at the a^e of nine yean, 
having first made him swear an eter- 
nal enmity to the Romans • b. o. 237 
Hamilcar is killed in battle by the Vet- 
tones - - - 227 
Asdrubal is assassinated - - - 220 
Hannibal subjects all Spain, as far as 

the Iberus • - - -219 

The second Funic war begins • - 2IS 

First great victory of Hannibal • • 917 

Hannibal crosses the Alps, and dnters 

Italy with 100,000 men - • • 217 

Great battle of Canns (tohich see) • 216 
New Carthage taken by Pub. Scipio - 210 
Asdrubal, brother of Hannibal, defeated 
and slam in Italy - - - 207 

The Carthaginians expelled Spain • 

XantippuB defeats Rcgulus • - 255 1 Scipio arrives In Africa, and lays siege 

Reeulus is crucified • • • - 256 1 to Utica • • • • • 204 

Asorubal defeated by Metellus - -251, Hannibal recalled from ilaly • • 203 

Romans defeated before Lilyboeum -250] Great battle of Zama(i^AtcA s«e) -202 

End of the first Funic war - • 211 1 An ignominious peace ends the second 

War between the Carthaginians and Punic war - - -201 

African mercenaries • - - 241 1 The third Punic war begins - • 149 

Hamilcar Barcas is sent into Spain ; he Destruction of Carthage, which is burned 

takes with him his son, the famous I to the ground - • - -146 

CARTHAGENA, or New Carthage, in Spain; built by Asdnibal, the Ca. tba- 
ginian general, 227 b. c. From here Hannibal set out in his memorable 
march to invade Italy, crossing the Alps, 217 b. c. Carthagena, in Colombia, 
was taken by sir Francis Drake in 1684. It was pillaged by the French of 
jBl 200,000 in 1697; and was bombarded by admiral Venion in 1740-1, but 
he was obliged, though he took the forts, to raise the siege. 

CARTHUSIANS. A religious order founded by Bruno of Cologne, who retired 
from the converse of the world, in 1084, to Chartreuse, in the mountains of 
I>auphin^. Tlieir rules were formed by Basil VII., general of the order, and 
were peculiarly distinguished for their austerity. The monks could not 
leave their cells, nor speak, without express leave ; and their clothing was 
cwo hair cloths, two cowls, two pair of hose, and a cloak, all coarse. The 
seneral takes the title of prior of the Chartreuse, the principal monastery, 
from which the order is named. — Auberti; Mirai Origines Carthns. 

CARTOONS OP RAPHAEL. They were designed in the chambers of the Va- 
tican, under Julius II. and Leo X., about 1510 to 1616. The seven of them 
that are preserved were purchased in Flanders by Rubens for Charles I. of 
England, for Hampton-court palace, in 1629. These matchless works repre- 
sent— 1, The miraculous draught of Fishes; 2, the Charge to Peter; 8, Peter 
and John healing the Lame at the gate of the Temple ; 4, the Death of Ana- 
nias; 6, Elymas, the Sorcerer, struck with Blindness; 6, the Sacrifice to 
Paul and Barnabas, by the people of Lystra ; 7, Paul preaching at Athens. 

CARVING. We have scriptural authority for its early introduction. See E9- 
odus xxxi. The art of carving is first mentioned in profane history 772 b. c. 
and is referred to the Eg}i)tians. It was first in wood, -next in stone, and 
Afterwards in marble and brass. Dipoenus and Scyllis were eminent carvers 
and sculptors, and opened a school of statuary, 668 b. c. — Pliny. See arti- 
cle Sculptures, Carvers of meat, called by the Greeks deribUares, are mention- 
ed by Homer. 

CASHMERE SHAWLS. The district from whence come these costly shawls 
is described as being "the happy valley, and a paradise in perpetual spring." 
Tlie true Cashmerp shawls can be manufactured of no other wool than that 
Thibet. They were first brought to England in 1666 ; but they were well 
imitated by the spinning at Bradford, and the looms of Huddersfield. 

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Shawls for the omrahs, of the Thibetian wool, cost 150 rupees each, about 
the year l(y^O.—Bernier. 
CASTEL NUOVO, Battle op. The Russians defeated by the French army. 
Sept. 29, 1806. Castel Nuovo has several times suSei^d under the dreadful 
visitation of earthquakes : in the ^reat earthquake which convulsed all Na- 
ples and Sicily, in 1783, this town was almost obliterated. It is recorded 
that an inhabitant of Castel Nuovo, being on a hill at no great distance, 
looking back, saw no remains of the town, but only a black smoke ; 4000 
persons perished ; and in Sicily and Naples, more than 40,000. 

CASl'IGLIONE, Battle op. One of the most brilliant victories of the French 
anns, under general Bonaparte, against the main army of tlie Austrians, 
commanded by general Wurmser: the battle lasted five days successively, 
from the 2d to the 6th July, 1796. Bonaparte stated the enemy's loss in 
this obstinate conflict at 70 field-pieces, all his caissons, between 12 and 15,- 
000 prisoners, and 6000 killed and wounded. 

CASTILE. The most powerful government of the Goths was established here 
about A. D. 800. Ferdinand, count of Castile, assumed the title of king in 
1020. Ferdinand of Arra^on married Isabella of Castile, and nearly the 
whole of the Christian dommions in Spain were united in one monarchy, 1474. 
See Arragon and Spain. 

CASTLES. Anciently British castles were tall houses, strongly .fortified, and 
built on the tops of hills, with gates and walls. The castle of the Anglo 
Saxon was a tower-keep, either round or square, and ascended by a flight oi 
steps in front. There were eleven hundred castles built in England by the 
nobles, by permission of king Stephen, a. d. 1135, and 1154: most of these 
were demolished by Henry IL, who deprived the barons of such possessions, 
on his accession, in 1154. 

CATACOMBS; the early depositories of the dead. The name first denoted 
the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul at Rome, and aflerwards the burial-places 
of all martyrs. They were numerous in Egypt ; and Belzoni, in 1815 and 1818, 
explored many catacombs both in that country and Thebes, built 3000 years 
ago: among others, a chef-d'asuvre of ancient sculpture, the temple of Psam- 
maticus the Powerful, whose sarcophagus, formed of the finest oriental 
alabaster, ext^uisitely sculptured, he brought to England. Many other na- 
tions had their catacombs ; there were some of great extent at Rome. The 
Parisian catacombs were projected a. d. 1777. The bodies found in cata- 
combs, especially those of Egypt, are called mummies. See Embalming. 

CATANIA, OR C ATANEA . At the foot of mount Etna. Founded by a colony 
from Chalcis, 753 b. c. Ceres had a temple here, in which none but women 
were ()ermitted to appear. This ancient city is remarkable for the dreadfhl 
orerthrows to w^hich it has been subjected at various times from its vicinity 
to Etna, which has discharged, in some of its eruptions, a stream of lava 
four miles broad and fifty feet deep, advancing at the rate of seven miles in 
a day. Catania was almost totally overthrown by an eruption of Etna, In 
1660. By an earthquake which happened in 1693, Catania was nearly swal- 
lowed up, and in a moment more than 18,000 of its inhabitants were buried 
in the ruins of the city. An earthquake did great damage, and a number 
of persons perished here, Feb. 22, 1817. 

CATAPHRYGIANS. A sect of heretics, so called because they were Phry- 
gians, who followed the errors of Montanus. They made up the bread of 
the eucharist with the blood of infants, whom they pricked to death with 
needles and then looked upon them as martyrs. — Pardon. 

CATAPULTiE. Ancient military engines for throwing stones of immense 
weight, darts, and arrows ; invented by Dionysius, 399 b. c. — Josepkus. They 

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were capable of throwing darts and jarelins of four and fire yardi kngth.-^ 

CATHOLIC MAJESTY. The title of Catholic was first given by pope 6to- 
gory III. to Alphonsus I. of Spain, who was thereupon surnamed Uu Catho' 
Uc; A. o. 789. The title of Catholic was also given to Ferdinand Y., 1474. 
See Spain. 

CATILINE'S CONSPIRACY. Sergius L. Catiline, a Roman of noble family, 
having squandered away his fortune by his debaucheries and extravagance, 
and having been refused the consulship, he secretlv meditated the ruin of 
his country, and conspired with many of the most illustrious of the Romans, 
as dissolute as himself, to extirpate the senate, plunder the treasury, and set 
Rome on fire. This conspiracy was timely discovered by the consul Cicero, 
whom he had resolved to murder ; and on seeing five of his accomplices 
arrested, he retired to Gaul, where his partisans were assembling an army. 
Cicero punished the condemned conspirators at home, while Petreius 
attacked Catiline's ill-disciplined forces, and routed them, and the conspir- 
ator was killed in the engagement, about the middle of December, 63 b. c. 
His character has been branded with the foulest infamy, and to the violence 
he offered to a vestal, he added the murder of his own brother ; and it is 
said that he and his associates drank human blood to render their oaths 
more firm and inviolable. — SaUusl. 

CATO, SUICIDE OP. Termed as the " era destructive of the liberties of Rome." 
Cato, the Roman patriot and philosopher, considered freedom as that which 
alone " sustains the name and dignity of man :" unable to survive the inde- 
pendence of his country, he stabbed himself at Utica. By this rash act of 
suicide, independently of all moral considerations, Cato carried his patriot- 
ism to the highest degree of political fVensy ; for Cato, dead, could be of 
no use to his country ; but had he preserved his life, his counsels might 
have moderated Caesar's ambition, and have given a different turn to public 
affairs. Feb. 6, 46 b. c. — Ma?iUsquieu. 

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY. The mysterious plot <^ a gang of low and 
desperate politicians, whose object was the assassination of the ministers of 
the crown, with a view to other sanguinary and indiscriminate entries, 
and the overthrow of the ffovemment : the conspirators were arrested Feb. 
23, 1820 ; and Thistlewood and his four principal associates, Brunt, Davison, 
logs, and Tidd, after a trial commenced on April 17th, which ended in their 
CO iviction, were executed according to the then homd manner of traitors, 
on May 1, following. — Haydn. 

CAUCASUS. A mountain of immense height, a continuation of the ridge of 
Mount Taurus, between the Euxine and Caspian seas, inhabited anciently 
by various savage nations who lived upon the wild fruits of the earth. It 
was covered with snow in some parts, and in others was variegated with 
fruitful orchards and plantations : its people were at one time supposed to 
gather gold on the shores of their rivulets, but they afterwards lived with- 
out making use of money. Prometheus was tied on the top of Caucasus by 
Jupiter, and continually devoured by vultures, according to ancient authors, 
1548 B. c. The passes near the mountain were called CaucasitB Porta, and 
it is supposed that through them the Sarmatians, called Huns, made their 
way, when they invaded the provinces of Rome, a. d. ^l.-Slrabo. Hero- 

CAUSTIC IN PAINTING. The branch of the art so called is a method of 
burning the colors into wood or ivory. Gausias, a painter of Sicyon, was 
the inventor of this process. He made a beautiful painting of his mistress 
Glycere, whom he represented as sitting on the ground, and making gar* 
lands of flowers; and from this circumstance the picture, whiob vaa 


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bought afterwards by Lucnllus for two talents, received the name of Stepha- 
iwjdocon^ 335 b. c. — Plinii Hist. Nat. 

CAVALIERS. This appellation was given as a party name in England to those 
who espoused the cause of the king during the unhappy war which brought 
Charles I. to the scaffold. They were so called in opposition to the Round- 
heads, or friends of the parliament, between 1642 and 1649. — Hume. 

CAVALRY. Of the ancient nations the Romans were the most celebrated for 
their cavalry, and for its discipline and efficiency. Attached to each of the 
Roman legions was a body of horse 800 strong, in ten turmae ; the com- 
mander was always a veteran, an(} chosen for his experience and valor. In the 
early ages, the Persians brought the greatest force of uivalry into the field: 
they had 10,000 horse at the battle of Marathon 490 b. c. : and 10,000 
Persian horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 b. c.—PluUirch. 

CAYENNE. First settled by the French in 1625, but they left it in 1664. II 
was afterwards successively in the hands of the English. French, and Dutch. 
These last were expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne was taken by 
the British, Jan. 12, 1809, but was restored to the French at the peace in 
1814. In this settlement is produced the capsicum baccalum^ or cayenne 
pepper, so esteemed in Europe. 

CELESTIAL GLOBE. A celestial sphere was brought to Greece from Egypt, 
368 B. c. A planetarium was constructed by Archimedes before 212 a. c. 
The celestial globe was divided into constellations after the age of Perseus. 
The great celestial globe of Gottorp, planned after a design of Tycho Brache, 
and erected at the expense of the duke of Ilolsteiu, was eleven feet in 
diameter : and that at Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, erected by Dr. Long, is 
eighteen feet. See Globes. 

CELESTINS. A religious order of monks, reformed from the Bernardins by 
pope Celestine V. in 1294. The order of nuns was instituted about the 
same period. 

CELIBACY, and th^ monastic life, pre&ched by St. Anthony in Egypt, about 
A. D. 305. The early converts to this doctrine lived in caves and desolate 
places till regular monasteries were founded. The doctrine was rejected at 
the council of Nice, a. d. 325. Celibacy was enjoined on bishops only in 
692. The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy in 
1073. Its observance was finally established by the council of Placentia, 
held in 1095. Among the illustrious philosophers of antiquity, the follow- 
ing were unfriendly to matrimony: — Plato, Pythagoras, Epicurus, Bion, 
Anaxagoras, Heraclitus, Democritus, and Diogenes; and the following 
among the moderns : — Newton, Locke, Boyle, Gibbon. Hume, Adam Smith, 
Harvey. Leibnitz, Bayle, Hobbes, Hampden, sir F. Drake, earl of Essex, 
Pitt, Michael Angelo, the three Caraccis, sir Joshua Reynolds, Haydn, 
Handel, Wolsey, Pascal, Fenelon, Pope, Akcnside, Goldsmith, Gray, Collins, 
Thompson, and Jeremy Bentham. 

CEMETERIES. The ancients had not the unwise custom of crowding all 
their dead in the midst of their towns and cities, within the narrow pre 
cincts of a place reputed sacred, much less of amassing them in the bosom 
of their fanes and temples. The buryin? places of the Greeks and Romans 
were at a distance fVom their towns ; ana the Jews had their sepulchres in 
gardens — John xix. 41 ; and in fields, and among rocks and mountains — 
Matiheic xxvii, 60. The present practice was introduced by the Romish 
clergy, who pretended that the dead enjoyed peculiar privileges by being 
interred in consecrated ground. The burying-places of the Turks are hand- 
some and agreeable, and it is owing chiefly to the many fine plants that 
grow in them, and which they carenilly place over their dead. It is only 

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pet] dictionary op dates. 243 

within a very few years that public cemeteries have been formed in these 
countries, although the crowded state of our many churcliyards, and the 
danger to health of burial-places in the midst of dense populations, called 
for some similar institutions to that of the celebrated Pire la Chaise at 
Paris. Six public cemeteries have been recently opened in London 
suburbs. The inclosed area of each of these cemet^^ries is planted and laid 
out in walks after the manner of Pfere la Chaise.* There are similar ceme- 
teries in Manchester, Liverpool, and other towns ; and in Ireland, at Cork, 
Dublin, &c. Some of the rural cemeteries of the United States, especially 
that at Mount Auburn, near Boston (opened 1831), Laurel Hill, Philadelphia 
(183-), and Greenwood, near New-York (1839), are far more beautiful in 
their natural features than any of those near London or Paris. 

CENSORS. Roman magistrates, whose duty it was to survey and rate, and 
correct the manners of the people ; their power was also extended over 
private families, and they restrained extravagance. The two first censors 
were appointed 443 b. c. The office was abolished by the emperors. 

CENSUS. In the Roman polity, a general estimate of every man's estate'and 
personal effects, delivered to the government upon oath every five years : 
established by Servius TuUius, 666 b. c. — Legal Polity of the Roman State, 
In England the census, formerly not periodical, is now taken at decennial 
periods, of which the last were the years 1811, 1821, and 1831 ; and the new 
census, 1841. 

CENSUS OP THE UNITED STATES, has been taken at six different periods, 
viz. 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1030, and 1840. The seventh census is taken 
this year, 1850. — See Population, 

CENTURION. The captain, head, or commander of a subdivision of a Ro- 
man legion, which consisted of 100 men, and was called a centuria. He was 
distinguished by a branch of vine which he carried in his hand. By the 
Roman census, each hundred of the people w^as called a centuria, 566 b. c. 

CENTURY. The method of computing by centuries was first generally 
observed in ecclesiastical history, and commenced fVom the time of our 
Redeemer's incarnation, a. d. 1. It is a period that is particularly regarded 
by church historians. — Pardon. 

CERES. This planet, which is only 160 miles in diameter, was discovered by 
M. Piazzi, astronomer royal at Palermo, on the 1st. of Jan. 1801. To the 
naked eye it is not visible, nor will glasses of a very high magnifying 
power show it with a distinctly defined diameter. PaUas, discovered by 
Dr. Olbers, is still smaller. 

CEYLON. The natives claim for this island the seat of paradise ; it was dis- 
covered by the Portuguese a. d. 1505 ; but it was known to the Romans in 
the time of Claudius, a. d. 41. The capital. Colombo, was taken by the 
Hollanders in 1603; and was recovered by the, Portuguese in 1621. The 
Dutch again took it in 1656. A lar^e portion of the country was taken by 
the British in 1782, but was restored the next year. The Dutch settlements 

* Pert la Chaise takes its name from a French Jesuit, who was a favorite of Louis XIV., and 
en confe<»or. He died in 1709 ; and the site of his house and grounds at Paris is now occupied by 
una beautiful cemetery. It was a practice of high antiquity to plant herbs and Howers about the 
francs of the dead. The women in Egypt go weekly to pray and weep at the sepulchres, and it is 
then usual to throw a son of herb (our sweet-basil) upon the tombs; which in Asia Minor, and 
Turkey in Europe, are also adorned either with the leaves of the palm-tree, boughs of myrtle, or 
cypresies planted at the head and feet. Between some of the tombs is placed a cheii of ornamenied 
■tone, filled with earth, in which are planted herbs and aromatic flowers. These arc regularly cul- 
Umed by females, who assemble in groups for that duty. At Aleppo, there grow many myrtleSf 
which they dilieently propagate, because they are beauuful, and remain long green, to put about 
MeirgraYes.->ilfaife/; ChmuUer; Butler. 

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244 THE world's progress. [cha 

were sciased by the British ; Trincomalee Aug. 26, 1796, and Jaffhapatam, In 
Sept. same year. CeyloD was ceded to Great Britain by the {leace of Amiena 
in 1802. The British troops were treacherously massacred, or imprisoned 
by the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo, June 26, 1803. The complete aov©- 
reignty of the island was assumed by England in 1815. 

CIL£RONKA, Battlrs of. The Athenians are defeated by the Boeotians, 
and Toimidas, their general, is slain, 447 b. c. Battle of Chaeronea, in which 
Greece lost it» liberty to Philip, 32,000 Macedonians defeating the confed- 
erate army of Thebaus and Athenians of 30,000, Aug. 2, 838 b. c. Battle 
of Chaironea in which Archelaus, lieutenant of Mithridates, is defeated by 
Sylla, and 110.000 Cappadocians are slain, 86 b. c. 

CHAIN-BRIDGES. The largest and oldest chain-bridge in the world is said to 
be that at Kingtung, in China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of 
one mountain to the top of another. The honor of constructing the tirst 
chain-bridge on a grand scale belongs to Mr. Telford, wlio commenced the 
chain-Bu.spension bridge over the strait between Anglesey and the coast ot 
Wales, July I818.--See Mefiai Bridge, 

CHAIN-CABLES. PUMPS, and SHOT. Iron chain-cables were in use by the 
Yeneti, a people intimately connected w^ith the Belgae of Britain in the time 
of Caesar, 55 b. c. These cables came into modern use, and generally in the 
royal navy of England, in 1812. Chain-shot, to destroy the rigging of an 
enemy's ships, was invented by the Dutch admiral De Witt, in 1666. Chain- 
pumps were first used on board the Flora^ British frigate, in 1787. 

CHAISE OR CALASH. The invention of the chaise, which is described as a 
light and open vehicle, is ascribed to Augustus Cesar, about a. d. 7. Aure- 
lius Victor mentions that the use of post-chaises was introduced by Trajan, 
about A. D. 100. The chariot was in use fifteen centuries before. See CkarioL 

CHALDEAN REGISTERS. Registers of celestial observations were commenced 
2234 b. c, and were brought down to the taking of Babylon by Alexander, 
381 b. c, being a period of 1903 years. These registers were sent by Callis- 
thenes to Aristotle. Chaldean Characters: the Bible was transcribed 
from the original Hebrew into these characters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra. 

CHAMP DE MARS . an open square space in front of the Military School at 
Paris, with artificial embankments raised on each side, extending nearly to 
the r-ver Seine, with an area sufficient to contain a million of people. Here 
was held, on the 14th July, 1790, the famous " fdddration." or solemnity of 
swearing fidelity to the " patriot king" and new constitution. In the even- 
ing great rejoicings followed the proceedings; public balls were given by 
the municipality in the Champa Elysees and elsewhere, and Paris was illumi- 
nated throughout. 1791 , July 1 7, a great meeting of citizens and others held 
here, directed by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on the " altar of the 
country" — left standing for some time aftenvards — praying for the enforced 
abdication of Louis XVI. Another new constitution sworn to here, under 
the eye of Bonaparte, May 1, 1816, a ceremony called the Champ de MaL 

CHAMPION OF ENGLAND. The championship was instituted at the corona- 
tion of Richard II. 1377. At the coronations of English kings the champion 
still rides completely armed into Westminster-hall, and challenges any one 
that would deny their title to the crown. The championship is hereditary 
in the Dymocke family. 

CHANCELLORS LORD HIGH, ov ENGLAND. The Lord Chancellor ranks 
after the princes of the Blood Royal as the first lay subject. Formerly, the 
office was conferred upon some dignified clergyman. Maurice, afterwards 
bishop of London, was created chancellor in 1067. The first personage who 

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was qualified by great legal education, and who decided causes upon his own 
Judgment, was Sir Thomas More, in 1530, before which time the ofiice was 
more that of a high state functionary than the president of a court of justice. 
Sir Christopher Hatton, who was appointed chancellor in 1587, was very 
ignorant, on which account the first reference was made to a master in 1588, 
In England, the great seal has been frequently put in commission ; but it 
was not until ISI'6 that the separate and co-existent office of Vice- Chancellor 
was permanently held. 

; 1692 Sir John Somen, afttnoard9 loid 

, 1702 Sir Nathan Wright, Zr. K, 

170P Lord Cowper, L, K. 

1710 In commission. 

1713 Lord Harcourt. 
1 1714 Lord Cowper again. 
I 1718 In commisBion. 

1719 Viscount Parker, qftenearda earl of 
t 1725 Sir Peter King, L. K. aflencard* lord 

1733 Ix>nl Talbou 

1737 Philip, lord Hardwicke. 

1761 Sir Robert Honlev, afterwards lord 


{from the time of Cardinal WoUey.") 
1515 Cardinal Wolsey. 
lo;» Sir Thomas More ^beheaded). 
1333 Sir Thomas AudleT. 
1531 Thomas, bishop of Ely. 
1545 Lord Wriothesley. 
1547 Lord St. John. 
1547 Lord Rich. 
1561 Bishop of Ely again. 
1561 Sir Nich. Hare, Lord Keeper. 
16o3 Bishop of Winchester. 
1555 Archbishop of York. 
1559 Sir Nicholas Bacon. 
1579 Sir Thomas Bromley. 
15S7 Sir Chripiopher Haiion. 
1092 Sir John Packering. 
1596 Sir Thomas Eeerton. 
1616 Sir Francis Bacon, qftentard* lord 

1625 Sir Thomas Coventry. 
1639 Sir John Finch. 
1610 Sir Edward Littleton, tiflerwarde lord 

1645 Sir Richard Lane. 
1648 In commission. 
1663 Sir Edward HerberL 
1658 Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of 

1667 Sir Orlando Bridgeman, L. K. 

1672 Earl of Shaftesbury. 

1673 Sir Heneage Finch, aftertoarde earl of 

1682 I.ord Guilford, L. K. 
1685 Sir George Jeffreya, lord JeflOeys. 
1690 In commission. 
1690 Sir John Trevor, Sir William Rawlin- 

son, and Sir Geo. Hutchins, L. K. 

Henley, and earl of Northington. 
1766 Charles Pratt, lord Camden. 
1770 Hon. Chas. Yorke, Jon. 18; died next 


1770 In commivion. 

1771 Henry Bathurst. lord Apsley, succeed- 

ed as earl BaihursL 
1778 Lord Thurlow. 
I 1783 Lord Loughborough and others 

(in commistion) 
1"&3 Lord Thurlow again • 

1792 In commission. 

1793 Lord Loughborough again. 
1801 Lord Eldon. . - 

1806 Lord Erskine. 

1807 Lord Eldon again. 
1827 Lord Lvndhurst. 
1830 I^rd Brougham. 
I83i Lonl Lyndhurst again 

1835 In commission. 

1836 Lord Coitenharo. 

' 1641 Lonl Lyndhurst again. • 
< 1^6 Lord Cottenham again 

April 9 

• Dec. 23 

April 14 
. Feb r 
March 26 
April 2U 
Nov. 22 
Nov.. 14 

• Jan. 16 
Aug. 31 

July 6 

CHANCELLOR op IRELAND, LORD fflGH. Tlie earliest nomination was hy 
Richard I. a. d. 1186, when Stephen Ridel was elevated to this rank. Tho 
office of vice-chancellor was known in Ireland, but not as a distinct appoint- 
ment, in the rei^ of Henry III., Geffrey Turville, archdeacon of Dublin, 
being so named, 1232. 

CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND. In the laws of Malcolm II. who reigned 
A. D. 1004, this^fScer is thus mentioned: "The Chancellar sal at al t^-mes 
assist the king in giving him counsall mair secretly nor of the rest of the 
nobility. The Chancellar sail be ludgit near unto the kingis Grace, fur 
keiping of his bodic, and the seill, and that he may be readie, baith day and 
Dicht, at the kingis command."— Sir James Balfour. James, earl of Seafleld, 
afterwards Findlater, was the last lord high Chancellor of Scotland, the 
ofiice having been abolished in 1708. — Scott. 

CHANCERY, COURT op. Instituted as early as a. d. 605. Settled upon a 
better footing by William I., in lOGT .—Storce. This court had its origin in 
the desire to render justice complete, and to moderate the rigor of other 
courts that are bound to the strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or 
againai infants, notwithstanding their minority ; and to or against married 

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S46 THE world's PEOaREBS. [ CIU 

women, notwitlistanding their coverture ; and all frauds, deceits, breaches 
of trust and confidence, for which there is no redress at common law, are 
relievable here. — Blackstoiie. 


1770 . Amount lodged - JE5,;JOO.OOO 1810 • Amount lodged - jBa6,212.000 

178f) . diiio - . 7.711,000 laaO - diito - - »i.308,7S5 

1790 . . ditto - 13;iK000 1830 - - ditto - 38,886.135 

1800 - ditto . - 19,8*1,000 18W • ditto - • 39,772,746 

There are about 10,000 accounts. By the last official returns the number 
of committals for contempt was ninety-six persons in three years. — Pari, 

CHANTRY. A chapel endowed with revenue for priests to sing mass for the 
souls of the honors.— Skakspeare. First mentioned in the commencement of 
the seventh century, when Gregory the great established schools of chant- 
ers. — See Chanting. 

CHAOS. A rude and shapeless mass of matter, and confused assemblage of 
inactive elements which, as the poets suppose, pre-existed the formation of 
the world, and fVom which the universe was formed by the hand and power 
of a superior being. This doctrine was first advanced by Hesiod, from whom 
the succeeding poets have copied it ; and it is probable that it was obscurely 
drawn from the account of Moses, by being copied from the annals of San- 
choniathon, whose age is fixed antecedent to the siege of Troy in 1193 b. r-. 
See Geology. 

CHARIOTS. The invention of chariots, and the manner of harnessing horses 
to draw them, is ascribed to Erich thonius of Athens, 1486 b. c. Chariot 
racing was one of the exercises of Greece. The chariot of the Ethiopian 
officer, mentioned in Acts viii. 27, 28, 31, was, it is supposed, something in 
the form of our modern chaise with four wheels. Caesar relates that Cassi- 
belanus, after dismissing all his other forces, retained no fewer than 4000 
war chariots about his person. The chariots of the ancients were like our 
phsetons, and drawn by one horse. See Carriages^ Coaches^ 4*c. 

CHARITIES in the United States. — See Benevolcrhce. In England there are tens 
of tliousands of charitable foundations ; and the charity commission reported 
to parliament that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain amounted to 
£\ 600,000 annually, in 1840. — Pari. Rep. Charity schools were instituted 
in London to prevent the seduction of the infant poor into Roman Catholic 
seminaries, 8 James II. 1687. — Rapin. 

CHARLESTON, S. C, was first settled in 1680. In 1690 a colony of French 
refugees, exiled in consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
settled in Carolina, and some of them in Charleston : from them are de- 
scended many of the most respectable of the inhabitants. At the close of 
1779, the city was taken by the British, and held by them until ISIav follow- 
ing. Population in 1790, 16 859 ; in 1810, 24,711 ; in 1820, 24,780 ; in 1830, 
80 289; in 1840, 29,261--(a decrease of 1,028 in ten years) including 14,67S 
slaves. » 

CHARTERS op RIGHTS. The first charters of rights granted by the kings of 
England to their subjects, were by Edward the Confessor, and by Henry L 
A. D. 1100. The famous bulwark of English liberty, known as Magna Ckarta 
or the great charter, was granted to the barons by king John, June 15. 1216! 
The rights and privileges granted by this charter were renewed and ratified 
by Henry III. in 1224, cl seq. Sir Edward Coke says that even in his days it 
had been confirmed above thirty times. Charters to corporations were of 
frequent grant from the reign of William I. See Magna Ckarta. 

CHARTERS, to the American colonies. That to Virginia granted by James I., 
1606 ; to Massachusetts, by the same, 1620, but withdrawn by Charles 11., 

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chbJ dictionary op dates. 247 

1684; tliat granted to Connecticut by Charles II., 1665, was concealed in an 
aik to preserve it from tlic tyrannical Andros. General suppression of 
charter governments in America, 1G88. 

CHARTER PARTY. The same species of deed or agreement as the ancient 
chirograph. A covenant between merchants and masters of ships relating 
to the ship and cargo. It was first used in England in the reign of Henry 
III., about 1243. 

CHARTISTS. The agitators for radical political reforms in England were so 
called from the Charter which they drew up and urged for adoption as the 
law of the land, 1838. The petition for it, signed by about 5,000 000 names. 
Proclamation against tumultuous assemblies of the Chartists, Dec. 12, 1838. 
Chartist attack on Newport, Wales, headed by John Frost, an ex-magistrate, 
defeated, Nov. 4, 1839. Frost and others taken prisoner, tried, and trans- 
ported. Another Chartist demonstration on Kennington Common, near 
London, exciting great alarm (chiefly because of the recent revolution in 
ParisJ, April 10, 1&8. The six chief demands of the Chartists are : 1. Uni- 
versal suffrage. 2. Vote by ballot. 3. No property qualification. 4. Annual 
parliaments. 5. Payment of members. 6. Equal electoral districts. 

CHARTS. Anaximander of Miletus was the inventor of geographical and celes- 
tial charts, about 570 b. c. Modern sea-charts were brought to Enghind by 
Bartholonaew Columbus, with a view to illustrate his brother's theory respect- 
ing a western continent. 1489. Mercator's chart, in which the world is taken 
as a plane, was drawn, 1556. 

CfiARYBDIS, a dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily, opposite another 
whirlpool called Scylla, on the coast of Italy. It was very dangerous to sail- 
ors, and it proved fatal to part of the fleet of Ulysses. The exact situation 
of the Charybdis is not discovered by the moderns, as no whirlpool suffi- 
ciently tremendous is now found to correspond to the description of the 
ancients. The words Incidit in Scyllam qui vult vilate Charybrfim, became a 
proverb, to show that in our eagerness to avoid an evil, we fail into a greater. 

CHANTING, Chanting the psalms was adopted by Ambrose from the pa- 
gan ceremonies of the Romans, about a. d. 350. — Lenglci. Chanting in 
churches was introduced into the Roman Catholic service in 602, by Gregory 
the Great, who established schools of chanters, and corrected the church 
song. — Dufresnoy. 

CHEATS. The convicted cheat punishable by pillory (since abolished), impri- 
sonment, and fine, 1 HAwk. L. C. 188. A rigorous statute was enacted 
against cheats, 88 Henry VIII. 1542. Persons cheating at play, or winning 
at any time more than 102., or any valuable thing, were deemed infkmous, 
and were to suffer punishment as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 1711. — Bl-ack- 
stime's Comm. 

CHEESE. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned the 
process of making cheese ft*om the Romans (who brought many useful arts 
with them) about the Christian era. Cheese is made by almost all nations. 
Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire, make vast quantities; the last alone, annu- 
ally, about 81,000 tons. The Cheddar of Somerset, and Stilton of Hunting- 
don, are as much esteemed as the cheese of Parma, and Gruyfere of Switas- 
erland. In 1810 England imported, chiefly from the U. States, for home use, 
a quantity exceeding 10,000 tons. 

CHEMISTRY and DISTILLING. Introduced into Europe by the Spanish 
Mqprs, about a. d. 1150; they had learned them fVom the African Moors, 
and these (Vom the Egyptians. In Egypt, they had, in very early ages, ex- 
tracted salts fVom theirbascs, separated oils, and prepared vinegar and wine? 

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248 THE world's progress. [cm 

and embalming was a kind of chemical process. The Chinese also claim an 
early acquaintance with chemistry; but the fathers of true chemical philo- 
sophy were of our own country; Bacon, Boyle, Hooke, Mayow, Newton, &c. 
The modem character of chemistry was formed under Beecher and Stahl, 
who perceived the connection of the atmosphere and the gases, with the 

Production of phenomena. Bergman and Scheele were cotemporary with 
riestley in Eneland. and Lavosier in France ; then followed Thomson, Davy, 
and other distinguished men. 

CHERRIES. They were brought from Poptus, to Lucullus, to Rome, about 70 
B. c. Apricots from Epirus : peaches fVom Persia ; the finest plums from 
Damascus and Armenia; pears and figs from Greece and Egypt; citrons 
from Media; and pomep;ranates from Carthago; 114 b. c. The cherry tree 
was first planted m Britain, it is said, about a. d. 100. Fine kinds were 
brought fVom Flanders, and planted in Kent, and with such success that an 
orchard of thirty-two acres produced in one year jSIOOO, a. n. 1540. See 
Gardening. • 

CHESAPEAKE, Battle op. At the mouth of the bay of that name, between 
the British admiral Greaves, and the French admiral De Grasse, with the 
naval force sent to assist the United States ; the former was obliged to retire, 
1781. The Chesapeake and Delaware were blockaded by a British fleet 
in 1812. The Chesapeake American fVigate struck to the Skaniunk British 
fVigate, commanded by captain Broke, after a severe action, June 2, 1818. 

CHESS. Game op. Invented, according to some authorities, 680 b. c; and ac- 
cording to others, in the fifth century of our era. The learned Hyde and 
Sir William Jones concur in stating (as do most writers on the subject) that 
the origin of chess is to be traced to India. The automaton chess-playor 
was exhibited in England in 1769. 

CHEVALIER D EON. This extraordinary personage, who had been acting in 
a diplomatic capacity in several countries, and who was for some time a 
minister plenipotentiary from France in London, was proved upon a trial 
had in the King's Bench, in an action to recover wagers as to his sex, to be 
B, woman, July 1, 1777. He subsequently wore female attire for many years; 
yet at his death, in London, in 1810, it was manifest, by the dissection of 
his body, and other undoubted evidence, that he was of the male sex. — 
Bio. Die. 

CHILDREN. Most of the ancient nations had the unnatural custom of expos- 
ing their infants — the Egyptians on the banks of rivers, and the Greeks on 
highways — when they could not support or educate them; in such cases 
they were taken care of, and humanely protected by the state. The custom 
which long previously existed of English parents selling their children to 
the Irish for slaves, was prohibited in the reign of Canute, about 1017. — 
Mat: Paris. At Darien, it was the practice when a widow died, to bury 
with her, in the same grave, such of her children as vcre unable, from their 
tender years, to take care of themselves. And in some parts of Chirta, su- 
perstition has lent her hand to sanction the horrid deed of offering infants 
to the spirit of an adjoining river, first attaching a gourd to their necks to 
prevent them from immediately drowning. 

CHILI. Discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conqcerors of Peru. a. n. 
1635. Almagro crossed the Cordilleras, and the natives, ri^^ardiiig the S^ian- 
lards on their first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected ^r them gold and 
silver, amounting to 290,000 ducats, a present which led to fhe subsequent 
cruelties and rapacity of the invaders. Chili was subdued, Vm not wiiolly, 
in 1546. The Chilians fought for liberty at various times, .^-^J \\\{\\ various 
nicoess, until 1817, when, by the decisive victory gained by i^i r>I?»**»n over 

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the royal forces, Feb. 12, in that year, the province was released A*om ita op- 
pressors, and declared independent. 
CHILTERN HUNDREDS. An estate of the crown in England, on the chain 
of chalk hills that pass from east to west through the middle of Bucking- 
hamshire, the stewardship whereof is a nominal office, conferred on members 
of parliament when they wish to vacate their seats, as, by accepting an 
office under the crown, a member becomes disqualified, unless he be again 
returned by his constituents: this custom has existed time immemorial. 

CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in iise previous to the invention of chim- 
neys, which were first introduced into these countries in a. d. 1200, when 
they were confined to the kitchen and large hall. The family sat round the 
stove, the funm^l of which passed through the ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys 
were general in domestic architecture in 1310. The ancients made use of 
stoves, although Octavi# Ferrari affirms that chimneys were in use among 
them; but this is disputed. - 

CHINA. This empire is very ancient, and the Chinese assert that it existed 
many thousands of years before Noah's flood ; but it is allowed by some author- 
ities to have commenced about 2500 years before the birth of Christ. By 
others it is said to have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of 
the Bible, 2240 b. c. We are told that the Chinese knew the periods of the 
sun, moon, and planets, and were acute astronomers, in the reign of Yao, 
which is set down 2357 b. c. But dates cannot be relied upon until towards 
the close of the seventh century, b. c. when the history of China becomes 
more distinct. In the battle between Phraates and the Scythians 129 b. c, 
the Chinese aided the latter, and afterwards ravaged the* countries on the 
coasts of the Caspian, which is their first appearance in history. — Lev^lel. 

Jesuit missionaries endeavor to esta- 

The Chinese state iheir first cycle to 
have commenced - • b. o 2700 

The first o( tlie 22 Chinese dynasties 
commenced .... 2207 
• • « • * • 

Id the history of China, the first dates 
which are fixed to his narrative, by 
Se-ma-laien, be^in • - . 661 

Confucius, the lather of the Chinese 

philosophers, born • - -661 

Stupendous wall of China completed • 211 
The dynasty of Han • - • • 206 

Literature and the an of printing encou- 

raiged - - - r -202 

RaligionofTa tse commenced • - 15 
Religion of the .'bllowera of Fo, com- 
menced about • ▲. D 60 
Embassy from Rome - - - 166 
Nankin becomes the capital - • 420 
The atheistical phiioeopher, FanShin, 

flourUhes .... 449 
The Neatorian Christians permitted to 

preach their doctrines - - . 635 

They are proscribed, and extirpated - 846 
The seat of the imperial government is 

transferred to Pekin - • 1260 

Wonderful canal, called the Yu Ho, 

completed about - - > 1400 

Eur:;' Kins first arrive at Canton . 1517 

Macao is granted as a settlement to the 

Portuguese - • - 1536 

Jesuit mi8«ionaries are sent by the pope 

from Rome .... 1575 
The country is conquered by the East- 
em Tartars, who establish the pre- 
sent reigning house - - • 1644 
An eanhqtuike throughout China buries 
300,1000 per«Mia at Pokin alone • 1662 

biish Christianity - • - - 1692 

The Jesuits are expelled through their 
own misconduct - - • 1734 


Earl Macartney's embassy; he leaves 
England - - Sept. 26, 1792 

He is ordered to depart from Pekin, 

Oct. 7, 1793 

Edict against Christianity • - 1312 

LonI Amherst's embassy; he leaves 
England - - ■ Feb. 8, 1816 

I His lordship failed in the objects of 
lis mission, navine refused to make 
the prostration ofttie kou-tou^ lest he 
should thereby compromise the ma- 

jesty of England.] 
The € " ■ 

exclusive rights of the East India 
Company ceai«e - April 22, 183* 

Lord Napier arrives at Macao, to super- 
intend British commerce • July 15, 1834 

Opium trade interdicted by tlie Chinese, 

Nov. 7, 1834 

Commissioner Lin issues an edict for 
the seizure of opium - March 18, 1839 

British and other residents forbidden to 
leave Canton ■ - March 19, 1839 

The factories surrounded, and outrages 
committed - • March 2-1. 1S39 

The opium destroyed during several 
days by the Chinese • June 3, 1839 

The British trade with China ceases, by 
an edict of the emperor, and the last 
servant of the company leaves the 
country this day - Doc. 6. 133f 

Edict of the emperor inierdictinj^ all 
trade and intercourse with England 
forever • Jan. 6, 18# 

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TBE world's progress. 


Cm^k, continued. 

Blockade of Canton bj a British fleet of 
loFail and several war steamera, hav- 
ing 4.U00 irooiM on boani, by unlei-s 
from Sir Goraon Bremer • June 28, 1840 

Seizure ofCanu Anntruiher - Sept. 16. 1810 

Lin Jepriveu of his authority, ana 
finaliy ilegraded; Keshin appointed 
imperial commisKioner' • Sept. 16, 1840 

Capu Elliott declares a truce with the 
Chinese - • • Nov. 6, 1840 

Don!:<Kong ceded by Keshin to Great 
Britain, and 6,000,0(D dollars agreed to 
be paid within ten days to the British 
auinorities • - Jan. '^ 1841 

Imperial edict from Pekin rejecting the 
conditions of the treaty made by Ke- 
shin • • . Feb. 11. 1811 

Hostilities are in consequence resumed 
against the Chinese • • Feb 23, 18-11 

Chuitan evacuated • - Feb. 21, 1841 

Rewanls proclaimed at Canton for the 
bodies of Englishmen, dead or alive ; 
C0,U00 dollars to be given for has- 
leaders and chiefs • Feb. 25, 1811 

Bogue Forts taken by Sir Gordon Bre- 
mer ; admiml Kwan killed, and 459 
guns captured • - Feb. 26, 1841 

Sir Hugh Gough takes the command of 
the army • - March 2. 1811 

Heights behind Canton taken, and 94 
guns captured • Mav 25, 1841 

The ciiv ransomed for 6,000,000 dollars, 
of which 5,0(X),000 are paid down, 
and hostilities rea^e - May 31, 1841 

British trade re-opcned • July 16, 1841 

Arrival at Macao of Sir Henry Poiiin- 
ger^ who, as pienipotentia'ry, pro- 
claims the objects of his mis.<iion; 
Capt. Elliott superseded • Aug. 10. 1811 

Amoy taken, and 296 guns founa and 
destroyed - - Aug. 27, 1811 

The Bogue forts destroyed • SepL 14, 1841 

The city of Ting hae taken, 13b guns 
captiiredj and the island of Chusan 
re-occnpied by the British • Oct. 1, 1341 

Chin-hae taken, with 157 guns, many 
of them brass • • Oct. 10, 1841 

Treaty of peace si*med before Nankin, 
on board the VoniteaUU by sir Henry 
Pouinger for England, and Keying 
Elepoo and Neu-Kien on the part of 
the Chinese emperor • Aug. 29, 181S 


Lasting peace and frieofdshtp between 
the two empires. 

China to pay 21,000,000 of dollars, part 
forthwith and the remainder within 
three years. 

The ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-choo- 
foo, Ning-po, and Sliang-hae u> be 
thrown open to the British. 

Consuls to reside at these cities. 

Tariffs of import and export to be oeta- 
blisheti^ &c. &c. 

The cm[)cror signifies his assent to thd 
conditions • Sept. 8, ISfiS 

Mr. Davis succeeds Sir Henry Potiinger 
as British commissioner - Feb. 16, 1844 

Bogue Forts captured by Gen. Aguilar 
and Sir John Davis, 836 pieces of ar- 
tillery seized and spi ked • April 6, 1817 

Treaty between ChintTand the Uk 
led States negotiated bv Caleb 
Gushing, Ainerican Commb- 
sioiier July 3, 1844 

ratified at Washington 

Jan. 16. 1816 

Alexander H. Everett appointed 
commissioner to China from the 
Uniied States • • • 1845 

John W. Davis appointed commis- 
sioner from the United States - 1817 


The following is a list of those who have 
reigned f(»r the last two centuries :— 
Chwang-lei - • - • • 1627 

Shun-che 1644 

Kanghe 1G69 

Yungching .... 1633 
Keen- lung • • • - - 1736 

Kea-ding ..... 1796 
Taou-kwang- - • - - 1821 

Sce-Hing, present emperor • 18^ 

The embassy of lord Macartney from England procured the first authentic 
information respecting this empire : it appears that it is divided into 15 pro- 
vinces, containing 4402 walled cities; the population of the whole country is 
given at 833.000,000 ; its annual revenues at je66,000,000 ; and the army, in- 
cluding the Tartars, 1,000,000 of infantry, and 800,000 cavalry; the religion 
is pagan, and the government is absolute. Learning, with the arts and sci- 
ences in general, are encouraged, and ethics are studied profoundly, and 
influence the manners of the people. See details in WUluims's " Middle 
CHINA PORCELAIN. This manufacture is first mentioned in history in 1531 ; 
it was introduced into England so early as the sixteenth century. Porcelain 
was made at Dresden in 1706 ; fine ware in England, at Chelsea, 1752 ; at 
Bow in 1758; in various other parts of England, about 1760; and by the 
ingenious Josiah Wedgwood, who much improved the British manufkcture, 
in Staffordshire, 1762 et seq. 

CHINESE ERAS. They are very numerous, fabulous, and m3rtholofical. 
Like the Chaldeans, they represent the world as having existed some nun-i 
dreds of thousands of years ; and their annals and histories record evecta 

Digitized by 



said to have occurred, and name philosophers and heroes said to have lived, 
more than 27,000 years ago. By their calculation of time, which must, of 
course, differ essentially from ours, they date the commencement of their 
empire 41,000 years b. c.—Abbe Lenglet. 

CHIPPEWA, Battles op. The British forces under general Rial! were de- 
feated by the Americans under general Brown, July 5, 1814. Another ac- 
tion with the British, commanded by generals Drummond and Riall ; the 
latter taken prisoner at Bridgwater, near Chippei^a, July 25, 1814. 

CHIVALRY. Began in Europe about a. d. 912. From the twelfth to the fif- 
teenth century it had a considerable influence in refining the manners of 
most of the nations of Europe. The knight swore to accomplish the duties 
of his profession, as the champion of God and the ladies. He devoted him- 
self to speak the truth, to maintam the right, to protect the distressed, to 
practise courtesy, to fulfil obligations, and to vindicate, in overy perilous 
adventure, his honor and character. Chivalry, which owed its origin to the 
feudal system, expired with it. — Robertson ; Gibbon. 

CHIVALRY, Court op. It was commonly after the lie-direct had been given, 
that combats took place in the court of chivalry. By letters patent of 
James I. the earl-marshal of England had " the like jurisdiction in the court 
of chivalry, when the oflice of lord high constable was vacant, as this latter 
and the marshal did jointly exercise," 1023. The following entries are 
found in the pipe-roll of 31 Henry I., the date of which has been fixed by 
the labors of the record commission : — " Robert Fitz Seward renders account 
of fifteen marks of silver, for the office and wife of Hugh Chivill. Paid into 
the exchequer four pounds. And he owes six pounds ;" p. 53. " William 
de Hocton renders account of ten marks of gold that he may have the wife of 
Gtoffrey de Faucre in marriage, with her land, and may have her son in 
custody uDtil he is of age to become a knight; he paid into the exchequer 
ten marks of gold, and is discharged." — Pari. Reports. 

CHOCOLATE. First introduced into Europe fVom Mexico about a. d. 1520. It 
i* the flour of the cocoa-nut, and makes a wholesome beverage, much used 
in Spain. It was sold in the London cofiee-houses soon after their establish- 
ment. 1660.— Toiler. 

CHOIR. The choir was separated from the nave of the church in the time 
of Constantine. The choral service was first used in England at Canter- 
bury, A. D. 677. The service had been previously in use at Rome about 602. 
—See Chanting. The Choragus was the superintendent of the ancient 
chorus. — Warlmrton. 

CHOLEIRA MORBUS. This fatal disease, known in its more malignant form 
as the Asiatic cholera, after having made great ravages in many countries 
of the north, east, and south of Europe, and in the countries of Asia, where 
alone it had carried off more than 900,000 persons in its progress within two 
years, made its first appearance in England, at Sunderland, October 26, 1831. 
Proclamation, ordering all vessels fVom Sunderland to London, to perform 
quarantine at the Nore, December 4, 1831. Cholera first appeared at Edin- 
burgh, Feb. 6, 1832. First observed at Rotherhithe and Limehouse, London, 
February 13 ; and in Dublin, March 8, same year. The mortality w;is verj 
great, but more so on the Continent ; the deaths by Cholera in Paris were 
18,000 between March and August, 1832. Cholera first appeared on this 
continent at Quebec, June 8, 1832 ; and at New- York, June 27, 1832. Cho- 
lera again raged in Rome, the Two Sicilies, Genoa, Berlin, &c. in 1836-7. It 
again appeared in Asia and the east of Europe in 1848, and raged in Lon- 
don, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and Paris at intervals, in 1848-9. First ap- 
peared again on this continent in 1849, on the Mississippi, in New York in 

Digitized by 


252 THE world's progress. [cha 

May, and continued more or less in various parts of the United States 
until November of that year. 

CHRIST. See Jesus Christ. This name, so nniversally given to the Redeemer 
of the world, signifies, in Greek, Tke Anointed, being the same with Mes- 
516 A in the Hebrew, which the Jews called that Saviour and Deliverer whom 
thoy expected, and who was promised to them by all the prophets. This 
appellation is commonl]^ put to our Jssus (signifying Saviour)^ the name of 
the great object of our faith, and divine author of our relieion. St. Clement, 
the earliest father, according to St. Epiphanius, fixes the oirth of Christ on 
the 18th of November, in the 28th year of Augustus, i. e. two years before 
the Christian era as adopted in the sixth century. Cerinthus was the first 
Chrijtian writer against the divinity of Christ, about a. d. 67. The divinity 
of Christ was adopted at the council of Nice, in a. d. 825, by two hundred 
and ninety-nine bishops against eighteen. 

CHRISl'IAN. This name was first given to the believers and followers of 
Christ's doctrines at Antioch, in Syria, Acts xi. 26, in the year 88, accord- 
ing to BuUer ; in the year 40, according to Tacitus ; and according to other 
authorities in the year 60. The Christians were divided into episcopoi, 
presbyteroi, diaconoi, pistoi, catachumens, or learners, and energumens who 
were to be exorcised. 

CHRISTIAN ERA. The era which is used by almost all Christian nations ; it 
dates from January 1st, in the middle of the fourth year of the 194th 
Olympiad, in the 753d of the building of Rome, and 4714th of the Julian 
period. It was first introduced in the sixth century, but was not very 
generally employed for some centuries after. We style the Christian era 
A. D. 1. It was first used in modem chronology in 516. 

CHRISTIAN KING; Most Christian King; Christianissimus, This title was 

given by pope Paul 11. to Louis XI. of France in 1469 ; and never was a 
istinction more unworthily conferred. His tyranny and oppressions 
obliged his subjects to enter into a league against him ; and 4,0(X) persons 
were executed publicly or privately in his merciless reign. — HenauU : FlAtry. 
CHRISTIANITY. Founded by the Saviour of the world. The persecutions of 
the Cliristians commenced a. d. 64. — See Persecutions. Christianity was first 
taught in Britain about this time ; and it was propagated with some success 
in lo6. — Bede. Lucius is said to have been the first Christian king of Bri- 
tain, and in the world : he reigned in 179. But the era of Christianity in 
England commenced with the mission of St. Austin in 596, from which time 
it spread rapidly throughout the whole of Britain.* It was introduced into 
Ireland in the second century, but with more success after the arrival of St. 
Patrick in 482. It was received in Scotland in the reign of Donald I. about 
201, when it was embraced by that king, his queen, and some of his nobility. 
CoDBtantine the Great made his aolemn In Sweden, between 10th and 11th centuries, 

declaration ofthe Christian reliffionA.D. 312 In Prussia, by the Teutoric knii^hts, 
Christianity was established in France when they were retumics from the 

under Ciovis the Great • • 496 holjr wars • _ • • a. d. 1227 

In Helvetia, by Irish missionaries • 6*3 

In Flanders in the seventh century. 

In Denmark, under Harold • 827 

In Bohemia, under Borzivoi • - 8!M 

In Russia, by Swiatoslaf • • &10 

In Poland, under Meicislaua I. • • 992 

In Hungary, under Geisa • 994 

In Norway and Iceland, undet Olaf L • 1000 

In Lithuania, where Paganism was abo- 
lished, about ' - 139b 

In China, where h made sonr.e progress 
(but was afterwards exiirjMited, and 
thousands of Chinese Christians were 
put to death) .... IfiTS 

In Greece, when it was once wore re- 
established • . - - icas 

* It is said that Gregory the Great, shortly before his elevation to the papal chair, chanced one 
day to pass through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some children of i^reat beauty who 
ware set up for sale, he inquired about their country, and findmg they were English Pagans, he to 
aUd to hal^e cried out, in the Latin language, " Non Angli^ ted Angeliy/orent, si etseni Chrigtumi,'* 

Digitized by 



Christianity was propagated in various parts of AtVica, as Guinea, Angola, 
and Congo, in the fifteenth century ; and in America and India it made some 
proCTess in the sixteenth, and now rapidly gains ground in all parts of the 

CHRISTMAS-DAY. A festival of the church, universally observed in com- 
memoration of the nativity of our Saviour. It has been denominated Christ- 
mass, from the appellative Christ having been added to the name of Jesus to 
express that he was the Messiah, or T/ie Anoinled. It was first observed as a 
festival a. d. 98. Ordered to be held as a solemn feast, and Divine service to be 
performed on the 26th of December, by pope Telesphorus, about a. d. 137.* 
In the eastern primitive church, Christmas and Epiphany {which see) were 
detuned but one and the same feast ; and to this day the church universally 
keeps a continued feast within those limits. The h( Hy and misletoe used 
at Christmas are remains of the religious observances of the Druids, and so 
with many other like customs. 

CHRONICLES. The earliest chronicles are those of the Chinese, Hindoos, 
Jews, and perhaps those of the Irish. After the invention of writing, all 
well-informed nations appear to have kept chroniclers, who were generally 
priests or astrologers, and who mingled popular legends with their records. 

CHRONOLOGY. The Chinese pretend to the most ancient, but upon no cer- 
tain authority. The most authentic, to which all Europe gives credit, is the 
Jewish ; but owing to the negligence of the Jews, they have created abun- 
dance of diflSculties in this science, and very little certainty can be arrived 
at as to the exact time of many memorable events. The earliest epoch is 
the creation of the world, 4004 b. c. Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, was the 
first Christian chronologist, about a. d. 169. See the different eras through the 

CHURCH. It is said that a church was built for Christian worship in the first 
century ; and some will have it that one was built in England, a. d. 60. See 
Glastciibury. In the small island of Whitchom, Scotland, are the remains of 
an ancient church, which was the first place of Christian worship, it is be- 
lieved, in that country, and supposed to have been built before the cathedral 
at Whitehom, in Wigtonshire, where Nenian was bishop in the fourth cen- 
tury. The Christians originally preached in woods, and in caves, by candle- 
light, whence the practice of candle-light in churches. Most of the early 
churches were of wood. The first church of stone was built in London, in 
1087. The first Irish church of stone was built at Bangor, in the county of 
Down, by Malachy, archbishop of Armagh, who was prelate in 1134. — Gor- 
don's irelanid. Church towers were originally parochial fortresses. Church- 
yards were permitted in cities in 742. 

CHURCH OP ENGIiAND, (the present). Commenced with the Reformation, 
and was formall} established in the reign of Henry VIII. 1534. This church 
consists of two archbishops and twenty-four bishops, exclusively of that of 
Sodor and Man ; and the other dignitaries are chancellors, deans (of cathe- 
drals and collegiate churches), archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor 
canons, and priest vicars ; these, and the incumbents of rectories, vicarages, 

laat 19, ** they would not be English, but angels, if the v were Christians." From that time he was 
Knick with an anient desire to convert that unenlightened nation, and ordered a monk, named 
Aostin, or Augtistin, and others of the same fraternity, to undertake the mission to Britain, in the 
yeu 596 —GoUigmith. 

'Diocletian, the Roman emperor, keeping his court at Nicomedia, being informed that the 
Ctiristians were anembled on this day in great multitudes, to celebrate Chrisi'B nativity, ordered Ihe 
mnto be shut, and the cliuich to be set on fire, and six himdred perished in the burning pile. 
Hub was the commencement of the tenth persecution, which lasted ten years, a. d .103. 

Digitized by 


254 THE world's progress. [cut 

and ch^pelries, make the number of preferments of the established chnrch, 
according to the last official returns, 12,327. The number of churches for 
Protestant worship in England was 11,742 in 1818. 

CHURCH OP IRELAND. Called, in connection with that of England, the 
United Church of England and Ireland. Previously to the Church Tempo- 
ralities Act of William IV. in 1833, there were four archbishoprics and 
eighteen bishoprics in Ireland, of which several have since ceased ; that act 
providing for the union of sees, and for the abolition of certain sees, accord- 
ingly as the present possessors of them die. There are 1,669 places of Prot- 
estant worship, 2,109 Catholic chapels, 452 Presbyterian, and 414 other 
houses of prayer. See Bishops. 

CHURCH OP SCOTLAND. Presbyterianism is the religion of Scotland. Ita 
distinguishing tenets seem to have been first embodied in the formuiary of 
faith attributed to John Knox, and compiled by that reformer in 1660. It 
was approved by the parliament and ratified in 1667 ; was finally settled by 
an act of the Scottish senate in 1696, and was afterwards secured by the 
treaty of union with England in 1707. Previously to the abolition of episco- 
pacy in Scotland in 168§, there existed two archbishoprics and twelve bish- 
oprics, which were then dissolved ; but there are now six bishops. The 
Church of Scotland is regulated by four courts-»-tl)e General Assembly, the 
Synod, the Presbytery, and Kirk Session. See Presb-yUrians. 

CHURCH MUSIC, was introduced into the Christian church by Gregory the 
Great, in a. d. 602. Choir service was first introduced in England, at Can- 
terbury, in 677. Church organs were in general use in the tenth century. 
Church music was first performed in English in 1669. See Choir; Chanting, 

CHURCH- WARDENS. Officers of the parish church, appointed by the first 
canon of the synod of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish were also 
appointed by the same body, and they continue now nearly as then consti- 
tuted. — Johnson's Canons. 

CHURCHING OP WOMEN. It originated in the Jewish rite of purification, 
A. D. 214. Churching is the act of returning thanks in the church for any 
signal deliverance, and particularly after the delivery of women. — Whealiey. 
It was a Jewish law that a woman should keep within her house forty days 
after her lying in, if she had a son, and eighty if she had a daughter, at the 
expiration whereof she was to go to the temple, and offer a lamb with a 
young pigeon or turtle and in case of poverty, two pigeons or turtles. 


See Purijlcalion. 

CIDER. Anciently this beverage, when first made in England, was called wine, 
about A. D. 1284. When the earl of Manchester was ambassador in France, 
he is said to have frequently passed oflT cider upon the nobility of that coun- 
try for a delicious wine. It was subjected to the excise regulations in 
England, 1763, et seq. A powerful spirit is drawn from cider by distillation. — 

CIMBRI. The war of the Cimbri, 113 b. c. They defeat the consul Marcus 
Silanus, 109 b. c. They defeat the Romans under Manlius, on the bankn of 
the Rhine, where 80 000 Romans are slain, 106 b. c. The Teutones arc de- 
feated by Marius in two battles at Aquae Sextiae (Aix) in Gaul, 200,000 arc 
killed, and 70.000 made prisoners, 102 b. c. Tlie Cimbri are defeated by 
Marius and Catullus as they were again endeavoring to enter Italy ; 120,000 
are killed, and 60,000 taken prisoners, 101 b. c. Their name afterwards sunk 
in that of the Teutones or Saxons. 

CINCINNATI. Onio, the most populous city west of the Alleghanies in the 
United States, was founded in 1789, by emigrants from New England and 

Digitized by 



New Jersey. Population in 1795, 600 ; in 1800, 760 ; in 1810, 2,540 ; in 1820, 
9,612; in 1830, 24,831 ; in 1840, 46,338. 

CINCINNATI, Society op. fistablished by the officers of the American army, 
in 1783, after the Revolution, and still continued by them and their descend- 
ants. There was at one time a popular jealousy of this society as sug^gest- 
ing a sort of hereditary nobility or aristocracy ; but this has long since passed 
away, and the society is now but seldom mentioned. 

CIRCASSIA. The Circassians are descended from the Alanians. They contin- 
ued unsubdued, even by the arms of the celebrated ""imur ; but in the six- 
teenth century the greater part of them acknowledged the authority of the 
Czar, Ivan 11. of Russia. About a d. 1746, the princes of Great and Little 
Kabarda took oaths of fealty to that power. One branch of their traffic is 
the sale of their daughters, famed throughout the world for their beauty, 
and whom they sell for the use of the seraglios of Turkey and Persia : the 
merchants who come from Constantinople to purchase these girls are gener- 
ally Jews. — Klaproth^s Travels in the CaiLcasus and Georgia. 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY. The first in England, on a public plan, was opened 
by Samuel Fancourt, a dissenting minister of Salisbury, about 1740. He had 
little encouragement in the undertaking, which in the end failed. — f^rgv^ 
son^s Biog. 

CIRCULATION op the BLOOD, and the motion of the heart in animals, con- 
firmed experimentally by William Harvey, the <ielebrated English physician 
and anatomist, between 1619 and 1628. See article Blood. By this dis- 
covery the medical and surgical art became greatly improved, to the benefit 
of mankind. — Freind^s Hist, of Pkysic. 

CIRCUMCISION. A rite instituted 1897 b. c. It was the seal of the covenant 
made by God with Abraham. — Josepkus. Even to the present day many of 
the Tnrks and Persians circumcise, although not regarding it as essential to 
salvation ; but in some eastern and African nations it is rendered necessary 
by a peculiar conformation, and is used without any reference to a religious 
n\/d.—BeU. The festival of the Circumcision was originally called the Octave 
of Christmas. The first mention found of it is in a. d. 487. It was instituted 
by the church to commemorate the ceremony under the Jewish law to 
which Christ submitted on the eighth day of his nativity ; it was introduced 
into the Liturgy in 1660. 

CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the greatest and most daring of human en- 
terprises was the circumnavigation of the earth at the period when it was 
first attempted, a. d. 1519.* The following are the most renowned of this 
iUnstrious class of men ; their voyages were undertaken at the dates affixed 
to their names. See Navigators. 

Magellan, a Portuguese, the first who 

entered the Pacific ocean • a. d. 1519 

Groalvaj a Spanish navigator • 1537 

Aralradi, a Spaniard - - • 1537 

Mendana, a Spaniard • - • • 1567 

Sir Francis Drake, first English • 1577 

Cavendish, his first voyage • . 1586 

Le Maire, a Dutchman • • • 1615 

Quiroo, a Spaniard • • 1625 
Tasman, Dutch .... 1612 

Cowley, British • - • - 1683 

Dampier, an Ensriishnian - - 1689 

Oooko, an Englishman • - • 1708 

Clipperton, British - • a. d. 1719 

Roggeweln, Dutch • « •1721 

Anson (afterwards Lord) - • - 1740 

Byron (grandfather of Lord Byron) • 1764 

Walli8,Tlriti8h - - . - 1766 

Carteret, an Englishman • • 1766 

Cook, the illustnous captain • • 1768 
On the death of Captam Cook, h 8 last 

voyage was continued hy King • J779 

Bougainville, French - • • 1778 

Portlocke, British - - - 1788 

Wilkes, American • - • • 1837 

D'Urville, French - • 1837 

* The first ship that sailed round the earth, and hence determined its being fflobalar, waa 
NageUan's, or Magelhoen's; he was a native of Portugal, in the service of Spain, and by keeping a 
westerly course he returned to the same place he had set out from in 1519. The voyaee was com* 
pleted in three years and twenty-nine days ; but Magellan was killed on his homewara passage, at 
*e Philippines, in XvQX.—Butkr. 

Digitized by 


256 THE world's 4>RoonB»i. [ en 

Several royages have been since undertaken, and, among other nations, bj 
the Rassians. The early navigators, equally illustrious, are named eiae- 

CIRCUS. There were eight (some say ten) buildings of this kind at Rome ; 
the largest of them was called the Circus Maximus, which was built by the 
elder larquin, 605 b. c. ; it was of an oval figure ; its length was three stadia 
and a half, or more than three English furlongs, and its breadth 960 Roman 
feet. This circus was enlarged by Caesar so as to seat 150,000 persons, and 
was rebuilt by Augustus. All the emperors vied in beautifying it, and 
Julius Cfesar introduced in it large canals of water, which on a sudden could 
be covered with ui infinite number of vessels, and represent a sea-fight. — 

CISALPINE REPUBLIC. Founded by the French in June 1797. It was ac- 
knowledged by the emperor of Germany to be independent, by the treaty of 
Campo h ormio {which see), Oct. 17, following. Received a new constitution 
in Sept. 1798. It merged into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805 ; Napo- 
leon was crowned king in May following, and was represented by his vice* 
roy, Eugene Beauharnois. See Italy. 

CISTERCIANS. An order founded by Robert, a Benedictine, in the eleventh 
century. They became so powerftil that they governed almost all Europe 
in spiritual and temporal concerns. They observed a continual silence, ab- 
stained from fiesh, lay on straw, wore neither shoes nor shirts, and were most 
austere. — De Vitri. 

CITIES. The word city has been in use in England only since the Conquest, at 
which time even London was called LondofUmrgh, as the capital of Scotland 
is still called Edinburgh, The English cities were very inconsiderable in 
the twelfth century. Cities were first incorporated a. d. 1079. The institu- 
tion of cities has aided much in introducing regular governments, police, 
manners, and arts. — Robertson, 

CITIZEN. It was not lawftil to scourge a citizen of Rome. — lAvy. In England 
a citizen is a jjerson who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade 
therein. — Camden. Various privileges have been conferred on citizens as 
freemen in several reigns, and powers granted to them. The wives of citi- 
zens of London (not being aldermen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) 
were obliged to wear minever caps, being white woollen knit three-cornered, 
with the peaks projecting three or four inches beyond their foreheads; alder- 
men's wives made them of velvet, 1 Elizabeth, 1558. — Stowe, The title of 
citizen, only, was allowed in France at the period of the revolution, 1792, et seq. 

CIUDAD RODRIGO. This strong fortress of Spain was invested by the French 
June 11, 1810; and it surrendered to them Jiily 10, followinp^. It remained 
in their possession until it was gallantly stormed by the British commanded 
by Wellington, Jan. 1^, 1812. Wellington had made a previous attack upon 
Ciudad Rodrigo (Sept. 25, 1811), which ended in his orderly retreat from 
the position. 

CIVIL LAW. Several codes come under this denomination of laws. A body 
of Roman laws, founded upon the laws of nature and of nations, was first 
collected by Alfrenus Varus, the Civilian, who flourished about 66 b. c. ; and 
a digest of them was made by Servius Sulpicius, the Civilian, 53 b. c. The 
Gregorian laws were compiled a. d. 290; the Thcodosian in 435; and the 
Justinian, 529-534. Many of the former laws having grown out of use, the 
emperor Justinian ordered a revision of them, which was called the Justinian 
codo, and this code constitutes a large part of the present civil law. Civil 
law was restored in Italy, Germany, &c. 1127. — BUtir. Civil law was intro- 
duced into England by Theobald, a Norman abbot, who was afterward* 

Digitized by 



archbishop of Canterbury, in 1188. It is now uiscd in the Bpiritnal cotirU 
only, and in maritime afiairs. See Laws. 

CIVIL LIST IN ENGLAND. This comprehends the revenue awarded to the 
kings of England, partly in lieu of their ancient hereditary income. The 
entire revenue of Elizabeth was not more than 600,000^. and that of Charles I. 
was but 800,0002. After the Revolution a civil list revenue was settled on 
the new king and queen of 700,000/., the parliament taking into its own 
hands the support of the forces, both maritime and military. The civil list 
of George II. was increased to 800,0002. ; and that of George III. in the 55th 
year of his reign, was 1,030,0002. By the act 1 William IV. 1831, the civil 
list of that sovereign was fixed at 610,0002. By the act of 1 Victoria. Dec. 
1837, the civil list of the queen was fixed at 386,000/. ; and Prince Albert 
obtained an exclusive sum from parliament of 30,0002. per ann. 4 Victoria, 

CLANSHIPS. These were tribes of the same race, and commonly of the same 
name, and originated in feudal times. — See Feudal Laws. They may he 
said to have arisen in Scotland, in the rei^ii of Malcolm II., about 1008. 
Clanships and other remains of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scot- 
land (where clans were taken to be the tenants of one lord), and the liberty 
of the English was granted to clansmen. 20 George II., lli^.^Rvffhcad. 
The chief of each respective clan was, and is, entitled to wear two eagle's 
feathers in his bonnet, in addition to the distinguishing badge of his clan. — 

CLARENDON, Statutes of. These were statutes enacted in a parliament 
held at Clarendon, the object of which was to retrench the then enormous 
power of the clergy. They are rendered memorable as being the eround of 
Becket's quarrel with Henry II. A number of regulations were drawn up 
under the title of the statutes or constitutions of Clarendon, and were voted 

. without opposition, a. d. 1164. These stringent statutes were enacted to 
prevent the chief abuses which at that time prevailed in ecclesiastical 
affiiirs, and put a stop to church usurpations which, gradually stealing on, 
threatened the destruction of the civil and royal power. — Hume. 

CLARION. This instrument originated with the Moors, in Spain, about a. d. 
800; it was at first a trumpet, serving as a treble to trumpets sounding their 
tenor and bass. — Ashe. Its tube is narrower, and its tone shriller than the 
common trumpet. — Pardon. 

CLASSIS. The name was first given by Tullius Servius in making divisions of 
the Roman people. The first of six classes were called classici, by way of 
eminence, and hence authors of the first rank came to be called classics, 
573 B. c. ' . 

CLEMENTINES. Apocryphal pieces, fable and error, attributed to a primi- 
tive father, Clemens Romanus, a cotemporary of St. Paul; some say he 
succeeded Peter as bishop of Rome. He died a. d. 102.— -Mc^r^m. Also the 
decretals of pope Clement V., who died 1314, published by his successor.— 
BotDfer. Also Aa^ustine monks, each of whom having been a superior nine 
years, then merged into a common monk. 

CLEMENTINES and URBANISTS. Parties by whom Europe was distracted 
for several years. The Urbanists were the adherents of pope Urban VI., the 
others those of Robert, son of the count of Geneva, who took the title of 
Clement VII. All the kingdoms of Christendom according to their various 
intereata and inclinations were divided between these two pontifis ; the courts 
of France, Castile, Scotland, &«. adhering to Clement, and Rome, Italy, and 

Digitized by 


258 THE world's prooress. [olo 

England declaring for Urban. This contention was consequent upon the 
death of Gregory XI. l'6lS.-^IIunte. 

CLERGY. In the first century the clergy were distinguished by the title o'- 
presbyters or bishops. The bishops in the second century assumed higher 
functions, and the presbyters represented the inferior priests of the Levites: 
this distinction was stillYurther promoted in the third century; and, under 
Constantine, the clergy attained the recognition and protection of the secu- 
lar power. 

CLERGY IN England. They increased rapidly in number early in the seventh 
century, and at length controlled the king and kingdom. Dnmkenness waa 
forbidden among the clergy by a law, so early as 747 a. d. The first fruits 
of the then clergy were assigned by parliament to the king, 1684. The cler- 

fy were excluded from parliament m 1536. The conference between the 
rotestant and Dissenting clergy was held in 1604. See Confereihct. Two 
thousand resigned their benefices in the church of England, rathci than 
subscribe their assent to the book of common prayer, including the thirty- 
nine articles of religion, as enjoined by the Act of Uniformity, 1661-2. The 
Irisli Protestant clergy were restored to their benefices, from which they had 
been expelled, owing to the state of the kingdom under Climes II., 1689. 
The Clergy Incapacitation act passed, 1801. &;e Church of England. 
CLERK. The Clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges oein^ chosen 
after the Norman custom from the sacred order ; and the ofiicers bemg cler- 
gy ; this gave them that denomination, which they keep to this day. — Black- 
stone^s Comm. 

CLOCK. That called the clepsydra, or water-clock, was introduced at Rome 
158 B. c. by Scipio Nasica. Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesi- 
bius, about 140 b. c. Said to have been found by Caesar on invading Britain, 
55 B. c. The only clock supposed to be then in the world was sent by pope 
Paul I. to Pepin, king of France, a. d. 760. Pacificus, archdeacon of Verona, 
Invented one in the ninth century. Originally the wheels were three feet in 
diameter. The earliest complete clock of which there is any certain record, 
was made by a Saracen mechanic, in the 13th century. 

The0capement,a8cribedtoGerbcrt, A.D. 1000| den) and the younger Galileo con- 

A clock constructed by Richard, abboi structed the pendulum • a. d. 1641 

of St. Alban's, about - • -1326 Christian Huy gens ccmtested this dieco- 

A striking clock in Westminster • 1368 very, and made his pendulum clock 

A perfect one made at Paris by Vick • 1370 some lime previously to • • 16S8 

The first portable one made • • 1530 Fromaniil, a Dutchman, improved the 
In England no clock went accurately pendulum, about • . - 1G69 

before that set up at Hampton-court i Repealing clocks and watches invented 
(maker's initials, N. O.) • 1540 by Barlow, about - • - 1676 

Kichard Harris (who erected a clock in The dead beat, and horizontal escape- 

the church of St. Pauls, Covenl-Gar- ments, by Graham, about • • -1700 

The subsequent improvements were the spiral balance spring suggested, and 
the duplex scapement invented by Dr. Hooke ; pivot holes jewelled by Facio ; 
the detached scapement invented by Mudge, and improved by Berthond, 
Arnold, Eamshaw and others. 

CLOCK, MAGNETIC. Invented by Dr. Locke of Cincinnati, 1847-S. 

CLOTH. Both woollen and linen cloth were known in very early times. Coarse 
woollens were introduced into England a. d. 1191 ; and seventy families of 
' cloth- workers from the Netherlands settled in England by Edward Ill.'s in- 
vitation, and the art of weaving was thereby introduced, l^Zl.—Rpner's Fas- 
dera. Woollens were first made at Kendal, in 1390. Medleys were manu- 
factured, 1614. Our fine broad cloths were yet sent to Holland to be dyed, 
1654. Dyed and dressed in England, by one Brewer, fVom the Low Coun- 
tries, 1667. The manufacture was discouraged in Ireland and that of lineD 

Digitized by 


coa] dictionary of dates. 259 

ooantenanced, at the request of both houses of parliament, 1698. See 
Woollen Cloth. 

CLOVIS, Family op. Kings of France. The real founder of the French jno- 
narchy was Clovis I., wlio commenced his roi^n a. d. 481, and was a warlike 
prince. He expelled the Romans, embraced the Christian religion, and pub- 
lished the Salique law. On his being first told of the sufferings of Christ, 
he exclaimed, '' O, had I been there with my valiant Gauls, how I would 
have avenged him !" Clovis united his conquests from the Romans, Germans, 
and Goths, as provinces to the then scanty dominions of France : removed 
the seat of Government from Soissons to Paris, and made this the capital of 
his new kingdom; he died in 511. — HenauU. 

COACH. The coach is of French invention. Under Francis I., who was a co- 
temporary with our Henry VIII., there were but two in Paris, one of which 
belonged to the queen, and the other to Diana, the natural daughter of 
Henry II. There were but three in Paris in 1650; and Henry IV. had one, but 
-without straps or springs. The first courtier who set up this equipage was 
John de Laval de Bois-Dauphin, who could not travel otherwise on account 
of his enormous bulk. Previously to the use of coaches the kings of France 
travelled on horseback, the princesses were carried in litters, and ladies rode 
behind their squires. Tlie first coach seen in England was in the reign of 
Mary» about 1553. — Priestley's Led. They were introduced much earlier. — 
Andrews^ Hist-. Great Brit. They were introduced by Fitz- Allen, earl of 
Arundel, in IbSO.—Slowe. And in some years afterwards the art of making 
them. — ATiderson's Hist, of Comvierce. A bill was brought into parliament 
to prevent the effeminacy of men riding in coaches^ 48 Eliz. 1601.* — Carle. 
See Carriages, Hackney Coaches, Mail Coaches, &c. 

COALITIONS. The great coalitions against France since the period of the 
French revolution, have been six in number ; and they generally arose out 
of the subsidizing by England of the great powers of the Continent. They 
were entered into as follows : 

1st. The king of Framia iasues his ma- 
nifesto • - - June 26, 1792 

2Dd. By Great Britain, Germanr, Rus- 
sia, Naples, Portugal, and Turkey, 
signed - - • June 22, 1799 

3cd. By Great Britain, Russia, Austria, 

and Naples • • Aug. 5, 1805 

4th. By Great Britain, Russia. Prussia, 

and Saxony • • Oct. 6, 18116 

5th. By England and Austria - April 6, 1809 
6th. By Russia arri Prussia : the treaty 

ratified at Kalisch - March l7, 1813 
See Treaties 

COAI.rnON MINISTRY. This designation was given to the celebrated min- 
istry of Mr. Fox and lord North, and which was rendered memorable as an 
extraordinary union in political life, on account of the strong personal dis- 
like which had always been displayed by these personages, each towards 
the other. The ministry was formed April 6, 1783, and dissolved Dec. 19, 
same year. See AdministrcUi/yns. 

COALS. It is contended, with much seeming truth, that coals, although they 
are not mentioned by the Romans in their notices of Britain, were yet in use 
by the ancient Britons. — Brandt. They were first discovered at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in 1284, some say earlier: and others in 1239. Sea-coal was pro- 
hibited A-om being used in and near London, as being '* prejudicial to human 
health ; " and even smiths were obliged to bum wood, \21^.—St(nce. Coals 
were first made an article of trade from Newcastle to London, 4 Richard II. 
\2!^\.—Rymefs Fadera. Notwithstanding the many previous complaints 

* In the beginning of the year 1619, the earl of Northumberland, who had been imprisoned erer 

je the Qonpowde'r Plot, obtained his liberation Hearing that Buckingham was drawn about 

with six hoicM in his ciuurh (being the first that was so), he put on eight to bis, and in that mannei 
! from th4 tower through the city.— JZopin. 

Digitized by 



agaiDst coal as a public nuisance, it was at length generally bitrned in Lou- 
don in 1400 ; but coals were not in common use in England until the i«ign 
of Charles I., 1625. 


1660 . . 160,000 chald. I 1800 • • 614.000 chald. I 1830 . . l,C86,3G0chald. 

1700 . 317,000 ditto. 1810 • . 980,372 diuo. 1835 . 2,299,816 tonii. 

1750 • . 510,000 ditto. | 1820 • • 1,171,178 ditto. | 1810 • • 2,63d;^56 ditto. 

The coal-fields of Durham and Northumberland are 723 square miles in 
extent; those of Newcastle, Sunderland, Whitehaven, and other places, aro 
also of vast magnitude ; and there are exhaustless beds of coal in Yorkshire. 
The coal in South Wales alone, would, at the present rate of consumption, 
supply all England for 2000 years. — Blakewell. It is supposed that there are 
now about 26,000,000 of tons consumed annually in Great Britain.— PAiW/pj. 
Scotland teems with the richest mines of coal, and besides her vast collieries 
there must be vast fields unexplored. — Penruint. Fine coal is found in Kil- 
kenny, Ireland. The first ship laden with Irish coal arrived in Dublin from 
Newry, in 1742. — Bums. 

COALS IN THB United States. Lehigh coal from Mauch Chunk, Pennsylva- 
nia, first mined and used, 1806. According to Mr. Lyell, the coal strata in 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, &c., extend 700 miles. 

COCCEIANS. A sect founded by John Cocceius of Bremen; they held, 
amongst other singular opinions, that of a visible reign of Christ in this world, 
after a general conversion of the Jews and all other people to the Christian 
faith, 1665. 

COCHINEAL. The properties of this insect became known to the Spaniards 
soon ader their conquest of Mexico, in 1518. Cochineal was not known in 
Italy in 1548, although the art of dyeing then flourished there.— See Dyeing, 
The annual import of this article into England was 260,000 lbs. m 1830 : and 
1,081,776, in 1846. 

COCK-FIGHTING. Practised by the early barbarous nations, and by Gk-eece. 
It was instituted at Rome after a victory over the Persians, 476 b. c. ; and 
was introduced by the Romans into England. William Fitz-Stephen, in the 
reign of Henry II., describes cock-fighting as the sport of school-boys on 
Shrove Tuesday. Cock-fighting was prohibited, 39 Edward HI., 1865; and 
again by Henry VIII. and Cromwell. Till within these few years there was 
a Cock-pU Royal, in St. James's-park : but this practice is happily now dis- 
couraged by the law. 

COCK-LANE GHOST. A famous imposition (IJ practised upon the credulous 
multitude by William Parsons, his wife, ana daughter. The contrivance 
was that of a female ventriloquist, and all who heard her believed she 
was a ghost : the deception, which arose in a malignant conspiracy, was 
carried on for some time at the house. No. 33 Cock-lane, London ; but 
it was at length detected, and the parents were condemned to the piUory 
and imprisonment, July 10, 1762. 

COCOA. Unknown in Europe until the discovery of America, about 1500. 
The cocoa-tree supplies the Indians with ahnost whatever they stand in need 
of, as bread, water, wine, vinegar, brandy, milk, oil, honey, sugar, needles, 
clothes, thread, cups, spoons, basins, baskets, paper, masts for ships, sails, 
cordage, nails, covering for their houses, &c. — Ray. 

CODES OP LAWS. The laws of Phoroneus were instituted 1807 b. c. : those 
of Lycurgus, 884 b. c. ; of Draco, 628 b. c. ; of Solon, 587 b. c. AllVenui 
Varus, the civilian, first collected the Roman laws about 66 b. c. ; and Ser- 
vius Sulpicius, the civilian, embodied them about 53 b. c. Tlie Gregorian 
and Hermoeinian codes were published a. d. 290 ; the Theodosian c^e in 
485 • the celebrated code of the emperor Justinian, in 529— a digest fWrni 

Digitized by 



this last was made in 688. — BUnr. Alfred's code of laws is the foondatioa 
of the common law of England, 887. — See Laws. 

CODICILS TO WILLS. C. Trebatius Testa, the civilian of Rome, was the 
first who introduced the use of this supplementary instrument to wills, 
about 31 B. c. 

CCEUR DE LION, OR THE Lion-hearted. The surname given to Richard Plan- 
tagenot I. of England, on account of his dauntless courage, about a. d. 1192. 
Tiiis surname was also conferred on Louis YIII. of France, who signalized 
himself in the crusades and in his wars against England, about 1220. This 
latter prince had also the appellation of the Ldon given Mm. 

COFFEE. It grows in Arabia, Persia, the Indies, and America. Its use as a 
beverage is traced to the Persians.* It came into great repute in Arabia 
Felix about a. d. 1454 ; and passed thence into Egypt and Syria, and thence, 
in 1511, to Constantinople, where coffee-houses were opened in 1554. M. 
ThevenoL, the traveller, was the first who brought it into France, to which 
country he returned after an absence of .seven years, in 1662. — Chambers. Cof- 
fee was brought into England by Mr. Nathaniel Canopus. a Cretan, who 
made it his common beverage at Baliol College, Oxford, in 1641. — Anderson. 

COFFEE AND TEA. The consumption in the United States at different periods 
is reported by the secretary of the treasury (see American Almanac^ 1848) 
thus : — 

1821 - 

. . Tea, 4,566.223 lbs. . • 

. Coffee, 11,686,0© lbs. 

1830 - . 

" 6,873,091 lbs. . . 

'♦ 38;J63.687 lbs 

18S5 - 

• . « 12,331,638 lbs. - • 

»* 91,7r.3,0(K lbs. 

liyl2 . ■ 

« 13,482,645 lbs, - . 

" 107;«7,u67 lbs. 

lt»6 • 

• . " 16391,020 lbs. . . 

" iai,336,(X>l lbs. 

COFFEE-HOUSES. The first in England was kept by a Jew, named Jacobs, 
in Oxford, 1650. In that year, Mr. Edwards, an English Turkey merchant, 
brought home with him a Greek servant named Pasquet, who kept the first 
house for making coffee in London, which he opened in George-yard. Lom- 
bard-street, in 1652. Pasquet afterwards went to Holland, and opened the 
first house in that country. — Anderson. The Rainbow coffee-house, near 
Temple-bar, was represented as a nuisance to the neighborhood, 1657. 
Coffee-houses were suppressed by proclamation, 26 Charles II., 1676. The 
proclamation was afterwards suspended on the petition of the traders in tea 
and coffee. 

COFFEE-TREES. These trees were conveyed from Mocha to Holland in 1616; 
and Wtre carried to the West Indies in the year 1726. First cultivated at 
Surinam by the Dutch about 1718. The culture was encouraged in the 
plantations about 1732. 

COFFINS. The Athenian heroes were buried in coffins of the cedar tree; ow- 
ing to its aromatic and incorruptible qualities. — Thucydides. CofiUns of 
marble and stone were used by the Romans. Alexander is said to have been 
buried in one of gold : and glass coffins have been found iu Eng\And.~ Goitgh. 
The earliest record of wooden coffins amongst us, is that of the burial of 
king Arthur, who was buried in an entire trunk of oak, hollowed, a. d. 542 
— Asjter. The patent coffins were invented in 1796. 

COIN. Homer speaks of brass money as existing 1184 b. c. The invention of 
coin is ascribed to the Lydiaus, who cherished commerce, and whose money 

• Some aacribe the discorery of coffee as a beverage to the prior of a monastery, who, being In- 
fatmed by a goal-herd that his cattle sometimes browsed upon the tree, and that they would then 
wake at night, and snort and bound upon the tullSf became curious to prove its virtues. He oe* 
eordincly trie-J it on his monks, to prevent their sleeping at matins, and he found that it cbeckatl 
tfMfa- sIiimberB. 

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was of gold and silver. Both were coined by Phidon tyrant of Argos^ 8G2 
B. c. Money was coined at Rome under Servius Tullius, about 573 b. c. 
The most ancient known coins are Macedonian, of the fifth century b. c. ; but 
others are believed to be more ancient. Brass money only was in use at 
Rome previously to 269 b. c. (when Fabius Pictor coined silver), a sign that 
little correspondence was then held with the East, where gold and silver 
were in use long before. Grold w&s coined 206 b. c. Iron money was usc^d 
in Sparta, and Iron and tin in Britain. — Dufresnoy. Julius Csesar was the 
first who obtained the express permission of the senate to place his portrait 
on the coins, and the example was soon followed. In the earlier and moro 
simple days of Rome, the likeness of no living personage appeared npou 
their money : the heads were those of their deities, or of those who had re- 
ceived divine honors. 

<X)IN IN ENGLAND. The fiist coinage in England was under the Romans at 
Camulodunum, or Colchester. Knglish coin was of different shapes, as 
square, oblong, and round, until the middle ages, when roimd coin only was 
used. Groats were the largest silver coin until after a. d. 1351. Coin was 
made sterling in 1216, before which time i-ents were mostly paid in kind, and 
maney was found only in the coffers of the barons. — Stmoe 

The first gold coins on certain record, 
struck, 42 Henry III. • a. d. 1257 

Gold florin firsi struck, Ed. III. {Cam- 
den) ..... 1337 

First large copper coinage, putting an 

end to the circulation of private lead- 
en pieces, dec. ... - 1600 
Ilairpence and rarthin|s coined • 1663 
Guineas first coined, 25 Char. IL • 1673 
Sovereigns, new coinage • - 1816 
Half-farthings • • . . 1>^3« 

Gold coin was introduced in six shilling pieces by Edwtird III. and nobles 
followed, at six shillings and eightpenee, and hence the lawyer's fee: after- 
wards there were half and quarter nobles. Guineas were of the same size; 
but being made of a superior gold from sovereigns guineas passed for 
more. St^mGui'ncas. English and Irish money were assimilated Jan. 1. 1^6. 
See GoU. 


GeoKe IIL and regency, 

gold . . J^74,501,586 
George IV. - -41.783315 
William IV. - - 10,R>7,603 
Victoria, to 1848, 82.870.814 
The coin of the realm was about twelve millions in 1711. — DavenarU. It was 
estimated at sixteen millions 1762. — Anderson. It was supposed to be twen- 
ty millions in 1786. — Chalmers. It amounted to thirty-seven millions in 1800. 
— Pkiltips. The gold is twenty-eight millions, and "the rest of the metallic 
currency is thirteen millions, while the paper largely supplies the place of 
coin, 1830. — Dnke of Wellington. In 1841, it may be calculated as reaching 
forty-live millions. See Gold. 

COIN OP THE U. S. The U. S. Mint was established m 1792. The coinage from 
that time to 1836 was thus : — 

Pieces. Value. 

Gold . • 4,716,325 • ■ $22,102,035 

Silver - - • lir>,421,762 - 46,739,182 

Copper . . 77,752,966 - . 740,331 

Total . 197.R91,502 - - •69,581,549 

1837 to 1848 inclusive 145,389,748 • • #81,436,165 

Elizabeth • 

. jE5,83>,0n0 

James U. 

- ;E3.740,000 

James I. 

. 2,500,(1(10 

William III. - 

■ 10:511,900 

Charles I. • 

. -10.500,000 


- 2;091,626 


- 1,000,000 

George 1. 

. 8,72.-^,920 

Charles 11. 

. - 7,521,100 

George II. 

. 11,966,576 

Total in 56 years - 343,23 1 ;250 pieces. . 3151,017,714 
The gold coinage consists of double eagles S20, eagles, half eagles, quarter 
eagles and dollars. Gold dollars were first coined in 1849. The first de- 
posit of California gold for coining, was made by Mr. David Carter, 1804 
ounces, D«c. 8, 1848. 

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COINING, llils operation was origiDally performed by the metal being placed 
between two steel dies, and struck by a hammer. In 1553, a mill was 
invented by Antonie Brucher, and introduced into England in 1562. An en- 
gine fbr coining was invented by Balancier in 161 7. The great improvements 
of the art were eft'ected by Boulton and Watt, at Soho.. 1788, and subsequently. 
The art was rendered perfect by the creation of the present costly machinery 
at the muit, London, commenced in 1811. 

(TOLD. The extremes of heat and cold are found to produce the same percep- 
tions on the skin, and when mercury is frozen at forty degrees below zero, 
the sensation is the same as touching red-hot iron. During the hard fVost 
1740, a palace of ice was built at St. Petersburg, after an elegant model, and 
in the just proportions of Augustan architecture. — Greig. Perhaps the cold- 
est day ever known in London was Dec. 25, 1796, when the thermometer was 
16' below zero. Quicksilver was frozen hard at Moscow Jan. 13, 1810. See 
Frosts^ Ice. 

COLISiEUM. The edifice of this name at Rome was built by Vespasian, in 
the place where the basin of Nero's gilded house had previously been a. d. 
72. llie splendid Colis«eum of London, and one of its most worthy objects 
of admiration, is built near the Regent's Park, and was completed in 1827-8. 

COLLEGES. University education preceded the erection of colleges, which 
were munificent foundations to relieve the students from the expense of liv- 
ing at lodging-houses and at inns. Collegiate or academic degrees are said 
to have been first conferred at the University of Paris, a. d. 1140; but some 
authorities say, not before 1215. In £ngland^ it is contended that the date 
is much higher, and some hold that Bede obtained a degree formally at 
Cambridge, and John de Beverley at Oxford, and that they were the first 
doctors of those universities. Cambridge^ Oxford, &c. 

Mareschal College, Aberdeen - ▲• d. 1693 

Cheshunt College I'ounded - ▲. d. 1792 
Doctor's Commons, civil law • - 1670 

Durham llniverpiiy - - - " * 

Edinburgh Universiiy • . • l(3i% 

Eton CoUejfc 1441 

r Uhi ■ 

May nooih College - - -1796 

Physicians, London • • - • 1C18 

Sion College .... 1329 
Sinn Colleffb, re-founded - • • 1630 

Surgeons, London - • - 1745 

Triniiy College, Dublin - - • 1591 

University, London ... 1826 
Winchester CoUege - • - • 1387 

Gla«i;ow University • • • 1451 

Harrow - - ... 1585 

Highbury College . . -1826 

King's College, Aberdeen • - 1494 

King's College, London • • - 1629 

ciV^LEGES IN THE Umitkd States. The first established was Harvard, at 
Cambridge. Mass., by John Harvard, 1638; and this is now the most im- 
portant and best endowed in the United States. The second was William 
and Mary, in Virgmia, 1693. Third, Yale, at New Haven, 1700. Fourth, 
CoUege of Neic Jersey, Princeton, 1746. Fifth, Columbia, New-York, 1754. 
Sixth, Vniversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1756. Seventh. Brown 
University, Providence, 1764. Eighth, Dartvunith, at Hanover, N. H., 1769. 
Ninth, Rutgers, New Brunswick, N. J., 1770. These were all prior to the 
Revolution. The first medical school was that at Philadelphia, founded 
1764. The first law school was founded at Litchfield, Conn., 1782. In 
1849 there were 118 colleges in the United States; 42 theological schools ; 
12 law schools ; 36 medical schools. See list in American Almanac, Qirard 
College opened Jan. 1, 1848. 

COLOGNE. A member of the Hanseatic league, 1260. The Jews were expelled 
from here in 1486, and the Protestants in 1618, and it has since fallen into 
ruin. Cologne was taken by the French, under Jourdan, Oct. 6, 1704. In 
the cathedral are shown the heads of the three Magi ; and in the church of 
St. Ursula is the tomb of that saint, and bones belonging to the 11,000 vir- 
gini said to have been put to death along with her. 

COLOMBIA. A republic in South America, formed of states which have 

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264 THE wojlld's progress. [ool 

declared their independeocc of the crown of Spain ; but its several chieft 
have been contending one against another, and each state has t)een a pre/ 
to civil war, and the stability of the union is far iVom assured. 

New Grenada, discovered by Colum- , Battle ofCaFabobo,ttM Royalists whoOj 

bus • A. D. 1497 I ovenhrown June 24, 1821 

Venezuela discovered • - - 1498 Bolivar is named Dictator by the Con- 

1 he Caraccas formed into a kingdom, 

under a captain-general - • 1547 

The history of those provinces under 
the tyranny and oppression of the Spa- 
niards, presenu but one continuous 
scene of rapine and blood. 
• •%•••• 

gross of Peru • Feb. 10, 13M 

Alliance between Colombia and Mexico 

formed • -JuneaOylSM 

Allianre with Guatimala - March 1826 
Oonffress at Lima names Bolivar Pre- 
sident of the republic • Aug. 1896 
Bolivar's return to Bogou • Nov. 1826 
Confederation of Venezuela • 1810 ' He assumes the dictatorship • Nov. 23, \S2S 

Independence formally declared • • 1811 
Defeat of General Miranda • - )812 

Bolivar defeated by Boves - - - 1816 

Bolivar defeats Morillo in the battle of 
Sombrero - - - Feb. 1818 

Padilla'e insurrection - April 9, 1323 
Conspiracy of Santander against the 

life of Bolivar • Sept. '^ ISS 

Bolivar resigns his office of president of 

the republic • - April 11, 1829 

Union of the States of Grenada and Ve- i He dies • • • Dec. 17, 1830 

nezuela • • Dec. 17, 1819 Santander dies • • . Bfay 26, 1810 

COLON. This point was known to the ancients, but was not expressed as it 
is in modem times. The colon and period were adopted and explained by 
Thrasyniachus about 373 b. c. — Siiidas. It was known to Aristotle. Our 
punctuation appears to have been introduced with the art of printing. 
The colon and semicolon were both first used in British literature, in the 
sixteenth century. 

COLONIES OP GREAT BRITAIN. They are described under the name of each. 
The white and the free cdlorcd population, as far«as it has been ascertained, 
amounts to about 2.500,000, and the slaves at the period of their emancipa- 
tion, were 770,280. The number of convicts in New South Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, is 86,267 ; the aborigines of the latter place have not been 
ascertained. The act for the abolition of slavery throughout the British 
colonies, and for compensation to the owners of slaves (je20,000,000 sterling) 
was passed 3 & 4 William IV. 1833. By the provisions of this statute all 
the slaves throughout the British colonies were emancipated on Angnst 1, 

COLONIZATION. The American Colonization Society, for colonizing free 
people of color on the coast of Africa, founded December, 1816, at Wash- 
mgton, chiefly through the exertions of Rev. Robert Finley. [Plan advo- 
cated by Jefferson as early as 1777, urged by Dr. Thornton, 1787, and by the 
legislature of Virginia, 1801.] First president of the society, Bushrod 
Veiling ton ; succeeded by Charles Carroll, James 3Iadison, and Henry 
Clay Liberia purchased 1821. 

COLOSSbS OF RHODES. A brass statue of Apollo, 'seventy cubits high, 
erected at the port of Rhodes in honor of the sun, and esteemed one of the 
wonders of the world. Built by Chares of Lindus, 290 b. c. It was thrown 
down by an earthquake 224 b. c. ; and was finally destroyed by the Saracens 
on their taking Rhodes in a. d. 672. The figure stood upon two moles, a leg 
being extended on each side of the harbor, so that a vessel in full sail could 
enter between. A winding staircase ran to the top, from which could be 
discerned the shores of Syria, and the ships that sailed on the coast of Egypt. 
The statue had lain in ruins for nearly nme centuries, 4ind had never oe&a 
repaired ; but now the Saracens pulled it to pieces, and sold the metal, 
'yeighiug 720,900 lbs , to a Jew, who is said to have loaded 900 camels in 
transporting it to Alexandria — Du Fresnay. 

COLUM BIA, District or. A tract of country 10 miles square, ceded by Vir- 
ginia and Maryland to the United States, for the purpose of forming the 
seat of government. It included the cities of Washington, Georgetowai 



Digitft^d by VjOOQ IC 


and AlezAQdria; but in IdlS the latter was re-ceded to Virginia. Popula- 
tion in 1800, 14,093; iu 1840, 43,712, including 8,861 free colored persons, 
aDd 4,694 slaves. 

COMEDY. Thalia is the muse of comedy and lyric poetry. Susarion and 
Dolon were the inventors of theatrical exhibitions, 562 a. c. They performed 
the first comedy at Athens, on a wagon or movable stage, on four wheels, 
for which they were rewarded with a basket of figs and a cask of wine.— 
ArundeUan Marbles, Aristophanes was called the prince of ancient comedy, 
434 B. c, and Menander that of new, 320 b. c. Of Plautus, 20 comedies are 
extant ; he flourished 220 b. c. Statins Csecilius wrote upwards of 30 come- 
dies ; he flourished at Rome, 180 b. c. The comedies of Lselius and Terence 
were first acted 154 b.<c. The first regular comedy was performed in Eng- 
land about A. D. 1551. It was said of Sheridan, that he wrote the best comedy 
(the for Scandal)^ the best opera (the Duenna), and the best after- 
piece (the CrUic)y in the English language. — See Drama. 

COMETS. The first that was discovered and described accurately, was by 
Nicephorus. At the birth of the great Mithridates two large comets 
appeared, which were seen for seventy-two days together, and whose splen- 
dor eclipsed that of the mid-day sun, and occupied forty-five degrees, or 
the fourth part of the heavens^ 136 b. c. — Justin. A remarkable one waa 
seen in England, 10 Edward III., ldS7. —Stowe. These phenomena were first 
rationally explained by Tycho Brache, about 1677. A comet, which terri- 
fied the people from its near approach to the earth, was visible from Nov. 
8, 1679, to March 9, 1680. The orbits of comets were proved to be ellipses, 
by NewtoD, 1704. A most brilliant comet appeared in 1769, which passed 
within two millions of miles of the earth. One still more brilliant appeared 
in Sept., Oct., and Nov., 1811, visible all the autumn to the naked eye. 
Another brilliant comet appeared in 1823. — See the three next articles. 

COMET, BIELA'S. This comet has been an object of fear to many on account 
of the nearness with which it has approached, not the earth, but a point of 
the earth's path : it was first discovered by M. Biela, an Austrian officer, 
Feb. 28, 1826. It is one of the three comets whose reappearance was pre- 
dicted, its revolution being performed in six years and thirty-eight weeks. 
Its second appearance was in 1882, when the time of its perihelion passage 
was Not. 27. Its third appearance was in 1839, and its fourth in 1846. 

COMET, ENCKE'S. Fu^t discovered by M. Pons, Nov. 26, 1818, but justly 
named by astronomers after professor Encke, from his success in detecting 
its orbit, motions, and perturbations ; it is, like the preceding, one of the 
three comets which have appeared according to prediction, and its revolu- 
tions are made in 3 years and 15 weeks. 

COMET, HALLEY'S. This is the great and celebrated comet of the greatest 
astronomer of England. — LaUinde. Doctor Halley first proved that many of 
the appearances of comets were but the periodical returns of the same bodies, 
and he demonstrated that the comet of 1682 was the same with the comet 
of 1456, of 1531, and 1607, deducing this fact from a minute observation of 
the first mentioned comet, and being struck by its wonderful resemblance to 
the comets described as having appeared in those years : Halley, therefore, 
first fixed the identity of comets, and first predicted their periodical returns. 
— Vince*s Astronomy. The revolution of Halley's comet is performed in 
about seventy-six years : it appeared in 1759, and came to its perihelion on 
March 13 ; and its last appearance was in 1835. 

COMMERCE. Flourished in Arabia, Egypt, and among the Phoenicians in 
the earliest ages. In later times it was spread over Europe by a confed- 
eracy of maritime cities a. d. 1241.— See Hanse Towns. The discoveries of 
Columbus and the enterprises of the Dutch and Portuguese, enlarged the 


Digitized by 



sphere of commerce, and led other nations, particularly England, to engage 
extensively in its pursuit. — S90 the various articUs connected with this sueject, 

COMMERCE. See Navigation, 

COMMERCE, New- York Chamber op, instituted 1783. 

COMMERCIAL TREATIES. The first treaty of commerce made by Eng- 
land with any foreign nation, was entered into with the Flemings, 1 EdwaM 
I., 1272. The second was with Portugal and Spain, 2 Edward II. 1308.— 
Anderson. See Trealics. 

COMMON COUNCIL op LONDON. Its formation commenced about 1208. 
The charter of Henry I. mentions the folk-mole, this being a Saxon appella- 
tion, and which may fairly be rendered the court or assembly of the people. 

COMMON LAW op ENGLAND. Custom, to which len^^th of time has 
given the force of law, or rules generally received and heU as law, called 
Tex no7i scripta, in contradistinction to the written law. Common law 
derives its origin from Alfred's body of laws (which was lost), a. d. 890. 
The common law of the United States is founded on that of England. — See 
Custom. Laws. 

COMMON PRAYER. Published in the English language by the authority of 
parliament, in 1648. The Common Prayer was voted out of doors, by par- 
liament, and the Directory {which see), set up in its room in 1644. A pro- 
clamation was issued against it, 1647. See Directory. 

COMMONS, House op. The great representative assembly of the people of 
Great Britain, and third branch of the Imperial legislature, originated i\ith 
Simon do Montfort, earl of Leicester, who ordered returns to be made of 
two knights from every shire, and deputies from certain boroughs, to meet 
the barons and clergy who were his friends, with a view thereby to strengthen 
his own power in opposition to that of his sovereign Henry III. Tliis was 
the first confirmed outline of a house of commons ; and the first commons 
were summoned to meet the king in parliament 42 & 43 Henry III. 1258. 
— Goldsmith. Stowe. According to other authorities, the first parliament 
formally convened was the one summoned 49 Henry III., Jan. 23, 1265 ; and 
writs of the latter date are the earliest extant. Some historians date the 
first regularly constituted parliament IVom the 22d of Edward 1. 1294. The 
first recorded speaker, duly chosen, was Petre de Montfort in 1260 : he was 
killed at the battle of Evesham, in 1265. The city of London first sent 
members to parliament in the reign of Henry IIL, while Westminsur was 
not represented in that assembly until the latter end of Henry VlII's life, 
or rather in the first House of Commons of Edward VI. The following 
is the constitution of the House of Commons since the passing of the 
Reform Bills (which see,) in 1832:— 

Enoush.— County members • 144 

Univereiiios - . . 4 

Cities and boroughs • • 323—171 

Welsh.— County members - - 16 

Cities and Doroughs - • 14 — 2i 

English and Welsh • 600 

Total (see Parliament) 

COMMONWEALTH op ENGLAND. This was the interregnum between the 
decoUation of Charles I. and the restoration of Charles IL The form of the 

fovemment was chang^ed to a republic on the execution of Charles I. Jan. 30, 
649. Oliver Cromwell was made Protector, Dec. 12, 1653. Richard Crom- 
well was made Protector, Sept. 1658. Monarchy was restored in the person 
of Charles II., who returned to London May 29, 1670. See England, 
COMMONWEALTH of ROME. See Rome. The greatest and most renown- 
ed republic of the ancient world. It dates fVom m)9 b. c, when the govenv 

English and Welsh • 900 

Scotch.— County members • 30 

Cities and Boroushs • - 23 — 69 

Irish.— County members • ■ G4 

Univcreity • - ■ - 2 

Cities and boroughs - • 39—105 

Digitized by 



ment of kings ceased with the expulsion of Tarqninius Superbns, the seventh 
and last king of Rome, and the election of consuls. After this revolution Rome 
advanced by rapid strides towards universal dominion. The whole of Italy 
received her laws. Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, Carthage, Africa, Greece. Asia, Sy- 
ria, Egypt, Gaul, Britain, and even a part of Germany, were successively sub- 
dued by her arms : so that in the age of Julius Csesar this republic had the* 
Euphrates, Mount Taurus, and Armenia, for the boundaries in the east; 
Ethiopia, in the south; the Danube, in the north; and the Atlantic Ocean, 
in the west. The republic existed under consuls and other magistrates un- 
til the battle of Actium, from which we commonly date the commencement 
of the Roman empire, 81 b. g. 

COMMUNION. It originated in the Lord's supper, and was practised early in 
the primitive church. Communicating under the form of bread alone is 
said to have its rise in the west, under pope Urban II. 1096. The fourth 
Lateran council decreed that every believer shall receive the communion at 
least at Easter, 1215. The communion service, as now observed in tlie 
church of England, was instituted by the authority of council, 1548. 

COMPANIES. Among the earliest commercial companies in England may be 
named the Steel-yard society, established a. d. 1232. The second company 
was the merchants of St. Thomas h, Becket, in 1248. — Slowe. The third was 
the Merchant Adventurers, incorporated by Elizabeth, 1664. Th»re are 
ninety-one city companies in London ; the first twelve are 

1 Mercers • • •▲.!>. 1393 

2 Grocers ..... 1345 

3 Drapers .... 1489 

4 Fishmongers • - . • 1384 
6 Goldsmiths .... 1327 
6 Skinners ..... 1327 

7 Merchant Tailors • . ▲. d. 1466 

8 Ilaberdashera • • -1447 

9 Salters 1558 

10 Ironmongera .... 1464 
U Vintners ... . . 1437 

12 Cloihworkers. . . .1482 

COMPANIES, BUBBLE. Ruinous speculations coming under this name have 
been formed, commonly by designing persons. Law's Bubble, in 1720-1, 
was perhaps the most extraordinary of its kind, and the South iSea Bubble, 
in the same year, was scarcely less memorable for its ruin of thousands of 
families. Many companies were established in Great Britain in 1824 and 
1825, and most of them turned out to be bubbles; and owing to the rage for 
taking shares in each scheme as it was projected, immense losses were in- 
curred by individuals, and the families of thousands of speculatoi-s were 
totally ruined. See Law's Bubble, and Bankrupts. 

COMPASS, The MARINER'S. It is said to have been known to the Chinese, 
1115 b: c. ; but this seems to be a mistake. They had a machine which self- 
moved, pointed towards the south, and safely guided travellers by land or 
water; and some authors have mistaken it for the mariner's compass, the 
invention of which is by some ascribed to Marcus Paulus, a Venetian, a. d. 
1260; while others, with more seeming justice, assign it to Flavio Gioja, of 
Pasitano, a navigator of Naples. Until his time the needle was laid upon a 
couple of pieces of straw, or small split sticks, in a vessel of water; Gioja in- 
troduced the suspension of the needle as we have it now, 1802. Its variation 
was discovered by Columbus, in 1492. The compass-box and hanging com- 
pasa used by navigators were invented by William Barlowe, an English di- 
vine and natural philosopher, in 1Q08.—Biog. Die. The measuring compass 
was invented by Jost Byng, of Hesse, in 1602. 

CONCEPTION OP THE VIRGIN. This is a feast in the Romish church in 
honor of the Virgin Mary having been conceived and born immaculate, or 
without original sin. The festival was appointed to be held on the 8th of 
Dec. by the church, in 1889. Conceptionists, an order of nuns, established 

Digitized by 


268 THE world's progress. [con 

CONCERT. The first public subscription concert was performed at Oxford, in 
. 1666, when it was attended by a ^reat number of personages of rank and 
talent from every part of England. The first concert of like kind perform- 
ed in London was in 1678. Cond^rts afteni'ards became fashionable and 

CONCHOLOGY. This branch of natural history is mentioned by Aristotle and 
Vliny, and was a favorite with the most intellectual and illustrious men. It 
xas first reduced to a system by John Daniel Major of Kiel, who published 
nis classification of the Testacea in 1675. Lister's system wa» published in 
1685; and that of Largius in 1722. 

DNCLAVE FOR THE ELECTION OP POPES. The conc'eve is arangeof small 
cells in the hall of the Vatican, or palace of the pope at Rome, where the 
cardinals usually hold their meetings to elect a pope. The word is also used 
lor the assembly, or meeting of the cardinals shut up for the election of a 
pope. The conclave had its rise in a. d. 1271. Clement IV. being dead at 
Viterbo in 1268, the cardinals were nearly three years unable to agree in the 
choice of a successor, and were upon the point of breaking up, when the 
magistrates, by the advice of St. Bonaventure, then at ViterbO; shut the 
gates of their city, and locked up the cardinals in the pontifical ])^lace till 
they agreed. Hence the present custom of shutting up the cardinals while 
they elect a pope. 

CONCORDANCE to the BIBLE. An index or alphabetical catalogue of all 
the words in the Bible, and also a chronological account of all the transac- 
tions of that sacred volume. The first concordance to the Bible was made 
under the direction of Hugo de St. Charo, who employed as many as 500 
monks upon it, a. d. I2i7. —Abbi Lenglet. 

CONCORDAT. The name given to an instrument of agreement between a 
prince and the pope, usuafly concerning benefices. The celebrated concordat 
between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pius VII., whereby the then French consul 
was made, in efiect, the head of the Galilean Church, as all ecclesiastics 
were to have their appointments from him, was signed at Paris, July 15, 
1801. Another concordat between Bonaparte and the same pontiff was sig;n- 
ed at Fontainbleau, Jan. 25, 1813. 

CONCUBINES. They are mentioned as having been allowed to the priests, a. d. 
1132. Cujas observes, that although concubinage was beneath marriage, 
both as to dignity and civil effects, yet concubine was a reputable title, very 
different from that of mistress among us. This kind of union which is 
formed by giving the Uft hand instead of the right, and caMed half-marriage^ 
is still in use in some parts of Germany. 

CONFEDERATION at PARIS. Upwards of 600,000 citizens formed this 
memorable confederation, held on the anniversary of the taking of the bas- 
tile. at which ceremony the king, the national assembly, the army, and the 
people, solemnly swore to maintain the new constitution, July 4, 1790. See 
Champ de Mars^ Basiile. 

CONFEDERATION of the RHINE, or League of the Germanic States form- 
ed under the auspices of Napoleon Bonaparte. By this celebrated league, 
the minor German princes collectively engaged to raise 258,000 troops to 
serve in case of war, and they established a diet at Frankfort, July 12, 1806. 
See Gemianic Confederation. 

CONFERENCE. The celebrated religious conference held at Hampton Court 
p:ilace, between the prelates of the church of England and the dissenting 
ministers, in order to effect a general union, at the instance of the king, 2 
James I. 1G04. This conference led to a new translation of the Bible, which 

Digitized by 


coh] dictionary of dates. 269 

was ezecDted in 1607-11, and is that now in gcner»( use in England and the 
United States ; and during the meeting some alterations in the church liturgy 
were agreed upon, but this not satisfying the disinters, nothing more was 
done. A conference of tlie bishops and prcsbyterian minister? with the same 
view was held in 1661. 

CONFESSION. Auricalar confession in the Romish church was first instituted 
about A. D. 1204, and was regularly enjoined in 1216. It is made to a priest, 
in order to obtain absolution for the sins or faults acknowledged by the pe- 
nitent, who performs a penance enjoined by the priest ; and if this be done 
with a contrite heart, the sins thus absolved are supposed to bo absolved in 
heaven. At the reformation, the practice was at first left wholly indifierent, 
by the council ; but this was the prelude to its entire abolition in the church 
of England. — Burnet. 

CONFIRMATION. One of the oldest rites of the Christian . hurch ; it was 
used by Peter and Paul ; and was general, according to some church au- 
thorities, in A. D. 190. It is the public profession of the Christian religion 
by an adult person, who was baptized in infancy. It is still retained in the 
church of England; but to make it more solemn, it has been advanced into 
a sacrament by the church of Rome. 

CONGE D'ELIRE. The license of the king, as head of the church, to chap- 
ters, and other bodies, to elect dignitaries, particularly bishops. After the 
interdict of the pope upon England had been removed in 1214, king John had 
an arrangement with the clergy for the election of bishops. Bishops were 
elected by the king's Conge d'Elire, 26 Henry VIII., 1635. 

CONGRESS. An assembly of princes or ministers, or meeting for the settle- 
ment of the afiairs of nations, or of a people. Several congresses were held 
during the continental wars ; but the following were the most remarkable 
congresses of Europe : — 

Con^n^BSofSoiasoas June 14, 1728 

CongresB of Antwerp • April 8, 1793 

Congress of Kadstadt - Dec. 9, 1797 

Congren of Chatillon • - Feb. 5, 1814 

Congiesa of Vienna • Nov. 3, 1814 

Congreaa of CarUbad • Aug. 1, 1819 

Congreas of Troppau • Oci. 20, 1820 

Congress of I^ybkch • May 6, 1821 

Congress of Verona - Aug. 25, 1822 

See AUiance$i ConventiotUy ^c 

CONGRESS. U. S. A. The first Colonial Congress, composed of the delegates 
from nine of the colonies (Mass., R. I., Conn., N. Y.. N. J., Pa., Del., Md., S. 
Ca.),met at N. Y. Dec. 7, 1765.-Tim. Rnggles. Prest. The Continental Congress 
met at Phila. Sep. 5. 1774: again May 10, 1775: adopted Dec. Indep. July 4, 
1776; met at Bait. Dec. 20, 1776; at Phila. March 4, 1777; at Lancaster, Pa. 
Sep. 27, 1777 ; at York, Pa. Sep. 80. 1777 ; at Phila. July 2, 1778; at Prince- 
ton, June 30, 1783; at Annapolis, Nov. 26, 1783; at Trenton, Nov. 30, 1784; 
at N. York, Jan. 1786; and that continued to be the place of meeting until 
the adoption of the constitution, 1789: removed to Phila. 1790: to Wash- 
ington, 1800. 

CONVENTION, The, for forming the Constitution of the U. S. met at Phila. 
May 10, 1787 ; in session till Sep. 17, same year. 

CONGREATE ROCKETS. Invented by general sir William Congreve, in 1808. 
They were used with great effect in the attack upon Boulogne, in Oct. 1800, 
when they set a part of the town on fire, which burned for two days ; they 
were employed in variou.s operations in the late war with much success, dis- 
charged by a corps called rocket-men. 

CONIC SECTIONS. Their most i*cmarkable properties were probably known 
to the GreekH four or five centuries before the Christian era. The study of 
them was cultivated in the time of Plato 390 b. c. The earliest treatise 
was written by Anstieas, about 380 b. c. Appolonius's eight books wero 

Digitized by 



THE world's progress. 


written about 240 b. c The parabola was applied to projectiles by Galileo; 
the ellipse to the orbit of planets, by Kelper. 

CONJURATION and WITCHCRAFT. They were declared to be felony by 
variotis st<\lutes, and the most absurd and wicked laws were in force against 
them in England in former times. See article Witdicraft. Conjuration was 
felony by statute 1 James I., 1603. This law was repealed 9 George II., 
1735; but pretensions to such skill was then made punishable as a misde- 
meanor. — Eiigliih Statutes. 

CONNECTICUT. One of the U. States: first settled in 1633, at Windsor, by 
a colony from Massachusetts. Hartford, settled by the English in 1635, the 
Dutch having previously built a fort there, which they did not permanently 
hold. English colony founded at New Haven, 1638. The two colonies of New 
Haven and Hartford united by a charter of Charles II., in 1655. This char- 
ter, when in danger from the tyranny of Andros, was preserved in an oak, 
near Hartford, since called the Charter Oak. Conn, took an active part in 
the revolution; a number of its towns, Danbury, N. London, &c., burnt by 
the British during that struggle. It became one of the original 13 states, 
adopting the constitution of the Union in 1788. by a vote of 128 to 40. Pop- 
ulation 1713, 17,000: 1790, 237,940; 1810, 261,942; 1830, 297,655; 1840, 
309 978. 

CONQUEST, The. The memorable era in British history, when William duke 
of Normandy overcame Harold II.. at the battle of Hastings, and obtained the 
crown which had been unfairly bequeathed to him by Edward the 
Confessor (for Eigar was the rightful heir) Oct. 15, 1066. William has been 
erroneously styled the C^tiqueror, for he succeeded to the crown of England 
by compact. He killed Harold, who was himself a usurper, and defeated 
his army, but a large portion of the kingdom afterwards held out against 
him, and he, unlike a conqueror, took an oath to observe the laws and cus- 
toms of the realm, in order to induce the submission of the people. For- 
merly the judges were accustomed to reprehend any gentleman at the bar 
who casually gave him the title of William the Conqueror, Instead of Wil- 
liam I. — Selden. 

CONSCRIPT FATHERS. Patres conscripti was the designation given to the 
Roman senators, and used in speaking of them, in the eras of the republic 
and the Caesars : because their names were written in the registers of the 

CONSECRATION. Tha* of churches was Instituted in the second century, 
the tempJe of worship being dedicated with pious solemnity to God and a 
patron s%int. Th? consecration of churches, phices of burial, &V is admit- 
ted in the reformed religion. The consecration of bishops was oM^ined in 
the Iat4jcr church in 1549. — Stowe. , v 

CONSISTORY COURT in England. Anciently the Consistory was joinH^with 
the Hundred court, and its original, as divided therefrom, is found inN}*^ 
of William I. quoted by lord Coke, 1079. The chief and most ancient '*»- 
sistory court of the kingdom belongs to the see of Canterbury, and is ca^ 
the Court of Arches. 

recorded conspiracies, real or supposed, the following are the most reniarl 
able. They are extracted from Camden, T\mple, Hume, and other author 
ties of note : — 

Of Anthony Babingion and others, 
•gainst Elizabeth - - ▲. d. 1586 

T'. J Gunpowder Plot iiohich see) - 1605 

Iii«urrection of the firth monarchy men 
iMinat. Charles II. • . 1660 

O: Blood and his associates, who seized 

the Duke of Ormond, wounded him. 
and would have hanged him ; and 
who afterwards stole the crown . iqji 
The pretended conspiracy of the French 
Spanish, and English Jesuits to ai«a.<9*' 
einaie Ch. 11. revealed bjr the infa. 

Digitized by 






mooi Titus Gates, Dr. Tongue, and 
others - - - . . 1678 

Tlie Meal-iub plot 1679 

The Rye-house plot to assassinate the 
Icing on his way to Newmaricet. (See 
Rue-house plot) • • • • 1683 
Of Simon Fraser, ioi-d Lorat, against 
Queen Anne. ..... 1703 

Of Colonel Despard and others, to over* 

turn the government • • • 18U3 

Of Robert Emmeit in Dublin, when 

lord Kilwarden was killed - July 23, 130? 
Of Moreau, Pichegru, and Georges, 

against Bonaparte • l-eb. 15, 1304 
Of Thistlewood, to assassinate the 

king's ministers. (See Cato-streeO • 1820 

CONSPIRACIES, in or relating to the United States. 

Burr's trial for conspiracy to divide the I 
United States .... 1807 

John Henry's secret mission from the 
British government, to undermine 
the American union, exposed, Feb. 25^ IS13 

CONSTANCE, Council op. The celebrated council of </m»tf5 (!) which con- 
demned the pious martyrs John Huss and Jerome of Prague, to be burnt 
alive, a sentence executed upon the first on July 6, 1416, and on the other, 
on May 30, following. Huss had complied with a summons from the coun- 
cil of Constance to defend his opinions before the clergy of all nations in 
that city, and thoup;h the emperor Sigismund had given him a safe-conduct, 
he was cast into prison. Jerome of Prague hastened to Constance to defend 
him, but was himself loaded with chains, and in the end shared the fate of 
his friend. This scandalous violation of public faith, and the cruelty and 
treachery which attended the punishment of these unhappy disciples of 
Wickliffe, our great reformer, prove the melancholy truth, that toleration 
is not the virtue of priests in any form of ecclesiastical government. — Hume, 

CONSIANTINA. The former capital of Numidia. It has become known to 
Europeans but very recently, they being strangers to it until the French 
occupation of Algiers. Here was fought a great battle between the French 
and the Arabs, Oct. 13, 1837, when the former carried the town by assault, 
but the French general, Daremont, was killed. Achmet Bey retired with 
12,000 men as the victors entered Constantina. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. So called from Constantine the Great, who removed the 
seat of the Eastern Empire here, a. d. 328. Taken by the western crusaders 
who put the emperor Mourzoufle to death, first tearing out his eyes, 1204. 
Retaken by Michael Palseologus, thus restoring the old Greek line, 1261. 
Conquered by Mahomet II., who slew Constantine Palseologus, the last 
Christian emperor, and 60,000 of his people, 1453. The city^ taken by as- 
sault, bad held out for fifly-eight days. The unfortunate emperor, on seeing 
•the Turks enter by the breaches, threw himself into the midst of the enemy, 
and was cut to pieces; the children of tlie imperial house were massacred 
by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gratify the lust of the conquer- 
or. This put an end to the Eastern Empire, which had subsisted for 1126 
years, and was the foundation of the present empire of Turkey in Eurojie 
See Eastern Empire and Turkey. 

CONSl'ANTINOPLE. Era op. This era has the creation placed 5508 years b. c. 
It was used by the Russians until the time of Peter the Great, and is still used 
in the Greek church. The civil year begins September 1, and the ecclesias- 
tical year towards the end of March; the day is not exactly determined. 
To reduce it to our era, subtract 6508 years from January to August, and 
5509 from September to the end. 

CONSTELLATIONS. Those of Arciums, Orion, the Pleiades, and Mazzaroth, 
are mentioned by Job, about 1520 b. c. Homer and Hesiod notice constel- 
lations; but though some mode of grouping the visible stars had obtained 
in very early ages, our first direct knowledge was derived from Claud. 
Ptolemieas, about a. d. 140. 

CONSTITUTION op ENGLAND. See Magna Charta, It comprehends the 
whole body of laws by which the British people are governed, and to which 

Digitized by 


272 THE world's progress. [com 

it is presumptively held that every individnal has assented.— J>r<2 Samers. 
This assemblage of laws is distinguished ft*om the term government, id 
this respect — that the constitution is the rule by which the sovereign ought 
to govern at all times : and government is that by which he does govern at 
any particular time. — Lord Bolingbroke The king of England is not seated 
on a solitary eminence of power ; on the contrary, he sees his eqtuUs in tho 
co-existing branches of the legislature, and he recognizes his superior in 
the LAW. — Sheridan. 
CONSTITUTION op the U. S. Adopted by the general convention of dele- 
gates fVom all the (then) states. May, 1787. Ratified by the several states 
at different times. See the respective states. 
The 50th anniversai*y of Washington's inauguration, was celebrated in New 
York as a jubilee of the constitution, and John Quincy Adams pronounced 
an oration before the Hist. Soc'yi April 80, 1840. 

CONSTITUTION and GUERRIERE. The American frigate Constitution, 
capt. Hull, after an action of 80 minutes, captured the British frigate Guer- 
riere, capt. Dacres, Aug. 20, 1812. American loss 7 killed, and 7 wounded, 
British loss 100 killed and wounded. The English attribute the victory to 
the superior force of the American fVigate. As this was the first important 
naval victory of the U. S., it caused a strong sensation. For others see 
Naval BaUks. 

CONSULS. These officers were appointed at Rome, 509 b. c. They possessed 
regal authority for the space of a year : Lucius Junius Brutus, and Lucius 
Tarquinius CoUatinus, the latter the injured husband of Lucretia. were the 
first consuls. A consular government was established in France, November 
9, 1799, when Bonaparte, Cambac^rd, and Lebrun, were made consuls; and 
subsequently Bonaparte was made first consul for life. May 6, 1802. Com- 
mercial agents were first distinguished by the name of consuls in Italy, in 

CONTRIBUTIONS, Voluntary. In the two last wars voluntary contributions 
to a vast amount were several times made by the British people in aid of 
the government. The most remarkable of these acts of patriotism was that 
in 1798, when, to support the war against France, the contributions amount- 
ed to two millions and a half sterling. Several men of wealth, among others, 
sir Robert Peel, of Bury, Lancashire, subscribed each 10,00W. ; and200,U00i. 
were transmitted from India in 1799. 

CONVENTICLES. These were private assemblies for religious worship, and 
were particularly applied to those who differed in form and doctrine from 
the established church. But the term was first applied in England to the 
schools of Wickliffe. Conventicles, which were very numerous at the time, 
were prohibited 12 Charles II., 1661. 

CONVENTIONS. See AUiaTvces, Treaties, &c. in their respective places through- 
out the volume. 

CONVENTS. They were first founded, according to some authorities, in a. d. 
270. The first in England was erected at Folkstone, by Eadbald. in 680.^ 
Camden. The first in Scotland was at Coldingham, when Ethelreda took 
the veil, in 670. They were founded earlier than this last date in Ireland. 
Convents were suppressed in England in various reigns, particularly in tbat 
of Henry VIII., and comparatively few now exist in Great Britain. More 
than 8000 have been suppressed in Europe within the last few years. The 
emperor of Russia abolished 187 convents of monks, by a ukase dated July 
81, 1882. The king of Prussia followed his example, and secularized all 
the convents in the duchy of Posen. Don Pedro put down 300 convents in 
Portugal, in 1884, and Spain has lately abolished 1800 convents. 

Digitized by 



CONMCTS. The first arrival of transported convicts from England, at Botany 
Bay, was iu 1788. Convicts are now sent to Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk 
Island, Sydney, in New South Wales, &c. See New South Woks and Trans- 

COOK'S VOYAGES. The illustrious captain Cook sailed from England in the 
Endeavor^ on his first voyage, July 80, 1768;* and returned home after hay- 
iDg circumnavigated the globe, arriving at Spithead, July 13, 1771. Sir 
Joseph Banks, afterwards the Illustrious president of the Royal Society, 
accompanied captain Cook on this voyage. Captain Cook asain sailed to 
explore the southern hemisphere, July 1772, and returned in July 1775. Iv 
his third expedition this great navi£;ator was killed by the savages of O- why 
hee, at 8 o'clock on the morning of February 14, 1779. His ships, the Reso- 
luiion and Discovery, arrived home at Sheemess, Sept. 22, 1780. 

COOPERAGE. This art must be coeval with the dawn of history, and seems 
to have been early known in every country. The coopers of London were 
incorporated in 1501. 

COPENHAGEN. Distinguished as a royal residence, a. d. 1448. In 1728 more 
than seventy of its streets and 3785 houses were burnt. Its famous palace, 
valued at four millions sterling, was wholly burnt, Feb. 1794, when 100 per- 
sons last their lives. In a fire which lasted forty-eight hours, the ars<:iial, 
admiralty, and fifty streets were destroyed, 179*5. Copenhagen was bom- 
barded by the English under lord Nelson and admiral Parker : and in their 
engagement with a Danish fleet, of twenty-three ships of the line, eighteen 
were taken or destroyed by the British, April 2, 1801. Again, after a bom- 
bardment of three days, the city and the iJanish fleet surrendered to admi- 
ral Gambler and lord Cathcart, Sept. 7, 1807. The capture consisted of 
eighteen sail of the line, fifteen frigates, six brigs, and twenty-five gun- 
b^ts, and immense naval stores. — See Denmark. 

COJERNICAN SYSTEM. The system of the world wherein the sun is sup- 
pased to be in the centre, and immovable, and the earth and the rest of the 
planets to move round it in elliptical orbits. The heavens and stars are 
here imagined to be at rest, and the diurnal motion, which they seem to 
have from east to west, is imputed to the earth's motion from west to east. 
This system was published at Thorn, a. d. 1530 ; and may in many points be 
regarded as that of Pythagoras revived. — Gassendus. 

COPPER. It is one of the six primitive metals •, its discovery is said to have 
preceded that of iron. We read in the Scriptures of two vessels of fine 
copper, precious as gold. — Ezra viii. 27. The great divisibility of this 
metal almost exceeds belief; a grain of it dissolved in alkali, as pearl ashes, 
soda. &c., will give a sensible color to more than 500000 times its weight in 
water ; and when copper is in a state of fVision, if the least drop of water 
touch the melted ore. it will fly about like shot from a gun. — Boyle. The 
mine of Fahlun, in Sweden, is the most surprising artiflcial excavation in the 
world. In England, copper-mines were discovered in 1661, and copi)er now 
forms an immense branch in the British trade : there are upwards of fiAy 

• A memorial was presented to the kfng^ by ihe Royal Society in 1768, setting fonh the ad^an- 
jMes which would be derived to science if an accurate observaiion of the then approaching tranwii 
01 Vcnu» OTcr the sun were taken in the South Sea. The ship EndeiiTor was, in con«cr|uence. 
prrnared fur that purpose, and the command of her given to Licuten.-ini .Tames Cook. lie s^ailed 
in July 176«, touclted at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro, doubled Cape Horn, and after a prf).-'pfirous 
voyage reached Oiaheite, ihe place of destination, in April 1760. By a compariswyi of ihc observa- 
tions maiie on (his transit (June 3, 1709) from the various parts of the globe, on which it was viewed 
by men of science, the system of the univerae has in some particulars, been better understood ; the 
iManreof the sun from the earth, as calculated by this and the transit in 176 1, is now settled at 
iCR/xnjno miles, instead of the commonly recetred cc 

i of the commonly recetred computation, of 95,000,000.— flu//«r. 

Digitized by 


274 THE world's p&ooress. [co? 

mines in Cornwall, where mining has been increasing since the reign of Wil 
liani III. 
COPPER-MONEY. The Romans, prior to the reign of Servius TuUius, used 
rude pieces of copper for money. — See Coin. In England, copper-money is 
of extensive coinage. That proposed by sir Robert Cotton was brought into 
use in 1609. Copper was extensively coined in 1666. It was again coined 
by the crown, 23 Charles II., 1672. Private traders had made them previ- 
ously to this act. In Ireland copjier was coined as early as 1839; in Scot- 
land in 1406 ; in France in 1680. Wood's coinage in Ireland {wMch see) com- 
menced in 1723. Penny and two- penny pieces were extensively used, 1797. 

COPPER-PLATE PRINTING. This species of printing was first attempted in 
Germany, about a. d. 1450. for working the plates were in- 
vented about 1516. Messrs. Perkins of Philadelphia, invented, in 1819, a 
mode of engraving on soft steel which, when hardened, will multiply cop- 
per-plates and fine impressions indefinitely. — See E7igraving. 

COPPERAS. First produced in England by Cornelius de Vos, a merchant, in 1587. 

COPYRIGHT ON BOOKS, &c. in ENGLAND. The decree of the SUr-chamber 
regarding it, a. n. 1556. Every book and publication ordered to be licensed, 
1SS5. An ordinance forbidding the printing of any work without the 
consent of the owner, 1649. Copyright further secured by a statute en- 
acted in 1709. Protection of copyright in prints and engraving, 17 George 
III., 1777. Copyright protection act. 64 George III., 1814. Dramatic au- 
thors' protection act, 3 William IV., 1833. The act for preventing the pub- 
lication of lectures without consent, 6 William IV., 1835. The act of the 
17th George III., extended to^reland, 7 William IV., 1836. International 
copyright bill, 1 Victoria, 1838. Copyright of designs for articles of manu- 
facture protected, 2 Victoria, 1839. For important act of 1842, sec Literary 
Properly. — Haydn. 

COPYRIGHT IN UNITED STATES. Tlie first act for the protection of literary 
property in the United States passed chiefly through the influence of Noah 
Webster, the lexicographer. May 31, 1790. Another act in relation to it, 
April 29, l802--granting copyright for 14 years, subject to renewal for 14 
years if the author is living. Memorial of 66 British authors asking for 
International Copyright, presented in the Senate by Mr. Clay, Feb. 1. 1837. 
Act to establish the Smithsonian Institute, requiring that copies of books 
to secure the copyright must be deposited in there as well as in the library 
of Congress and office of Sec. SUte, Aug. 10, 1846. 

COPYRIGHT, Produce op. The following sums are stated to have been paid 
to the authors for the copyright of the works mentioned. 


Fragments of English History, by 
C.J. Fox- - jESjOOO 

History or England by Sir J. Mackin- 
tosh 5,noo 

Ditto, by Lingard - - - - 4,633 

Life of Napoleon, by Sir W. Scott - 18,000 
History of Eneland, bv Macaulay, vol. 
1 and remainder, x600 per annum 
for ten years, say • • 3,000 

Preecoit's Historical Works are said to 
have produced to the author (who yet 
owns the copyriglit) before 1850 - $100,000 


LifeofWilberforce • • jC4,000 

Life of Byron, by Moore - - 4,000 

Lockhart's Scott (two yeara' use) - I2,i500 
Irving's Columbus (paiti by Murray) • ASXH 

Byron's Works (in all) • - £30SXX 

Moore's Lalla Rookh • • 3,000 

Rejected Addresses • • • 1,000 

Campbell's Pleasures of Hope (after 

ten years' publication) - ■ l/XX) 

Campbell's Gertrude, afler ditto • 1,500 


It was estimated that Scott's novels 
produced for copyright at least - 250,000 

Bulwer received lor his novels, each 

1,200 to 1,500 

Marryatt, do. do. 1,000 to 1,300 

Goldsmith's " Vicar" was sold by Dr. 
Jolmson for - - • • 63 

Goldsmith received for *< Animated 
Nature" • • • 800 

Noah Webster is said to have derived 
SIOOO per annum from his SpeUinf 

Digitized by 


cor] dictionary op dates. 275 

CORDAGE. Tlic naval cordage in early ages was, probably, merely thongs of 
leather; and these primitive ropes were retained by the Caledonians in the 
third century, and by some northern nations in the ninth. Cordage of weed 
and of horse-hair was also used anciently before that made of hemp. See 

CORFU. So celebrated in mythology and poetry, and capital of the island of 
the same name, was placed under British administration, by the treaty of 
Paris in Nov. 1815. It is the chief of the Ionian Isles, which see, 

CORINTH. This city was built in 1520 and the kingdom founded by Sisyphui 
in 1376 B. 0. In 146 b. c. the capital was destroyed by the Romans, but was 
rebuilt by Julius Cassar ; and was among the first cities of Greece that em- 
braced the Christian religion. It was defended by a fortress called Acro- 
corinth, on a summit of a high mountain, surrounded with strong walls. 
The situation of this citadel was so advantageous, that Cicero named it the 
E'^ of Greece^ and declared, that of all the cities known to the Romans, 
Corinth alone was worthy of being the seat of a great empire. 

A colony goes to Sicily, and they build 

Syracuse • - - b. o. 732 

Sea fight between the Corinthians and 

Corcyreans • • . . 664 

Periander rules and encourages genius 

and learning .... 689 
Death of Periander - - - • 585 

The Corinthians form a republic - 582 

War with the Corcyreans - ■ 439 

The Corinthian war {,tohich see) • • 395 

who sends to Italy the first fine paint- 
ings there seen, they being part of the 
spoil iLity) - . - -146 

Corinth built on the ruina of Ephyra, 

iAbbi Lenglet) • b. o. 1520 

Rebuilt by the king of Sicyon, and fint 

called by its name • • 1410 

Sisyphus, a public robber, seizes upon 

the city (idem) - • - - 1375 

The Pyinian games instituted, it is said 

by Sisyphus .... 1375 
The reign of Bacchus, whose successors 

are called Bacchids, in remembrance 

of the equity of his reign - • 935 1 Acrocorinth (citadel) taken by Aratus 2iSi 

Tin Corinthians invent ships called | The Roman ambassadors first appear 

triremes ; ressels consisting of three at Corinth .... 228 

benches of oars - • 786, Corinth destroyed by Lucius Mummius 

Thelentes deposed, and the government . "^ ...-. . .. ^ 

of the Pry lanes instituted: Auto- 

menes is the first on whom this dig- 
nity is conferred • • - 757 

CORINTHIAN ORDER. The finest of all the orders of ancient architecture, 
aptly called by Scamozzi, the virginffl order, as being expressive of the deli- 
cacy, tenderness and beauty of the whole composition. The invention of it 
is attributed to Callimachus, 640 b. c. 

CORINTHIAN WAR. The war which received this name, because the battles 
were mostly fought in the neighborhood of Corinth, was be»un b. c. 395, by a 
confederacy of the Athenians, Tliebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against 
the Lacedaemonians. The most famous battles were at Coronea and Leuc- 
tra, which see. 

CORN OR GRAIN. Tlie oriffin of its cultivation is attributed to Ceres, who 
having taught the art to fiie Egyptians, was deified by them, 2409 b. c. — 
AmndeUan Marbles. The art of husbandry, and the method of making 
bread from wheat, and wine from rice, is attributed by the Chinese to gibing 
Noung, the successor of Fohi, and second monarch of China. 1998 b. *: — 
Univ. Hist. But corn provided a common article of food from the earliest 
ages of the world, and baking bread was known in the patriarchal ages.— 
See Exodus xii. 16. Wheat was introduced into Britain in the sixth ccntuiy. 
by Coll ap Coll Frewi. — Roberts' Hist.. Anc. Brit^ms. The first importation 
of com of which we have note, was in 1347. Bounties were granted on its 
importation into England, in 1686. 

CORN LAWS IN England. Various enactments relative to the duty on " com'* 
or grain passed 1814. Riots, caused by the passing of the act permitting its 
importation when corn should be 8O5. "per quarter," 1815. The "sliding- 
Bcale" of duties passed July 16, 1828. Another, April 29, 1842; act fixing 

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the duty on wheat at 4s. until Feb. 1849, and aft^/ liutt jk » per quarter, 
passed June 26, 1846. This was the virtual abolition of ihh Com Laws — 
and the Anti-Corn Law League— which had been formed in 1841 was there- 
fore formally dissolved, July 2, 1846. 

CORONATION. The first coronation by a bishop, was that of Majocianus, at 
Constantinople, in a. d. 467. The ceremony of anointing at coronations was 
introduced into England in 872, and into Scotland in 1097. The coronation 
of Henry III. took place, in the first instance, without a crown, at Gloucester, 
October 28, 1216. A plain circle was used on this occasion in lieu of the 
crown, which had been lost with the other jewels and baggage of king John, 
in passing the marshes of Lynn, or the Wash, near Wisbeach. — MaUktw 
Paris. Hyrrur. 

CORONATION FEASTS, and OATH. The oath was first administered to the 
kings of EngUnd by Dunstan fthe archbishop of Canterbury, afterwards 
canonized), to Ethelred II. in 979. An oath, nearly corresponding with that 
now in use, was administered in 1377 ; it was altered in 1G89. The fdtes 
given at coronations commenced with Edward I. in 1273. That at the cor- 
onation of George IV. rivalled the extravagances and sumptuousness of 
former times. 

CORONERS. They were officers of the realm in a. d. 926. Coroners for every 
county in England were first appointed by statute of Westminster, 4 Edward 
I. VrS.—Stowe. Coroners were instituted in Scotland in the reign of Alal 
colm II., about 1004. By an act passed in the 6th and 7th of queen Victoria, 
coroners are enabled to appoint deputies to act for them, but only in case of 
illness. Aug. 22, 1843. 

CORONETS. The caps or inferior crowns, of various forms, that distinguish 
the rank of the nobility. The coronets for earls were first allowed by Henry 
III. ; for viscounts by Henry VIII.; and for barons by Charles H. — Baker. 
But authorities conflict. Sir Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, was the first of 
the degree of earl who wore a coronet, IGOi.—Bealson. It is uncertain when 
the coronets of dukes and marquesses were aettled.— Idem. 

CORPORATIONS. They are stated by Livy to have been of very hiffh anti- 
quity among the Romans. They were introduced into other countries from 
Italy. These jwlitical bodies were first planned by Numa, in order to break 
the force of the two rival ikctions of Sabines and Romans, by instituting sep- 
arate societies of every manual trade and profession. — Plutarch.. 

CORPORATIONS, MUNICIPAL, in ENGLAND. Bodies politic, authorized 
by the king's charter to have a common seal, one head officer, or more, and 
members, who are able, by their common consent, to grant or receive, in 
law, any matter within the compass of their charter.— CtnwZ. Corporations 
were formed by charters of rights granted by the kings of England to vari- 
ous towns, first by Edward the Confessor. Henry I. granted charters, a. d. 
1100 ; and succeeding monarchs gave corporate powers, and extended them 
to numerous large communities throughout the realm, subject to tests, oaths, 
and conditions. — BlacksUme. 

CORSICA. Called by the Greeks Cymos. The ancient inhabitants of ih\s 
island were savage, and bore the character of robbers, liars, and atheists, 
according to Seneca, when he existed among them. It was held by the Car- 
thaginians ; and was conquered by the Romans, 231 b. c. In modem times. 
Corsica was dependent upon the republic of Genoa, until 1730 ; and was sold 
to France in 1733. It was erected into a kingdom under Theodore, its first 
and only king, in 1736. He came to England, where he was imprisoned in 
the King's Bench prison for debt, and for many years subsisted on the be- 
nevolence of private friends. Having been released by an act of insolvency 

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in 1756, he gave in his schedule the kin^om of Corsica as an estate to hifl 
creditors, and died the same year, at his lodgings in Chapel-street, Soho. 
The earl of Oxford wrote the following epitaph, on a tablet erected near his 
grave, in St. Anne's church, Dean-street: — 

"The grave, ffreat teacher! to a level brings 
Heroes and oe^an, galley-Blavcs and kings. 
But Theodore this moral leam'd ere dead ; 
Fate pour'd its lesson on his living head, 
Besiow'd a kingdom and denied him bread." 

The celebrated Pascal Paoli was chosen fbr their general by the CorsicanSj 
in 1753. He was defeated by the count de Vaux, and fled to England, 1769. 
The people acknowledged George III. of England for their king, June 17, 
1794, when sir Gilbert Elliott was made viceroy, and ue opened a parliament 
in 1795. A revolt was suppressed in June 1796 ; and the island was -elin- 
quished by the British, Oct. 22, same year, when the people declared for the 

CORTES OF SPAIN. A deliberative assembly under the old constitution ot 
Spain ; several times set aside. The cortcs were newly assembled after a 
long interval of years, Sept. 24, 1810; and they settled the new constitution, 
March 16, 1812. This constitution was set aside by Ferdinand VII., who 
banished many members of the assembly in May, 1814. The cortes or states- 
general were opened by Ferdinand VII. 1820, and they have since been reg- 
ularly convened. 

CORUNNA, Battle op, between the British army under sir John Moore (who 
was killed) and the French, Jan. 16, 1809. 

COSMETICS. Preparations for improving beauty were known to the ancients, 
and some authorities refer them even to mythology, and others to the Gre- 
cian stage. The Roman ladies painted ; and those of Italy excelled in height- 

• ening their charms artificially, by juices and colors, and by perfames. 
Rouge has always been in disrepute among the virtuous and well-ordered 
women of England, though some simple cosmetics are regarded as innocent, 
and are in general nse.—Ashe. The females of France and Germany paint 
more highly than most other nations. — Richardson. A stamp was laid on 
cosmetics, perfumery, and such medicines as really or suppositiously beau- 
tify the skin, or perfume the person, and the venders were obliged to take 
out licenses, 26th Geo. III. 1786. 

COSMOGRAPHY. The science which teaches the structure, form, disposition, 
and relation of the parts of the world, or the manner of representing it on a 
plane. — Selden. It consists of two parts, astronomy and geography : the 
earliest accounts of the former occur 2234 b. c. — Blair. The first record 
of the latter is from Homer, who describes the shield of Achilles as rep- 
resenting the earth. — Iliad. See the articles on Astronomy and Geography 

COSSACKS. The warlike people inhabiting the confines of Poland, Russia, 
Tartary, and Turkey. They at first lived by plundering the Turkish galleys 
and the people of Natolia : they were formed into a regular army by Ste- 
phen Batori, in 1576, to defend the frontiers of Russia from the incurs ions 
of the Tartars. In the late great war of Europe apiinst France, a vast body 
of Cossacks formed a portion of the Russian armies, and fought almost in- 

COSTTUME. See Dress. Accounts of magnificent attire refer to very remote 
antiquity. * The costume of the Grecian and Roman ladies was comely and 
graceful. The women of Cos, whose country was fhmous for the silkworm, 
wore a manufacture of cotton and silk of so beautiftil and delicate a tcjxture, 
and their garments, which were always white, were so clear and thin, that 

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their bodies could be seen through them. — Ovid. As relates to costume 
worn on the stage, iEschylus the Athenian was, it is said, the first who 
erected a regular stage for his actors, and ordered their dresses to be suited 
to their characters, about 436 b. c. — Parian Marbles. 

COTTON. The method of spinning cotton formerly was by the hand ; but 
about 1767, Mr. Hargreaves, of Lancashire, invented the spinning-jenny 
witli eight spindles ; he also erected the first carding-machine with cylin- 
ders. Sir Richard Arkwrlght obtained a patent for a new invention of 
niHchinery in 1769; and another patent for an engine in 1775. Crompton 
invented the mule, a further and wonderful improvement in the manufac- 
ture of cotton, in 1779, and various other improvements have been since 
made. The names of Peel and Arkwright are eminently conspicuous in con- 
nection with this vast source of British industry ; and it is calculated that 
more than one thousand millions sterling have be.m yielded by it to Great 
Britain. Cotton manufacturers' utensils were prohibited from being export- 
ed in mi.— Haydn. 


llhefdUotnng hriij^ items qf the history of cotton^ from 1730 to 1836, are taken from a Sontth 

Carolina paper : — 

1303. Fini coiton factory built in New 

1806. Power-looms successfully and widely 
introduce<t into England. 

1807. The revolution in Spanish America 
begins to furnish new markets for coctoo 

1810. Digest of cotton manufactures in the 
United States by Mr. Gallatin, and another 
by Mr. Tench Coxe, of Philadelphia. 

1811. Machinery to make bobbin lace p»> 
lenicd by John Bum. 

1813. The India trade more free, and more 
British manufactures sent thither. 

1814. The power-loom introduced into the 
United States ; first at Waltham. 

1818. Average price of cotton 34 c^'nte— 
higher than smce 1810. New method of 
preparing sewing cotton by Mr. Holt, 

1819. Extraordinary prices for Alabama 
cotton lands. 

1820. Steam power first applied with suc- 
cess extensively to lace manufactures. 

1822 First cotton factory in Lowell erected. 
I8:?3. First export of raw cotton from Egypt 
into Great Britain. 

1825. In New Orleans cotton at from 23 U» 
25 cents per pound. 

1826. Self-actin| mule spinner patented 
in England by Roberta. 

1827. American coiton manufactures first 
exported to any considerable extent 

1829. Highest duty in the United States oo 
foreign cotton manufactures. 

1830. About this time Mr. Dyer introdur^ 
a machine from the United States into Eng- 
land for the purpc^e of making cards. 

1832. Duty on cotton giKxis imported inti 
the United Slates reduced ; and in England 
it is forbid to employ minors in cotton mills, 
to work them more than ten hours per day, 
or more than nine hours On a Saturday ; ui 
consequence they work at something else. 

1834. Cotton at 17 cenia. 

1835. Extensive purchases madeof cottoa 
lands by speculators and others. 

1836. Coiton at from 18 to 20 cents. 

1730. Mr. Wyatt spins the first cotton yam 
in England by machinery. 

1735. The Dutch first export cotton from 

1742. First mill for soinning cotton erected 
at Birmingham, moved by mules or horses ; 
but not successful in its operations. 

1749. The fly shuttle generally used in 

1756. Cotton velvets and qiultings made 
in England lor the first time. 

1761. Arkwright obtained the first patent 
for tlie spinning frame, which he further 

1768. The stocking frame applied by 
Hammond to making of lace. 

1773. A bill passed to prevent the export 
of machinery used in coiton factories. 

1779. Mule spinning invented by Ilargrave. 

1782. First import of raw coiton from 
Brazil into England. 

YiBH. Watt took out his patent for Uie 

1783. A bounty granted in England on the 
export of certain cotton goods. 

1785. Power-looins invented by Dr. Cart- 
wright— steam used in cotton fac- 

1785. Coiton impoited into England from 
the United States. 

1786. Bleaching first performed by the 
agency of the oxymuriatic acid. 

1787. First machinery to spin cotton put 
in operation in France. 

1/89. Sea Island cotton first planted in the 
United States ; and upland cotton first cul- 
tivated for use and export about this time. 

1790 Slator, an Englishman, builds the 
first American coiton factory, at Pawtucket, 
Rhode Island. 

1792, Eli Whitney, an American, invents 
the cotton gin, which he patents. 

1796. First mill and machinery for cotton 
erected in Switzerland. 

1799. Spinning by machinery introduced 
mto Saxony this year. 

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ZOTTONIAS LIBRARY. Formed by great labor and with great judgment 
by sir Robert Cotton, a. d. 1600 el seq. This vast treasury of knowledge, 
after having been with difficulty rescued from the fury of the republicans 
during the protectorate, was secured to the public by a statute, 18 William 
in. 1701. It was removed to Essex-house in 1712; and in 1730 to Dean's- 
yard, Westminster, where, on Oct. 23, 1781, a part of the books sustained 
damage by fire. The library was removed to the British Museum in 1753. 

COUNCILS. An English council is of very early origin. The wise Alfred, to 
whom we are indebted for many excellent institutions, so arranged the busi- 
ness of the nation, that all resolutions passed through three councils. The first 
was a select council, to which those only high in the king's confidence were 
admitted ; here were debated all afiairs that were to be laid before the 
second council, which consisted of bishops and nobles, and resembled the 
present privy council, and none belonged to it but those whom the king waa 
pleased to appoint. The third was a general council or assembly of the na- 
tion, called in Saxon, Wittenagemot, to which quality and offices gave a right 
to sit independent of the king. In these three councils we behold the origin 
of the cabinet and privy councils, and the antiquity of parliaments ; but the 
term cabinet council is of a much more modern date, according to lord Clar- 
endon. — See Cabinet Council^ Common Council, Privy Council, &c. 

COUNCILS OP THE CHURCH, The following are among the most memorable 
Christian councils, or councils of the Church of Rome. Most other councils 
(the list of which would make a volume) either respected national churches 
or ecclesiastical government. Sir Hams Nicolas enumerates 1604 councils. 

or tho Apostles at Jerunalem - a. d 50 
Of the western bishops at Arlea, in 

France, to suppress the Donatists; 
three lathers ot the English church 
went over to attend it • 

The first (Ecumenical or General Ni- 
cone, held at Nice, Constantino the 
Great presided: Arius and Eusebius 
condemned Tor heresy. This council 
composed the Nicene Creed - 

At Tyre, when the doctrine of Athana- 
sius was canvassed 

The first hold at Constantinople, when 
the Arian heresy gained ground 

At Rome, concerning Athanosiud, which 
lasted eighteen nionilis 

At Sardis ^ 370 bishops attended 

Of Rimini; 400 bishops attended, and 
Oonstanime obliged them to sign a 
new confession of fuiih 

The second General at Constantinople ; 
950 bishops attended, and pope Da- 
masius presided 

The third at Ephesus, when pope Ce- 
lesiine presicfed 

Fourth at Chalcedon ; the emperor Mar- 
cian and his empress aiieudcd 

The fifth at Constantinople, when pope 
Vigiliiis presided 

The sixth a* Constantinople, when pope 
Aeatbo presided 

Authority of tho six general councils re- 
established by Theodosius 

Tho second Nicene council, seventh Ge- 
neral ; <^ bisho];^ attended • 

Of Constantinople, eighth General ; the 
emperor Basil attended 

T]^ first Lateran, the ninth General ; 
the right of investitures settled bv 
treaty between pope Calixtua IL and 
the emperor Henry V. 





The second Lateran. tenth General, In- 
nocent II. presided ; ihe preservation 
of the temporal ties of ecclesiastics, 
the principal subject, which occa- 
sioned the altenJance of 1000 fa- 
thers of the church - • A. D. 1139 

Tho third Lateran, eleventh General; 
held agoinst schismatics - • 1179 

Fourth l.ateran. twelfth General ; 400 
bishops and 1000 abbota attended ; 
Innocent III. presided - • - 1215 

Of Lyons, the thirteenth General, under 
pope Innocent IV. - - 1216 

Ot Lyons, tlie fourteenth Genera], under 
Gregory X. - - - - 1274 

OfVienne in Dauphind, the fifteenth 
General; Clement V. presided, and 
the kings of France ana Arraeon at- 
tended. The order of the Knight 
Templars suppressed - - -1311 

Of Pisa, the sixteenth General ; Gre- 
gory XU. and Benedict XIII. deposed, 
and Alexander elected • 1409 

Of Constance, the seventeenth General ; 
Martin V. is elected pope ; and John 
IIuss and Jerome of Prague con- 
demned to be burnt - - • 1414 

Of Basil, the eighteenth General - 1431 

The fifth Lateran, the nineteenth Gene- 
ralj begun by Julius II. - 1619 

Continued under Leo X. for the sup- 
pression of the Pragmatic sanction of 
France, against the council of Pisa, 
Ac. ull 151# 

Of Trent, the twentieth and last Gene- 
ral council, styled Ecumenical, as re- 
gardins the affairs of all the Chris- 
tian world ; it was held to condemn 
the doctrines of the reformers, Luther, 
Zuingliufl, and Calvin.— ilM4 LtngUt 1641 

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280 THE world's progress. [co*? 

COUNCILS, French Republican. The couDcil of Ancients was an a&sembly 
of revolntionary France, consisting of 2o0 members, instituted at Paris, Nov. 
1, 1795, together with the council of Five Hundred ; the executive was a 
Directory of Five. Bonaparte dispersed the council of Five Hundred at St 
Cloud, Nov 9, 1799, declaring himself, Roger Ducos, and Si^yto, consuls pro- 
risoires. — See Prance. 

COUNSEL. See Barristers. Counsel who were guilty of deceit or collusion 
were punishable by the statute of Westminster, 13 Edward L, 1284. Coun- 
sel were allowed to persons charged with treason, by actIB William III. 1696. 
Act to enable persons indicted of felony to make their defence by counsel, 
6 & 7 William IV.. Aug. 1836. 

COUNTIES. The division of England into counties began, it is said, with king 
Alfred ; but some counties bore their present names a century before. The 
division of Ireland into counties todk place in 1562. County courts were 
instituted in the reign of Alfred, 896. Counties first sent members to par- 
liament, before which period knights met in their own counties, 1259.-— See 
CommonSj and Parliavicnt, 

COURIERS OR POSTS. Xcnophon attributes the first couriers to Cyrus ; and 
Herodotus says that they were common among the Persians. But it does 
not appear that the Greeks or Romans had regular couriers till the time of 
Augustus, when they travelled in cars, about 24 b. c. Couriers or posts are 
said to have been instituted in France by Charlemagne, about a. d. 800. 
The couriers or posts for letters were established in the early part of the 
reign of Louis XI. of France, owing to this monarch's extraordinary eager- 
ness for news. They were the first institution of the kind in Europe, a. d. 

COURTS. Courts of justice were instituted at Athens, 1507 b. g. — See Areopa- 
gila. There were courts for the distribution of justice in Athens, in 1272 
B. c. — Blair. They existed under various denominations in Rome, and other 

COURT OP HONOR. In England, the court of chivalry, of which the lord high 
constable was a judge, was called Curia MUitaris in the time of Henry IV., 
and subsequently the Court of Honor. In the States of Bavaria, in order to 
prevent ducllinr, a court of honor was instituted in April, 1819. In these 
countries, Mr. Joseph Hamilton has ardently labored to establish similar in- 

COVENANTERS. The name which was particularly applied to those persons 
who in the reign of Charles I. took the solemn league and covenant, thereby 
mutually engaging to stand by each other in opposition to the projects of 
the king ; it was entered into in 1638. The covenant or league between 
England and Scotland, was formed in 1643 ; it was declared to be illegal by 
parliament, 14 Charles II., 1662. 

CJOVENTRY, PEEPING TOM of. The ffreat show fair of Coventry owes ito 
origin to the following tradition : — Leotric, earl of Mcrcia, had imposed such 
heavy taxes on the citizens, his lady, Godiva, moved by their entreaties, 
importuned her lord to remit them, and he consented on the condition of her 
riding naked through the city at mid-day. Her humanity induced her to 
consent, and she so disposed her flowing tresses as to hide her person ; and 
ordering all the inhabitants, on pain of death, to close their doors and win- 
dows, sne rode quite naked through the town. One person, yielding to 
cariosity, stole a glance at the countess, and was struck dead ; and him been 
famed ever since under the name of Peeping Turn, and his efiigy is sll^'n 
to this day. To commemorate this event, a. d. 1057, at the great show Cs^ 
the mayor and corporation walk in procession through the town, accom- 

Digitized by 


crb] dictionary of dates. 281 

paniod by a female on horseback, clad in a linen dress closely fitted to her 

COW-POCK INOCULATION. This species of inoculation, as a security 
against the small-pox, was introduced by Dr. Jenner, and it became general 
in 1799. The genuine cow-pox appears in the form of vesicles on the 
teats of the cow, and was first noticed by Dr. Jenner, in 1796. He was re- 
warded by parliament with the munificent grant of jelO.OOO, June 2, 1802. — 
See Inoculaiwn^ SmaU-Poz, VacciruUion. 

CRACOW. The Poles elect Cracus for their duke, and he builds Cracow witt 
the spoils taken from the Franks, a.d. 700, et seq. Taken by Charles XII 
in 1702; taken and retaken by the Russians and confederates on the one 
fcide and the patriotic people on the other several times. Kosciusko ex}>el- 
led the Russian garrison tVom the city, March 24, 1794. It surrendered to 
the Prussians, June 15, same year. Formed into a republic in 1815. Occu- 
pied by 10,000 Russians who followed there the defeated Poles, Sept. 1831. 
Its independence extinguished ; seized by the emperor of Austria, and in- 
corporated with the Austrian empire, November, 1846.— See Poland. 

CRANES. They are of very early date, for the engines of Archimedes may 
be so called. The theory of the inclined plain, the pulley, &c. are also his, 
220 B. c. — Livy. 

CRANIOLOGY. The science of animal propensities. Dr. Gall, a German, 
started this new doctrine respecting the brain, in 1803. Dr. Spurzheim fol- 
lowed, and by his expositions ^ave a consistency to the science, and it seems 
to be rapidly gaining ground ; it has now many professors, and in almost all 
countries craniology is countenanced by learned and enlightened men. The 
acience assigns the particular locations of certain organs, or as many differ- 
ent seats of the most prominent operations of the mmd. 

CRANMER, LATIMER, and RIDLEY. Illustrious names m the list of Eng- 
lish martyrs of the reformed religion. Ridley, bishop of London, and Lati- 
mer, bishop of Worcester, were Durnt at Oxford, Oct. 16, 1555i$ and Cran- 
mer, archbishop of Canterbury, March 21, 1556. His love of life had in- 
duced Cranmer, some time previously, in an unguarded moment, to sign a 
paper wherein he condemned the Reformation ; and when he was led to the 
stake, and the fire was kindled round him, he stretched forth his right hand, 
with which he had signed his recantation, that it might be consimied before 
the rest of his body, exclaiming from time to time, '* This unworthy hand !'* 
Raising his eyes to heaven, he expired with the dying prayer of the first 
martyr of the Christian church, " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit !" 

CRAPE. A light kind of stuff like gauze, made of raw silk gummed and 
twisted on the mill. Its manufacture is of very early date, and it is said 
some crape was made by St. Badour, when queen of France, about a. d. 680. 
It was first made at Bologna, and in modern times has been principally used 
fbr mourning. 

CRAYONS. They were known in France before a.d. 1422— improved by 
L'Oriot, 1748. 

CREATION OP THE WORLD. It was placed by Usher, Blair, and Dufresnoy, 
4004 B. c. Josephus makes it 4658 years. — Whiston. The first date agrees 
with the common Hebrew text, and the vulgate Latin translation of the Old 
Testament. There are about 140 different dates assigned to the creati(tn : 
some place it 8616 years before the birth of our Saviour. Plato, in his dia- 
logue entitled Crilias, asserts his celebrated AUUantis to have been buried 
in the ocean about 90>0O years before the age in which he wrote. The Chi- 
nese represent the world as having existed some hundreds of thousands of 
years ; and we are told that the astronomical records of the ancient Chal- 

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282 THE world's progress. [csx 

deans carried back the origin of society to a period of no less than 473,000 

CREATION", Era op the. In use by. many nations. This era would be found 
convenient, by doing away with the difficulty and ambiguity of counting 
before and after any particular date, as is necessary when the era begins at 
a later period ; but, unfortunately, writers are not agreed as to the right 
time of commencing. This epoch is fixed by the Samaritan Pentateuch at 
4700 B. c. The Septua^int makes it 6872. The authors of the Talmud 
make it 6344; and difierent chronologers, to the number of 120, make it 
vary from the Septuagint date to 3268. Dr. Hales fixed it at 6411 ; but the 
Catholic church adopted the even number of 4000, and subsequently, a cor- 
rection as to the birth of Christ adds four years : therefore, it is now gener- 
ally considered as 4004 years, which agrees with the modem Hebrew text. 

CREED. The Apostles' Creed is supposed to have been written a f reat while 
after their time.^Pardon. It was introduced formally into public worship 
in the Greek church at Antioch, and subsequently into the Roman church. 
This creed was translated into the Saxon tongue, about a. d. 746. The 
Nicene Creed takes its name from the council by whom it was composed, in 

A. n. 326. The Athanasian Creed is supposed to have been written about 
340. — See Apostles', Nicene, and other creeds. 

CRESSY, OR CRECY, Battle op. Edward III. and his son, the renowned Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, obtained a great and memorable victory over Philip, 
king of France. Aug. 26, 1346. This was one of the most glorious triumphs 
ever achieved by English arms. John, duke of Bohemia ; James, king of 
Majorca ; Ralph, duke of Lorraine (sovereign princes) ; a number of French 
nobles, together with 30,000 private men, were slain, while the loss of the 
English was very small. The crest of the kin^ of Bohemia was three ostrich 
feathers, with the motto **/cA D-ien" in English, "I serve:" and in memory 
of this victory it has since been adopted by the heirs to the crown of Eng- 
land. — Praissari, Carte, Hume. 

CRESTS. The ancient warriors wore crests to strike terror into their enemies 
by the sight of the spoils of the animals they had killed. The origin of 
crests is ascribed to the Carians. In English heraldry, are several represen- 
tations of Richard I., 1189, with a crest on the helmet resembling a plume 
of feathers ; and after his reign most of the English kings have crowns 
above their helmets ; that of Richard H., 1377, was surmounted by a lion 
on a cap of dignity. In later reigns, the crest was regularly borne as weD 
on the helmet of the kings, as on the head- trappings of their horses. 

CRETE. Now Candia, which see. This island was once &mous for its hundred 
cities, and for the laws which the wisdom of Minos established about 1016 

B. c. Some authors reckon the Labyrinth of Crete as one of the seven won- 
ders of the world. Crete became subiect to the Roman empire, 68 b. c. It 
was conquered by the Saracens, a. d. 808 ; taken by the Greeks, 961 ; passed 
into the hands of the Venetians, 1194: and was taken fVom them by the 
Turks, in 1669.— Pnei^. 

CRIME. "At the present moment," observes a popular English writer, "a 
one-fifteenth part of the whole population of the united Kingdom is sub- 
sisting by the lowest and most degrading prostitution ; another fifteenth 
have no means of support but by robbery, swindling, pickpocketing, and 
every species of crime ; and five-fifteenths of the people are what are denomi- 
nated poor, living from hand to mouth, and daily sinking into beggary, and, 
as an almost necessary consequence, into crime." A comparative view of 
foreign countries with Great Britain demonstrates the effects of poverty and 
ignorance on the great mass of the population. In North America pauper- 
ism is almost unknown, and one fourth of the people are educated -, prf»* 

Digitized by 



meditated murder is alone capital ; imprisonment for debt has, in several 
states, been abolished, and crimes, particularly of enormity, are exceedingly 
rare. The Dutch, who possess a competency, and are generally educated, 
are comparatively free from grave offences ; and France affords a remark- 
able illustration in the same way. But in the United Kingdom, the differ- 
ence is painfully exemplified : — 

Scotland. England. Irelemd. 
Instruction to the people- - • 1 in 11 - 1 in 20 • 1 in 35 

Criminals among the people - 1 in 5093 - 1 in 920 • 1 in 468 

There was recently a revision of the English criminal code, and several 
acts have been passed calculated to reduce the amount of crime, and miti- 
gate the severity of its punishment. An act for improving the criminal law 
of England, passed 8 Greorge lY., 1827. An act for consolidating and 
revising the laws relating to crime, conformably with Mr. Peel's digest, 
passed 9 Greorge IV., 1828. Hanging criminals in chains was abolished by 
statute 4 William IV., 1834. See Executions, Hanging, TriaU, Su:.— Haydn. 

CRIMEA. The ancient Taurica Chersonesus. Settled by the Genoese, in 1193. 
Tlie C:^noese were expelled by the Crim Tartars, in 1474. The khans were 
tributary to the Turks until 1774. The Russians, with a large army, took 
possession of this country, in 1783 ; and it was ceded to them the following 
year; and secured to them in 1791. 

CRISPIN. The name sometimes given to shoemakers. Crispin and Crispianus 
were two le^ndary saints, bom at Rome, from whence, it is said, they tra- 
velled to Soissons, in France, about a. d. 303, to propagate the Christian 
religion ; and because they would not be chargeable to others for their main- 
tenance, they exercised the trade of shoemakers ; but the governor of the 
towTi discovering them to be Christians ordered them to be decollated. On 
this account, the shoemakers, since that period, have made choice of them 
as their tutelar saints. 

CRITICS. The first society of them was formed 276 b. c— Blair. Of this class 
were Varro, Cicero, Appolonius, and many distinguished men. In modem 
times, the Journal de Scavans was the earliest worK of the system of period- 
ical criticism, as it is now known, It was originate by Dennis de Sallo, 
ecclesiastical counsellor in the parliament of France, and was first published 
at Paris, May 80, 1665, and continued for nearly a century. The first work 
of this kind in England, was called the Review of Daniel Defoe (the term 
being invented by himself) published in Feb. 1703. The Waics of Litera- 
ture was commenced in 1714, and was discontinued in 1722. The Mon4My 
Revicie, which may be said to have been the third work of this nature in 
England, was published 1749. The Critical Revieio appeared in 1756; the 
Edinburgh Heview, in 1802; and London Quarterly in 1809. The Arnerican 
JHeview, established in N. Y. 1799, was the first Review in the U. S. The 
NortA American Review was established by Wm. Tudor in 1818; the Ameri- 
can Quarterly, by Robert Walsh, at Phila., 1827; the New York Revieio, by 
Prof. C. S. Henry, 1885; the Southern Quarterly, at Charleston, 1842. See 
Periodicals. The legality of fair criticism was established in the English 
courts, in Feb 1794, when an action that excited great attention, brought 
by an aathor against a reviewer for a severe critique upon his work, was de- 
termined in favor of the defendant, on the principle that criticism, however 
sharp, if just and not malicious, is allowable. See Reviews, &c. 

CROCKER v. In use, and made mention of, as produced by the E^i-yptians and 
Greeks, so early as 1390 b. c. The Romans excelled in this kind of ware, 
many of their domestic articles being of earthen manufacture. Crockery, 
of a fine kind, in various household utensils, was made at Faenza, in Italy, 
about A. D. 1810; and it is still caMeA fayence in French. See EarfJuniwar^ 

Digitized by 


284 THE world's frooresb. [oul 

CROWN. "The ancientest mention of a royal crown is in the holy story 
of the Amalekitcs bringing Saul's crown to David." — Selden. Tlie first Ro- 
man who wore a crown was Tarquin, 616 b. c. The crown was first a fillet 
tied round the head ; afterwards it was formed of leaves and flowers, and 
also of stuffs adorned with jewels. The royal crown was first worn in En- 
gland by Alfred, in a. d. 872. The first crown or papal cap was used by 
pope Damasius II., in 1053; John XIX. first encompassed it with a crown, 
1276; Bonifkce YIII. added a second crown in 1295 ; and Benedict XII, form- 
ed the tiara, or triple crown, about 1334. The pope previously wore a crown 
with two circles. — RairuUdL. 
CRUCIFIXION. A mode of execution common among the Syrians, Egyptians, 
Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Jews, and esteemed the most dreadful on 
account of the shame attached to it: it was usually accompanied by other 
tortures. Among early accounts may be mentioned, that Ariarathes of Cap- 
padocia, when vanquished by Perdiccas, was discoveitd among the prison- 
ers ; and by the conqueror's ordera the unhappy monarch was flayed alive, 
and then nailed to a cross, with his principal officers, in the eighty-first year 
of his age, 322 b. c. Crucifixion was ordered to be discontinued by Constan- 
tino, A. D. 330. — LengUt. See Deathy PunishmtiU of. 

CRUSADES, tfR Holy Wars. (In French, Croisades.) Undertaken by the Chris- 
tian powers to drive the infidels from Jerusalem, and the adjacent countries, 
called the Holy Land. They were projected by Peter Gautier, called Peter 
the Hermit, an enthusiast, and French officer of Amiens, who had quitted 
the military profession and turned pilgrim. Havin? travelled to the Holy 
Land, he doplorcd, on his return, to pope Urban II. that infidels should be in 
possession of the ikmous city where the author of Christianity first promul> 
eated his sacred doctrines. Urban convened a Council of 310 bishops at 
Clermont in France, at which the ambassadors of the chief Christian poten- 
tates assisted, and gave Peter the fatal commission to excite all Europe to a 
general war, a. d. i094. The first crusade was published; an army of 300,- 
000 men was raised, and Peter had the direction of it, 1096.— Foiteir*. The 
holy warriors wore a red cross upon the right shoulders, with the name of 
Crois6s, Crossed, or Crusaders; their motto was Volonte de DieUj "God's 
will." The epidemical rage for crusading now agitated Europe, and in the 
end, these unchristian and iniquitous wars against the rights of mankind, 
cost the lives of 2.000,000 of men.— Voltaire. 

CUBA. Discovered by Columbus on his first voyage, in 1492. It was conquered 
by Valasquez, in 1511, and settled by the Spaniards. The Buccaneer Mor- 
gan took Havana in 1669. See Buccaneers. The fort here was erected by 
admiral Vernon, in 1741. Havana was taken by admiral Pococke and lord 
Albermarle in 1762, but was restored at the peace, in 1763. Attempt of 
Lopez and his 400 followers, landing at Cardenas, to stir up a revolution, 
defeated May, 1860. ^ 

CUBIT. This was a measure of the ancients, and is the first measure we read 
of; the ark of Noah was made and measured by cubits. — ffolien. TTie Fo- 
brew sacred cubit was two English feet, and the great cubit eleven Eng' .sh 
feet. Originally it was the distance from the elbow, bending inwards to iho 
extremi^' of the middle finger. — Caimet. 

CUCUMBERS. They grew formerly in great abundance in Palestine and 
Egypt, where, it is said, they constituted the greater part of the food of the 
poor and slaves. This plant is noticed by Virffil, and other ancient poeta. 
It was brought to England from the Netherlands, about 1638. 

CULLODEN, Battle of. In which the English, under William duke of Cum- 
berland, defeated the Scottish rebels headed by the young Pretender, ths 
last of the Stuarts, near Inverness, April 16, 1746. The Scots lost 2600 men 

Digitized by 



in killed upon the field, or in the slaug;hter which occurred in Che pursnil, 
while the loss of the English did not far exceed 200. The duke's army prac- 
tised great cruelties upon the vanquished, as well as upon the defenceless 
inhabitants of the adjacent districts after the battle. — Smollett, Immediately 
after the engagement, Prince Charles sought safety by flight, and continued 
wandering among the frightful wilds of Scotland for six months, while 30,- 
OOW. were offered for taking him, and the troops of the conqueror were 
constantly in search. He at length escaped from the Isle of Uist to Morlaix, 
and died at Rome, in 1788. 
CURACOA. In the Caribbean Sea, seized by Holland, in 1634. In 1800, the 
French having settled on part of this island, and becoming at variance with 
the Dutch, the latter surrendered the island to a single British frigate. It 
was restored to the Dutch by the peace of 1802, and taken from them by a 
British squadron, in 1807, and again restored by the peace of 1814. 

CURFEW BELL. From the French couvrefeu. This wj^s a Norman institu- 
tion, introduced into England in the reign of William I , a. d. 1068. On the 
ringing of the curfew at eight o'clock in the evening, all flres and candles 
were to be extinguished, under a severe penalty. — Rajrin. The curfew was 
abolished 1 Hen. I., a. d. UOO. 
CURRANTS, They were brought from Zante, and the tree planted in England 
1533. The hawthorn currant-tree {Ribes oxyacarUhoides) came from Canada 
in 1705. 
CUSTOM. This is a law, not written, but established by long usage and con- 
sent. By lawyers and civilians it is defined lex non scripta, and it stands 
opposed to lex scripta. or the written law. It is the rule of law when it is 
derived from a. d. 1189, downwards. Sixty years is binding in civil law, 
and forty years in ecclesiastical cases. 
CUSTOMS. They were collected upon merchandise in England, under Ethel- 
red II., in 979. The king's claim to them by grant of parliament was estab- 
lished 3 Edward I., 1274. The customs were farmed to Mr. Thomas Smith, 
for 20.0002. for several years, in the reign of Elizabeth. — Stawe. They were 
fkrmed by Charies II. for 890,000/. in the year mm.—Davenanl. 

In 1530 thej amounted to • • jC14,000 

In 1592 ditto . • . 50,000 

In 1614 ditto - - 143,000 

In 1622 diuo . . - 168,000 

In 1612 ditto - - 5(J0,00n 

In 17iO ditto - - - 1,555,600 

The customs in Ireland were, in the year 1224, viz., on every sack of wool, 
Bd. ; on every last of hides, Qd. ; and 2d, on every barrel of wine. — Annals 
of Dublin. Custom-house officers, and officers of excise, were disqualified 
from voting for the election of members of parliament, by statute 22 George 
III., 1782. See Revenue. 
CUSTOMS (DUTIES) in the UNITED STATES. The amounts collected 
were, in 

In 1748 they amounted to . X2,000,00() 

In 1808 ditto - - 9,973,240 

In 1823 ditto - • - 11,498,762 

In 1830 United Kingdom • • 17,540.323 

In 1835 ditto - - • 18,612,906 

In 1840 ditto • • 19,915,296 


. •4,399,473 

1820 . 

. •15,006,612 

1845 . . •27,528,113 


. 9,080,938 

1823 . 

. . 20,093,714 

1846 . . . 26,712,668 



1830 . 

- 21,922,391 

1817 - - 23,747.864 

1810 - 

. 8,i533,309 

1835 • 

. - 19,391.311 

1818 •• - 31,757,070 

1815 - 

. 7,282,M2 

1840 . 

. 13,499,M0 

Set Tariff. 

CJYCLE. That of the sun is the twenty-eight years before the days of the 
week return to the same days of the month. That of the moon is nineteen 
lunar years and seven intercalary months, or nineteen solar years. The 
cycle of Jupiter is sixty ye>ar8 or sexagenary. The Paschal cycle, or the 
time of keeping Easter, was first calculated for the period of 632 years by 
Victorius, a. d. 4&Z.—Blair. 

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286 THE world's progress. [DA6 

CYCLOP-SDIA.— See Ehicydopadia. 

CYMBAL. The oldest musical instrument of which we have certain record. 
It was made of brass, like a kettle drum, and some think in the same form, 
hilt smaller. Xenophon makes mention of the cymbal as a musical instm- 
ment, whose invention is attributed to Cybele, by whom, we are told, it waa 
used in her feasts, called the mysteries of Cybele, about 1580 b. c. Tho 
fijstivals of Cybele were introduced by Scamander, with the dances of Cory- 
bantes, at Mount Ida, 1646 b. c. 

CYNICS. The sect of philosophers founded by Antisthenes, 396 b. c. — Diog. 
Laert. He lived in the ninety-fourth OlympiBid.— Pardon. These philoso- 
phers valued themselves for contemning all worldly things, and even all 
sciences, except morality ; they were very free in reprehending vice, and did 
all their actions publicly, and practised the greatest obscenities without 
blushing.— /</ewi. Diogenes was one of this sect. They generally slept on 
tho ground. — Diog. Laert. 

CYPRUS. An island, whose inhabitants anciently were much given to love 
and pleasure. — Pliny. It was divided amonff several petty kings till the 
time of Cyrus, who subdued them ; it ranked among the proconsular pro- 
vinces in the reign of Augustus. Conquered by the Saracens, a. d. 6